Felipe iv de castaño y plata, by diego velázquez

Felipe IV

  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years' War

    It was a war that pitted the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against their sovereign Felipe II of Spain. The rebellion against the monarch began in 1568, in the time of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, and ended in 1648 with the recognition of the independence of the seven United Provinces. The final result of the Eighty Years' War was the official independence of the Netherlands after the Peace of Westphalia; but it is not so clear that this was the cause of the war.
  • Birth

    He was born in Valladolid
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    Truce of the twelve years or truce of Antwerp

    The Twelve Years Truce, also called the Antwerp Truce, was a peace treaty signed in 1609 between Spain and the United Provinces of the Netherlands; It was a peaceful recess in the Eighty Years' War that the Dutch had maintained against the Spanish Empire since 1568 to achieve their independence.
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    First marriage with Isabel de Borbon

    On October 17, 1615, the wedding of Philip IV and Elizabeth de Bourbon was celebrated in Paris. 7 children come out of this marriage, the most important of which was Mª Teresa of Austria, who married Louis XIV of France.
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    Thirty years war

    It began as a religious confrontation between Protestants and Catholics in the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, however as it spread, it dragged the main European powers of the first half of the seventeenth century to the battlefield.
  • He ascends to the throne

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    The siege of Breda

    The siege of Breda took place in 1625, during the course of the European Thirty Years 'War and the Eighty Years' War in Flanders, which pitted the Spanish thirds of the Flemish army against the forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands; the fortress city of Breda, under the rule of Justin of Nassau, was besieged and finally conquered by the Spanish armies under the command of Ambrosio Spínola in 1625.
  • Union of arms

    Union of arms
    The Union of Arms was a political proposal officially proclaimed in 1626 by the Count-Duke of Olivares, valid of King Felipe IV, by which all the "Kingdoms, States and Lordships" of the Hispanic Monarchy would contribute in men and in money to their defense, in proportion to its population and wealth. The Count-Duke thus intended to face the military obligations that the Monarchy of the House of Austria had contracted since the beginning in 1618 of the Thirty Years War.
  • First bankruptcy in his reign

    The handover difficulties were a constant throughout the reign, characterized by the awareness of the Spanish decadence and the general crisis of the seventeenth century; as well as by the precedents of the bankruptcies of the previous reigns.The accumulation of debts and the impossibility of paying them periodically led to bankruptcy, converting the floating debt into consolidated debt, although the bankruptcy of 1627 had a very important effect on the entire international financial system
  • Corsair Piet Heyn Seizes the Fleet of the Indies

    Corsair Piet Heyn Seizes the Fleet of the Indies
    In 1628 Hein commanded the Dutch fleet in the Battle of Matanzas Bay, in which he defeated and captured the ships that made up the Fleet of the Indies on their route from New Spain to Europe off the coast of Cuba. After the looting, Hein brought to Holland a shipment of tons of gold and silver from the mines of Mexico.
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    War of succession of Mantua

    it was a peripheral conflict developed within the larger framework of the Thirty Years' War. His casus belli is in competition between various possible heirs after the extinction of the main male line of the House of Gonzaga. The brothers Francisco IV, Fernnado and Vicente II, last three dukes of Gonzaga, had died without leaving legitimate heirs. The war pitted France against the Habsburgs in a struggle for control of northern Italy, ending in a severe defeat for the Habsburgs.
  • The Battle of the Bay of Matanzas

    The Battle of the Bay of Matanzas
    The Battle of the Bay of Matanzas was a naval combat fought in 1628 within the framework of the Eighty Years War in which a Dutch squad defeated the Spanish fleet off the city of Matanzas, on the north coast of Cuba.
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    Milanese plague

    The Italian Plague of 1629-1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague that occurred from 1629 to 1631 in northern and central Italy, often referred to as The Great Plague of Milan, which claimed the lives of approximately 280,000 people in the cities of Lombardy and Veneto. Its expansion was favored by the outbreak of the War of the Mantua Succession.
  • Death of Ambrosio Spinola

