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Eje cronológico 2ª evaluación. Irene Silva Cano 4º C

  • The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso

    The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed between the Spanish Empire and the First French Republic. Based on the terms of the agreement, France and Spain would become allies and combine their forces against Great Britain.
  • The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso

    The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed between the Spanish Empire and the French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange its North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany. The terms were later confirmed by the March 1801 Treaty of Aranjuez.
  • The Battle of Trafalgar

    The Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars. It was Great Britain who won the victory.
  • The Treaty of Fontainebleau

    The Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed in the French city of Fontainebleau between the respective representatives of Manuel Godoy, valid for the King of Spain Carlos IV, and Napoleon Bonaparte. It stipulated the joint Franco-Spanish military invasion of Portugal allied with Great Britain and Ireland and allowed for this the passage of French troops through Spanish territory, thus being the antecedent of the subsequent French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and the Spanish War of Independence.
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    The Spanish War of Independence was a warlike conflict that occurred within the context of the Napoleonic wars, which pitted the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal against the First French Empire, whose claim was to install Napoleon's brother, José Bonaparte, on the Spanish throne, after the abdications of Bayonne.
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    The guerrillas were small groups of armed civilians who constantly harassed the French in order to demoralize them. This tactic, used since ancient times, acquired great importance in the War of Independence. Among the guerrillas stood out the Empecinado, Espoz y Mina and the priest Merino.
  • The Tumult of Aranjuez

    The Tumult of Aranjuez
    The Tumult of Aranjuez was an uprising led against King Charles IV. It was unleashed due to various causes motivated by the policy of Manuel Godoy, Secretary of State of Carlos IV. This event symbolized the fall of the reviled Godoy, the subsequent accession of his son Ferdinand VII and the starting point of the "Spanish Revolution."
  • Second of May Uprising

    Second of May Uprising
    It was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking repression by the French Imperial forces that had tremendous significance. After the protest was suppressed by the Napoleonic forces present in the city, a wave of proclamations of indignation and public calls for armed insurrection spread throughout the country that would lead to the Spanish war of independence.
  • The Abdications of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne took place in the French city of Bayonne. It is the name by which the successive resignations of the kings Carlos IV and his son Fernando VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte are known. The French emperor, shortly after, ceded such rights to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who reigned under the name of Joseph I.
  • Juntas formation

    Juntas formation
    After the power vacuum created in Spain during the War of Independence, Juntas were organized in several American territories that proclaimed their independence. They tried to establish diplomatic relations with the Great Britain and even promulgated Constitutions. The return of Ferdinand VII to the throne in 1814 meant the restoration of Spanish power in America. Spain recovered the territories it had lost, except for Río de la Plata.
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    They were a Constituent Cortes held in Cádiz during the War of Independence, since this city was the only one that had not been conquered by the French. In these Cortes three groups of deputies were differentiated: liberals, absolutists and Americans. The legislative work of the Cortes of Cádiz laid the foundations of contemporary Spain, as they approved reforms that put an end to the Ancien Régime and drew up the first Spanish constitution.
  • Constitution of Cádiz

    Constitution of Cádiz
    The Constitution of Cádiz, also known as «La Pepa», is the first Spanish Constitution, the third in history, after France and the US, and the most liberal so far. It reflected the principles of political liberalism: it recognized national sovereignty, established a moderate hereditary monarchy and the division of powers, recognized the rights of citizens, and established the Catholic religion as the only religion in the nation.
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    After his return, Ferdinand VII abolished the Constitution of 1812, began to rule as an absolute monarch and Spain returned to the Ancien Régime. The Liberals were persecuted and many went into exile. They tried to restore liberalism through pronouncements and uprisings, which failed.
  • Argentine independence

    Argentine independence
    General San Martín led the independence movement in Argentina. The Congress of Tucumán was summoned after several civil wars; its main objective was to declare independence, which was achieved by approving and signing the Declaration of Independence of the United Provinces of South America.
  • Chile independence

    Chile independence
    After the formation of the First National Junta and the reconquest by Spain after the return of Ferdinand VII, the Chilean War of Independence began. After the victories of the patriots against the royalists in Chacabuco and Maipú, Chile managed to gain independence from the Spanish crown.
  • Colombia independence

    Colombia independence
    Simón Bolívar achieved the independence of Colombia and created the Republic of Greater Colombia, formed by the current Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador, which he conceived as the origin of the future United States of South America. This project only survived until his death.
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    In 1820 the liberal pronouncement led by Colonel Riego triumphed. The king had to swear to the Constitution, free the imprisoned Liberals, and summon the Cortes. Throughout the triennium there were conflicts between moderate liberals and hotheaded liberals. In 1823, the Holy Alliance sent to Spain the army of the One Thousand Sons of San Luis, who replaced Ferdinand VII as absolute king.
  • The Alcoy events of 1821

    The Alcoy events of 1821
    The Alcoy events of 1821 were one of the first manifestations of Luddism in Spain. They took place during the Liberal Triennium of the reign of Ferdinand VII, when some 1,200 peasants and laborers from neighboring towns who carded and spun wool in their homes attacked Alcoy and destroyed 17 machines.
  • Mexico independence

    Mexico independence
    The independence of Mexico supposed a war (War of the Independence of Mexico) that, thanks to the conservative general Agustín de Iturbide, ended the Spanish domination in most of the territories of New Spain and started the First Mexican Empire.
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    The restoration of Ferdinand VII coincided with the independence of many American colonies and, in addition, the liberals carried out some pronouncements. There was also a dynastic problem, since the king repealed the Salic Law so that his daughter could reign after his death; the absolutists did not accept him and supported his brother, Carlos de Borbón. When Ferdinand VII died, his widow acted as regent queen, but Carlos proclaimed himself king of Spain, which started the first Carlist war.
  • Peru independence

    Peru independence
    During the Liberal Triennium, Bolívar and San Martín attacked Peru from the north and south, thus emerging the Peruvian Republic as an independent state from the Spanish monarchy and causing the end of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
  • Bolivia independence

    Bolivia independence
    In the Bolivian War of Independence (1809 - 1825) the Bolivian patriots fought against the Spanish royalists. The patriots were the victors and the Republic of Bolivia was created as an independent state, whose current territories were formerly known as Alto Peru.
  • The Bank of San Fernando

    The Bank of San Fernando
    The Spanish Bank of San Fernando was a financial institution created in 1829 at the initiative of the Minister of Finance of Spain with the intention of turning it into the first public bank, whose main task was to lend money to the State. In 1856 it was transformed into the Bank of Spain, which years later obtained the concession of the monopoly of money issuance.
  • Madrid Stock Exchange

    Madrid Stock Exchange
    The Madrid Stock Exchange was inaugurated on October 20, 1831 for the negotiation of company securities. Banks, railways and iron and steel companies were listed there, although company shares barely represented 1% of real contracts, the rest corresponded to public debt.
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    Isabel II inherited the throne with 3 years, which produced a period of regency. The first regent was his mother, María Cristina. The Carlist War forced her to seek the support of Liberals. The regent allied with the moderates, but the progressives took over the government. In 1840 María Cristina resigned and Espartero (progressive) took the regency. But he ruled in an authoritarian way and his regency ended after the uprising led by Narváez (moderate). Isabel became queen when she was 13 years.
  • The burning of the Bonaplata factory in Barcelona

    The burning of the Bonaplata factory in Barcelona
    The burning of the Bonaplata factory in Barcelona during the popular riots known as the anticlerical bulla of 1835 is considered a pioneering Luddite expression in Catalonia.
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    In the Confiscation of Mendizábal the State seized the lands of the Church to sell them to individuals at public auction. It was one of the actions taken by liberal politicians to free the land from the obstacles of the Ancien Régime, promote the growth of private property and the commercialization of agricultural production.
  • Mutiny of La Granja

    Mutiny of La Granja
    The Mutiny of La Granja was an uprising that took place during the regency of María Cristina de Borbón in which a group of sergeants from the garrison and the royal guard of the La Granja palace, where the regent was with her daughter, forced María Cristina to put the Constitution of 1812 back into force and to appoint a progressive liberal government.
  • The Spanish Constitution of 1837