    Death of Ambrosio Spinola
    Ambrosio Spínola Doria, I Duke of Sesto (1612), I Marquis de los Balbases (1621) and Grandee of Spain, was a Genoese aristocrat in the service of the Hispanic Monarchy as a Spanish general, captain general of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War, honored as a knight of the Order of Santiago and of the Golden Fleece. He is famous for the taking of the Dutch city of Breda and remembered as one of the last great military leaders of the Spanish Golden Age.
  • Battle of Nördlingen

    Battle of Nördlingen
    The first battle of Nördlingen was fought in the framework of the Thirty Years' War between August 26 and 27, 1634.It concluded with the victory of the imperial troops of Matthias Gallas and Archduke Ferdinand of Habsburg(Ferdinand III of Habsburg)and of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria on the Swedes of Gustaf Horn and Bernardo de Sajonia-Weimar, which marked the end of the dominion of Sweden in southern Germany and precipitated the entry of the France of Cardinal Richelieu into the war
  • The surrender of breda by Diego Velázquez

    The surrender of breda by Diego Velázquez
    The Surrender of Breda or Las Lanzas is an oil on canvas, painted between 1634 and 1635 by Diego Velázquez and which has been kept in the Prado Museum in Madrid since 1819.
  • Naval battle of the Dunes

    Naval battle of the Dunes
    The Naval Battle of the Dunes was a battle between the Spanish and Dutch navies that took place on October 21, 1639 in the roadstead of the Dunes, near the coast of the county of Kent, in England, in the course of the War of Eighty Years. They set sail for Flanders. Twelve English transports carrying troops accompanied the squad. The main mission was to bring troops and money to Flanders.
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    Reapers War

    The War of the Reapers (or War of Separation or Secession) was a war that affected much of the Principality of Catalonia between 1640 and 1652 and had as its most lasting effect the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) between Spain and France, according to which the county of Rosselló, the Conflent, the Vallespir, the Capcir and a part of the county of Cerdanya were separated from the Principality of Catalonia, which passed into French hands.
  • Corpus of Blood

    Corpus of Blood
    The Corpus de Sangre was a riot carried out in San Andrés de Palomar on June 7, 1640 by a large group of reapers, with the connivance of a good part of the local population. A small incident in Ample Street between a group of reapers and some Castilian soldiers, in which a reaper was badly wounded, precipitated the revolt.
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    Uprisings in catalonia

    The uprising of Catalonia, revolt of the Catalans, war of Catalonia or war of the Reapers (Guerra dels Segadors, in Catalan) affected a large part of Catalonia between the years 1640 and 1652. The signing of the Peace of the Pyrenees between the Spanish and French monarchies, passing the county of Roussillon and half of the county of Cerdaña, until that moment integral parts of the principality of Catalonia, one of the territories of the Hispanic monarchy, to French sovereignty.
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    The war of the restoration portugues

    The War of the Restoration was a series of armed confrontations between the kingdom of Portugal and the Hispanic Monarchy. This contest began with the uprising in favor of the Restoration of Independence on 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon of 1668, signed by Alfonso VI of Portugal and Carlos II of Spain, in which total independence was recognized. From Portugal. The uprising of 1640 and the lengthy war that it unleashed ended a 60 period of rule by the House of Austria in Portugal.
  • Battle of Montjuic

    Battle of Montjuic
    The Battle of Montjuic took place on January 26, 1641, six months after the peasant uprising known as the Corpus de Sangre on (June 7, 1640), against the Habsburg soldiers staying in Catalonia. The battle started the War of the Reapers, which lasted for nineteen years.
  • Battle of honnecourt

    Battle of honnecourt
    The Battle of Honnecourt was a battle of the Thirty Years' War fought on May 26, 1642 between the Spanish army from Flanders under Francisco de Melo and the French from Champagne under the orders of Antoine III de Gramont, Count of Guiche in the vicinity of Honnecourt Abbey, which resulted in a victory for the Spanish forces.
  • Fall of Olivares