    The Spanish Constitution of 1837
    The Spanish Constitution of 1837 was the constitution of Spain from 1837 to 1845. Its principal legacy was to restore the most progressive features of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and to entrench the concepts of constitutionalism, parliamentarism, and separation of powers in Spain.
  • The Barcelona Weavers Association

    The Barcelona Weavers Association
    The Barcelona Weavers Association was an association of the cotton weavers of Barcelona founded in hiding in the summer of 1839 and which was established in 1840 as a mutual aid society that gave legal cover to their "resistance" activities. It was banned several times because the right of association was not recognized during the reign of Isabella II but it continued to act. It was the first union in the history of Spain.
  • 1843 revolt

    1843 revolt
    Espartero's regency ended in 1843, when a military and civic movement headed by General Narváez, which included the Moderate Party and a part of the Progressive Party, forced Espartero to go into exile. The anti-parterista coalition then decided to proclaim the coming of age of Isabel, as soon as she was thirteen years old, thus beginning her reign.
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    During the first part of her reign, Isabella II entrusted the Government to Narváez and the moderates. A Constitution was promulgated and the state was organized centrally. The ultra-conservative government led to the split between the Democrats, who defended universal male suffrage, and the Republicans, who wanted the proclamation of the republic. Vicálvaro's revolt ended this stage.
  • The Constitution of 1845

    The Constitution of 1845
    The Constitution of 1845 replaced the more liberal constitution established in 1837. Imposed by the Moderate Party when it took control of parliament, the Constitution of 1845 drastically constricted suffrage, among other changes.
    While parliament ratified another new constitution in 1856 when Republicans regained control, it was never implemented due to a coup. The Constitution of 1845 thus remained in effect until 1869.
  • First Spanish railway line

    First Spanish railway line
    In the Iberian Peninsula, the line from Barcelona to Mataró was built in 1848. From that date there will be a quick expansion with the construction of numerous railway lines in Spain.
  • The Spanish Revolution of 1854

    The Spanish Revolution of 1854
    The Spanish Revolution of 1854, also known by the name Vicalvarada, started with a confrontation between rebel troops under General Leopoldo O'Donnell and government troops near the village of Vicálvaro.
    This incident was followed by a military coup and a popular uprising, which occurred between June 28 and July 28, 1854 during the reign of Isabella II of Spain.
    The Spanish Revolution ended the moderate decade and started the progressive biennium.
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    During the Progressive Biennium there was a great legislative activity: the railroad law, a Constitution that was never promulgated and the confiscation of Madoz of Church and municipalities properties.
    The economic crisis, social conflicts and struggles for power led the queen to entrust O'Donnell with the formation of a government in 1856.
  • The Confiscation of Madoz

    The Confiscation of Madoz
    The Confiscation of Madoz consisted of the seizure of the lands of the municipalities and other institutions by the State. Thus, many bourgeoisie bought land and improved cultivation methods and production increased. However, most of the peasants were unable to buy land and remained labourers who could barely survive.
  • The Spanish Railway Law

    The Spanish Railway Law
    The railway law of 1855 was promulgated to promote the construction of the railway in Spain. This law conditioned the radial structure of the Spanish railway network and the track gauge, which is different from the European gauge. In addition, it revolutionized the communication system in Spain, allowing the creation of a national market that brought with it the strengthening of the industry.
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    O'Donnell had created in 1854 the Liberal Union, a centrist party that alternated in government with the moderates until 1868. It was a period of certain stability, but by 1864 the economic crisis worsened and from 1866 the progressives and democrats began to conspire to overthrow Isabella II.
  • Woodrow Wilson

    Woodrow Wilson
    He was an American lawyer and democratic politician who was the 28th president of the US. He maintained US neutrality after the outbreak of the First World War, but the sinking of American shipping by Germans led him to bring the US into the war in 1917. In 1918, Wilson explained his 14 Points, which he believed should from the basis of the peace settlements in Europe. His idealistic vision led to the creation of the League of Nations after the war. He was awarded the 1919 Nobel Prize for Peace.
  • Jean Jaurès

    Jean Jaurès
    He was a French philosopher and socialist politician (1859 - 1914, 19th and 20th centuries, Contemporary Age), who opposed Imperialism and defended pacifism before the First World War. He was a firm advocate of the Second International socialist movement. He defended democracy as the best way to improve the living and working conditions of the workers. He was murdered by a nationalist fanatic three days before Germany declared war on France.
  • Ostend Pact

    Ostend Pact
    In 1866, progressives, democrats and republicans signed the Ostend Pact, in which they agreed to overthrow Isabella II and democratize Spanish political life. The Liberal Union joined the pact later.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    In 1868 there was a revolt to depose Isabella II, led by Generals Serrano and Prim. At the same time, revolutionary boards were created to control the provinces and cities. This revolution, known as the Glorious Revolution, quickly triumphed and the queen was forced to leave Spain.
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    After overthrowing the queen, a provisional government chaired by Serrano was formed, which called for elections to the Constituent Cortes. These approved the Constitution of 1869. The monarchy remained as a form of government and Serrano was appointed regent until a king was elected.
  • Nicholas II of Russia

    Nicholas II of Russia
    He was the last Tsar of Russia. He maintained an absolute monarchy, in which he concentrated all power and exercised it without limits. During his reign, Russia suffered an economic and military decline, which was one of the causes of the Revolution of 1905. It was in his reign that Russia joined the First World War, the defeats of which were one of the causes of the February Revolution of 1917, in which the Tsar abdicated. Months later, he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks.
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    The war in Cuba had started in 1868 due to the discontent of the Creole population, who rejected the economic oppression of Spain and wanted to participate in the government of the island. The rebels were supported by the United States. The conflict ended in 1878 with La Paz de Zanjón.
  • The Constitution of 1869

    The Constitution of 1869
    The Constitution of 1869 was the first democratic text in the history of Spain, which was drawn up during the Provisional Government. It contained a large declaration of rights and recognized universal male suffrage and freedom of religion.
  • Suez Canal

    Suez Canal
    It’s an artificial navigation route located in Egypt, which joins the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea (163km). It was officially opened in 1869, during Imperialism (end of the 19th century, Contemporary Age). It was under British control until the nationalization of the canal by Egyptian President Nasser in 1956. It allows to shorten the navigation route between Europe and South Asia.
  • Loss of Alsace and Lorraine

    Loss of Alsace and Lorraine
    In the Franco-Prussian War, France had ceded the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. This loss had fueled French revenge against Germany. Territorial disputes in Europe were one of the factors of international tension before the First World War.
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    The Spanish Regional Federation of the International Workingmen’s Association was the Spanish section of the First International. It was founded in the Barcelona Workers' Congress in 1870 during the Democratic Sexenio developing its activity until 1881 when it was dissolved. After the triumph of the Pavia coup in January 1874, which ended with the Federal Republic, it had to operate clandestinely until its dissolution.
  • Lenin

    He was a communist and revolutionary politician, leader of the Bolshevik sector of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, he became the main leader of the October Revolution of 1917. In 1917, he was appointed president of the Council of People's Commissars, becoming the first and top leader of the USSR in 1922. Politically a Marxist, his contributions to Marxism thought are called Leninism.
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    The Cortes elected Amadeo of Savoy king, who arrived in Spain shortly after the assassination of General Prim, the main defender of his candidacy.
    Amadeo I was a democratic king but he had to face the opposition of the monarchists, the Church and the republicans. Much of the population rejected him for being a foreigner. During his reign a war in Cuba and a new Carlist war broke out. Unable to overcome these difficulties, Amadeo I abdicated.
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    The Third Carlist War, promoted by the Carlist pretender Carlos VII, began in 1872 and affected much of the Spanish territory. The contest happened during the reign of Amadeo I and the First Republic and ended in 1876, already in the reign of Alfonso XII.
  • Cantonalist movement