    Fall of Olivares
    The attack against the Catalans,in which Felipe IV himself intervened,the count was arrested in Lleida. The king,upon his return to Madrid, ordered,on 23/1/1643 the exile of the Count-Duke of Olivares to Loeches. His purposes of union did not work and even he was on the verge of achieving the rupture of the Hispanic Monarchy, which continued as a confederation of kingdoms.However,Felipe IV decided to keep his title of "King of all Spains"although at this time this expression included Portugal.
  • Battle of Rocroi

    Battle of Rocroi
    The battle of Rocroi or Rocroy took place on May 19, 1643 between the French army under the command of the young Louis II of Bourbon-Condé, at that time Duke of Enghien and 21 years of age, later Prince of Condé, and the army Spanish under the command of the Portuguese Francisco de Melo, captain general of the Tercios de Flandes. The confrontation, which began before dawn, lasted about six hours. It ended with the French victory.
  • Battle of Montijo

    Battle of Montijo
    The battle of Montijo was an armed combat, fought in the course of the Portuguese Restoration War, which faced the Portuguese and the Spanish on May 26, 1644 in Montijo, located in the current province of Badajoz. Montijo was the only major Spanish victory in a pitched battle in the Guerra da Restauraçao (1640 - 1668). Some chronicles speak of a Portuguese victory but the facts are that Albuquerque manages to save his army and his artillery but that the Spanish remain masters of the battlefield.
  • Second bankruptcy

    the bankruptcy of 1647 only affected him indirectly, since the decomposition of the Spanish Empire had already made him lose practically all credit.
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    The Most Serene Republic of Naples

    The Most Serene Republic of Naples (1647-1648), was a republic created in Naples a few months after the popular revolt instigated by Masaniello and Giulio Genoino against the Spanish viceregal regime. The leader of the republic was the Duke of Guise, a descendant of the ancient King of Naples Renato I the Good. The coat of arms was a red shield with the SPQN badges, in imitation of the well-known SPQR, initials of the Latin phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus (the Senate and the Roman People).
  • Peacy of Münster

    Peacy of Münster
    The Peace of Münster was a treaty between the United Provinces of the Netherlands and Spain signed in 1648. It was a historic treaty for the United Provinces and one of the key events in Dutch history; with him, the independence of the United Provinces was finally recognized by the Spanish crown. The treaty was part of the Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years 'War and the Eighty Years' War.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, in the historical region of Westphalia, with which the Thirty Years 'War in Germany and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the European countries ended. Low. The Holy Roman Emperor (Ferdinand III of Habsburg), the Spanish Monarchy, the kingdoms of France and Sweden, the United Provinces (Netherlands) and their respective allies among the princes of the Holy Roman Empire participated in these treaties.
  • Independence of Holland

    Independence of Holland
    The King of Spain lost control of the Netherlands after mutinous Spanish soldiers sacked Antwerp and killed 10,000 inhabitants. The Peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, confirmed the independence of the United Provinces of Spain and Germany.
  • Great Plague of Seville

    Great Plague of Seville
    The plague epidemic of 1649, also called the Great Plague of Seville, was the greatest epidemic crisis that Seville has suffered, which led to a great bankruptcy of its population, in which at least 60,000 people died, representing 46% of the population of the city.
  • Treaty of osnabrück

    The Treaty of Osnabrück regulated the internal organization of the Holy Empire and specified which territories would pass into the hands of the kingdom of Sweden. The Treaty of Münster established the territorial cessions that the Habsburgs had to make to the kingdom of France
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    Second wife

    When Isabel de Borbón died, he remarried Mariana de Austria in Navalcarnero. They had 7 children, the most important being Carlos II.
  • the hunger riot of cordoba