    Cantonalist movement
    Cantonalism was a movement that emerged in the First Spanish Republic that proposed the territorial organization of the country as a federal republic of 17 «States». In July 1873, cantons or independent republics were created in Catalonia, Malaga, Cartagena... The movement was harshly repressed due to the fear of a revolution that would break the unity of Spain.
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    After the abdication of Amadeo I, the Cortes proclaimed the First Spanish Republic. This only lasted nine months, and had to face the outbreak of the cantonalist movement, the war in Cuba and the third Carlist war. In this situation, General Pavía staged a coup in January 1874 and dissolved the Cortes. The pronouncement of General Martínez Campos in December 1874 restored the Bourbon dynasty.
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    The Restoration began with the return of Alfonso XII, an advocate of the constitutional monarchy, and was based on two pillars: a new Constitution and the alternation in power of the two major parties, the Liberals and the Moderates. This alternation was possible thanks to electoral corruption: the king decided which party was going to form a government and, later, he called elections that were rigged so that the chosen party won them.
  • The Constitution of 1876

    The Constitution of 1876
    The Constitution of 1876, drawn up by Cánovas, was the basis of the Bourbon Restoration and tried to be conciliatory. To satisfy the progressives and the democrats, he included a broad list of rights and freedoms, while to satisfy the moderates, he proclaimed the confessional state and shared sovereignty between the Cortes and the king.
  • Stalin

    He was a Soviet politician, revolutionary and dictator. He was among the revolutionary Bolsheviks who promoted the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 and later held the position of general secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU from 1922. From 1927 Stalin made the State plan the economy, through the Gosplan and the five-year plans. In 1929 Stalin monopolized all the powers and established a personal dictatorship.
  • Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party

    Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party
    The Spanish Socialist Worker’s Party (in Spanish: Partido Socialista Obrero Español, PSOE) was founded in 1879 by Pablo Iglesias Posse, and defined itself as a working-class, socialist and Marxist party.
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    It was a military bloc, made up of Germany, Austria and Italy, formed in the years before the First World War to defend itself against the Triple Entente. After the outbreak of the war, Italy did not support Germany and Austria, breaking the alliance. The policy of opposed alliances will be one of the causes of the First World War.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    He was an American politician and lawyer who was the 32nd President of the United States (1933 - 1945). Roosevelt was president through most of the Great Depression and launched a program known as the New Deal in response to the worst economic crisis in US history. At the end of his term the United States entered the Second World War, which ended just a few months after his death in office.
  • John Maynard Keynes

    John Maynard Keynes
    He was a British economist, considered one of the most influential of the 20th century. He considered that the capitalist system didn’t tend towards full employment or the equilibrium of factors of production, but towards an equilibrium that will only accidentally coincide with full employment. His most famous work was "The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money," where he explained the variation in economic activity and the events that can occur from it, such as the Great Depression.
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    International congress organized to resolve problems of colonial expansion in Africa and its distribution. It was agreed to limit distribution to coastal areas, despite the power became the owner of the interior without occupying it. Freedom of navigation on the Niger and Congo rivers and trade in Central Africa were also agreed. It corresponds to the “friendly” phase of Imperialism, making the distribution “on the map”. By 1890, the growing rivalry made the occupation of the colonies imposed.
  • General Union of Workers

    General Union of Workers
    The General Union of Workers (in Spanish: Unión General de Trabajadores, UGT) was a trade union organization closely linked to the PSOE that defended the participation of socialists in political life (elections) and rejected the violent methods of anarchism. It was founded in 1888 by a workers' congress held in Barcelona.
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    During the years before the First World War, the hostile climate between European countries grew. The European powers developed their arms industry (arms race). The increase in international tension and the policy of opposed alliances predicted the outbreak of war, so the different countries tried to arm themselves to the maximum. It will be one of the causes of the First World War.
  • The Fashoda Incident

    The Fashoda Incident
    The Fashoda Incident constituted the most critical moment in the territorial disputes in Africa between France and Great Britain. In this town, located in Sudan, France and Great Britain collided in their attempt to build a railway line that would connect their African colonies. This generated a climate of international tension, adding the possibility of an armed conflict by both governments. The French withdrew from the conflict due to the naval superiority of the British.
  • Altos Hornos de Vizcaya

    Altos Hornos de Vizcaya
    Altos Hornos de Vizcaya was the largest steel company in Spain for much of the 20th century. Founded in 1902, it emerged from the joint of several Vizcaya iron and steel companies due to the great boom in the sector and the need to unit to maintain their status as important companies. It also had mining facilities and small factories in other communities.
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    It was a conflict produced by the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan in Asia. The Russians were seeking a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for use by their Navy and for maritime trade. The Japanese victory made Japan as a major country on the world stage. The unexpected defeats generated unrest among the Russians, due to their corrupt and inefficient tsarist government, and were one of the main causes that caused the Russian Revolution of 1905.
  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday
    The popular masses went to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, the Tsar's residence in the country's capital, to send him their requests. The demonstrators did not intend to destroy tsarism, but only to improve their living conditions and to force the beginning of political reforms. The response of the authorities was a violent repression, which resulted in numerous deaths and injuries.
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    The causes were the discontent of the people against the Ancien Régime, the economic crisis and the Russo-Japanese war. After the Bloody Sunday massacre, peasants and workers were grouped into soviets, which were the assemblies in charge of calling strikes, riots and demonstrations for months. Finally, the Tsar was forced to make some concessions, but he soon reneged on his commitments and reinstated absolutism.
  • Imperial Manifesto

    Imperial Manifesto
    the strikes, riots and demonstrations of 1905 forced the Tsar to make some concessions. The main one was the election by universal male suffrage of a Duma (Parliament). It also granted some civic liberties. Russia seemed to be becoming a parliamentary monarchy, but the Tsar soon reneged on his promises and reintroduced an absolutist system.
  • Algeciras Conference

    Algeciras Conference
    In 1905, William II declared Germany in favor of independence of Morocco, a French protectorate. To avoid a war, the Algeciras Conference was held, in which it was agreed that part of Morocco would belong to Spain and another to France, while Germany would obtain part of French Cameroon. However, the alliance between the United Kingdom and France was strengthened, the opposite of what the German emperor wanted.
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    It was a military bloc, made up of France, Russia and the United Kingdom, formed in the years before the First World War to defend itself against the Triple Alliance. After the outbreak of the war they will be called the "allies". The policy of opposed alliances will be one of the causes of the First World War.
  • National Confederation of Labour

    National Confederation of Labour
    The National Confederation of Labour is a confederation of syndicates of anarchist ideology in Spain, which played a fundamental role in the consolidation of anarchism in Spain in the first third of the 20th century. Among the socialist or leftist political groups in Spain, the NCL has been characterized by the proposal of an assembly collectivization of the economy and society.
  • The assassination of the Archduke FF

    The assassination of the Archduke FF
    On June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife were assassinated by a Serbian extremist during an official visit to Sarajevo (Bosnia). This event was the trigger for the First World War.
  • Austria declares war on Serbia

    Austria declares war on Serbia
    After the assassination of Archduke FF, Austria, backed by Germany, issued an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23, threatening war if it did not allow investigation of the assassination. Serbia, which was supported by Russia, rejected the ultimatum on July 25. Three days later the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia.
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    It was one of the phases of the First World War. Germany tried to win a quick victory over France and then attack Russia (Schlieffen plan). However, their rapid advance was stopped by the French. This was possible because Russia attacked from the eastern front to Germany, for which Germany had to send troops to the east.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    It’s an artificial navigation route located in Panama, which joins the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean, crossing the Isthmus of Panama at its narrowest point. It was officially opened in 1914, during Imperialism (early 20th century, Contemporary Age). It was under US control until the total transfer of control of the canal to Panama in 1999. It allows to shorten the navigation route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, boosting world trade since its inauguration.
  • Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes

    Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
    These battles were fought between Russia and Germany. Although the Germans won, they were the salvation of Paris, since Germany had to move part of its troops to the Eastern Front. The failure of the Schlieffen plan gave way to the Trench Warfare.
  • The Battle of the Marne