    The Hunger Riot, also known as the Bread Riot, was a peasant revolt that occurred in Córdoba, Spain, in 1652 as a result of the hunger suffered by the day laborers in that town.
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    Anglo-Spanish War

    The Anglo-Spanish War of 1655-1660 was a warlike conflict fought between the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate and Spain under the reign of Philip IV, motivated by the commercial rivalry between the two countries in the West Indies. The trigger for this war was the Western Design developed by Oliver Cromwell.
  • Las meninas by Diego Velázquez

    Las meninas by Diego Velázquez
    It is considered the masterpiece of the Spanish Golden Age painter Diego Velázquez. Finished in 1656, according to Antonio Palomino, a date unanimously accepted by the critics, it corresponds to the artist's last stylistic period, that of full maturity. It is a painting done in oil on a large canvas made up of three vertically sewn strips of cloth, where the figures in the foreground are represented at life size. It is one of the most analyzed and commented pictorial works in the art world.
  • Third Bankruptcy

  • Battle of Valenciennes

    Battle of Valenciennes
    The Battle of Valenciennes (July 16, 1656) was a battle between the Kingdom of France and the Spanish Empire that occurred near Valenciennes during the last years of the Franco-Spanish War. The Spanish were commanded by Luis de Condé and Juan José of Austria, and the French by the Viscount of Turenne, Enrique de la Tour d'Auvergne-Bouillon. It was one of the last great Spanish victories of the seventeenth century. Also, one of the few defeats of that French marshal.
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    The siege of Badajoz

    The siege of Badajoz took place between July and October 1658, during the Portuguese Restoration War. A large Portuguese army under the command of Joanne Mendes de Vasconcelos, governor of Alentejo, tried to take the Spanish border town of Badajoz, a strategic enclave where the Extremadura Army was based. The city walls were essentially medieval and the Portuguese, who had attacked them on three previous occasions during the war, considered them vulnerable.
  • Battle of dunes

    Battle of dunes
    The Battle of Dunes (or Battle of Dunkerque) took place on June 14, 1658 and faced the Anglo-French army, under the command of the Viscount of Turenne, against the Spanish led by Juan José of Austria and Luis II de Condé.
  • Battle of the elvas lines

    The Battle of the Lines of Elvas was fought on January 14, 1659 between the armies of Spain and Portugal, in Elvas, Portugal. The confrontation was the result of the Spanish counterattack after the siege of the nearby city of Badajoz by the Portuguese army the previous summer. The battle resulted in a resounding Spanish defeat after a Portuguese attack on the Spanish trenches at dawn on January 14, 1659.
  • Peace of the pyrenees

    Peace of the pyrenees
    The Treaty of the Pyrenees (or Peace of the Pyrenees) was an international treaty of 124 articles signed by Luis de Haro and Mazarino, representatives of the sovereigns of the Spanish and French monarchies on November 7, 1659, on the island of the Pheasants. to end a conflict that started in May 1635, during the Thirty Years' War.
  • The ceret conference

    The Ceret Conference is a later meeting of the Treaty of the Pyrenees to establish precisely the new boundaries between the Spanish monarchy and France that were the result of this treaty.
  • Treaty of Llivia

    The Treaty of Llivia was an international treaty between Miguel de Salvá and de Vallgornera of the Government of Felipe IV of Spain, and the Bishop of Orange of the Government of Luis XIV of France. In this treaty, the 33 towns that became part of the full right of France are detailed, all of them belonged to the north face of the Pyrenees. These peoples, legally Spanish until then, were already under French sovereignty on a provisional basis since the Treaty of the Pyrenees of the previous year
  • Fourth bankruptcy

  • Death

    At the beginning of September 1665, the king began to feel bad, depositing bloody stools, which leads to think that he fell ill with dysentery, as a result of which he died on the 17th of the same month, but not before suffering notably from it. of the illness. He was buried in the Royal Crypt of the El Escorial Monastery, just as he himself had arranged in his will.