    The Battle of the Marne
    In this battle, the French stopped the quick German advance assuming the salvation of Paris and the failure of the German plans to defeat the French by means of a lightning attack (Schlieffen plan), leading to the Trench Warfare.
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    It was one of the phases of the First World War. During the trench warfare, the fronts were stabilized and kilometers of trenches were built, where the soldiers spent months in harsh conditions. The defensive tactics of the armies exceeded their offensive capabilities. Given the stability of the fronts, the allies attacked secondary areas. In addition, a submarine war developed.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    During the submarine war, Germany sank the Lusitania, a British civilian freighter in which many Americans were traveling. Therefore, the US considered its intervention in the war, but it needed time to prepare its army.
  • Gallipoli Battle

    Gallipoli Battle
    In this battle, the allies, trying to revitalize Russia, failed in their objective of invading the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli to control the Dardanelles Strait and thus isolate Turkey.
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    In this battle, the British attacked the Germans to counter the Verdun offensive. There were over 1,000,000 deaths on both sides.
  • Battle of Verdun

    Battle of Verdun
    In this battle, Germany attacked France on the eastern front, which resisted. There were about 750,000 deaths on both sides.
  • February 23 Demonstration

    February 23 Demonstration
    This demonstration was the beginning of the Russian Revolution of February 1917. In the city of Saint Petersburg, the people took to the streets demanding, among other things, food and Russia's exit from the First World War. His motto was therefore "peace and bread."
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    It caused the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and led to the formation of a Provisional Government. This revolution was born as a reaction to the policy carried out by the Tsar, his refusal to grant some liberties and the participation of Russia in the First World War, which had inflicted great hardship on the population. The new regime resulted from an alliance between liberals and socialists that was to give way to a democratically elected executive and a constituent assembly.
  • General strike in Russia

    General strike in Russia
    On February 25, following the February 23 demonstration, a general strike broke out. The next day, riots broke out in the barracks and the troops refused to fire on the strikers as they had gone over to the side of the protesters. It was one of the most important events of the Russian Revolution of February 1917.
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    After the revolution of February 1917, a bourgeois provisional government was established, in which the moderate socialist Kerensky was the most prominent figure. The Government sought to establish a liberal political system and the Tsar abdicated. However, against the needs of the Russian population, the Provisional Government kept Russia in the First World War, and the defeats continued.
  • April Theses

    April Theses
    It was a program, enunciated by Lenin after returning from his exile, which established the proposals of the Bolsheviks. Its main points were the withdrawal of Russia from the First World War with the immediate signing of peace, the redistribution of the land, the control of the factories by the workers' committees, autonomy for the nationalities and the handing over of power to the Soviets. In general, their goals were to end with the Provisional Government and bring the workers to power.
  • US entry to the First World War

    US entry to the First World War
    The US had lent a lot of money to the allies and had to guarantee their victory to get that money back. In addition, the war had affected their interests with the sinking of the Lusitania. Its potential was not noticed until 1918, but it was a decisive fact, since it provided important material and human resources, and tilted the conflict in favor of the allies.
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    CRISIS OF 1917

    It was one of the phases of the First World War. The Russian front collapsed due to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution (October), in which the triumph of the Bolsheviks meant that Russia would abandon the war, as they had promised if they came to power. However, the decisive fact was the entry of the US into the war in favor of the allies, which provided significant material and human resources, and tilted the conflict in favor of this side.
  • July Days

    July Days
    The defeats in the First World War and the discontent of the civilian population provoked a popular uprising in Petrograd, in which the people once again demanded Russia's exit from the war. The revolt failed. The Government accused the Bolsheviks of having organized it and Lenin had to go into exile again.
  • Coup d’État in Russia

    Coup d’État in Russia
    The Provisional Government faced a counterrevolutionary coup d'état from the most conservative sector of the Army, led by General Kornílov. He demanded authoritarian rule and a return to the pre-February situation. It failed due to the action of the Provisional Government and thanks to the collaboration of the Soviets and the Bolsheviks.
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    The objectives of this Revolution, led by the Bolsheviks, were Russia's exit from the First World War, transferring all power to the Soviets, the expropriation of the large estates and the union of the Russian Bank. After the capture of the Winter Palace, the first Bolshevik government was formed and, after the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly and the establishment of a communist dictatorship, a civil war broke out.
  • Winter Palace taking

    Winter Palace taking
    On the night of October 24, 1917, Lenin settled in the headquarters of the Petrograd Soviet. On the 25th, the Soviets, controlled by the Bolsheviks, seized the strategic points of the capital and the Bolshevik Red Guard stormed and conquered the Winter Palace in Petrograd and thus seized power in the country.
  • First Bolshevik Government

    First Bolshevik Government
    After the capture of the Winter Palace, the first Bolshevik Government was created, headed by Lenin. He immediately negotiated an end to the war (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), decreed the expropriation without compensation of the large estates, with the distribution of the land to the peasants, and the control of the factories by the workers. It also recognized the right to sovereignty of the peoples of Russia.
  • Russian Constituent Assembly

    Russian Constituent Assembly
    Elections to a Constituent Assembly were called, in which the Social Revolutionaries obtained majority, which endangered the power of the Bolsheviks. Thus, the Bolsheviks dissolved the Assembly: transferred all power to the soviets (controlled by them) and eliminated the other parties. He then promulgated a Constitution that established a Russian Soviet Socialist Federal Republic and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat (the dictatorship of the Communist Party) as the form of government.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia after its withdrawal of the First World War due to the triumph of the Bolshevik Revolution. They had promised to leave the war if they came to power, to end with the suffering of the Russian people and army. The treaty meant the loss of territories for Russia in the west, which will give rise to some countries. The withdrawal of Russia could have unbalance the war in favor of the central powers, but it was compensated by US entry.
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    Supporters of tsarism and defenders of the liberal system tried to put an end to the revolution. The counterrevolutionaries and the Bolsheviks fought a civil war. The counterrevolutionaries had the help of various foreign powers, but the war ended with the victory of the Bolsheviks. The economic measures (called «war communism») and political measures taken by the government caused riots, which it suppressed with violence.
  • Fourteen Points of Wilson

    Fourteen Points of Wilson
    It was a program proposed in January 1918 by US President Woodrow Wilson to the allies to achieve a fair peace after the First World War (Contemporary Age). Its objective was to achieve a lasting peace with the end of secret diplomacy, demilitarization and fair agreements between the contending countries. It was not applied because they collided with the desire of their allies to punish the defeated and with the opposition of some US sectors.
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    It was one of the phases of the First World War. The Germans signed the peace with Russia through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This allowed them to move their troops west and launch an offensive. In response, the allies attacked on all fronts using tanks and aircraft. The Central Powers could not resist and surrendered. The war was over.
  • Spartacist uprising

    Spartacist uprising
    The Russian Revolution had a great impact on Europe, and Bolshevik sympathizers believed that it was the prologue of new socialist revolutions. Among them highlighted the Spartacist revolution in Germany. The Spartacists, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, tried to impose a communist regime in Germany, but failed.
  • Third International

    Third International
    It was a communist organization, created by Lenin with the aim of founding communist parties in the countries of Europe. It was governed by 21 conditions imposed by Lenin that forced all communist parties to subordinate to Moscow. It caused the division of world socialism between the social democratic and reformist parties and the communist parties.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    It was a peace treaty imposed in 1919 by the allies to Germany after the First World War, signed in the Palace of Versailles, Paris. Germany is forced to admit its guilt and harsh conditions are imposed: territorial and colony losses, reduction of its army and war reparations payments to the allies for the spendings due to the war. They provoked Germany's desire for revenge, considering it a "diktat" (imposition), being one of the causes of Hitler's rise to German power.
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    It was a set of peace treaties imposed by the allies to the defeated countries after the First World War. They were signed separately in different palaces in Paris. The losing countries are forced to admit their guilt. Its objectives were: face the danger of the Russian Revolution, control Germany, the territorial restructuring of Europe and serve the interests of the victors. They provoked the desire for revenge in the losing countries, especially in Germany, against the conditions imposed.
  • Treaty of Saint-Germain

    Treaty of Saint-Germain
    It was a peace treaty imposed by the allies on Austria after the First World War, signed in the Saint-Germain palace, Paris. It definitively established the division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and in its place the Republic of Austria was recognized as a "successor state". War reparations payments were also imposed by the allies for the spendings because of the war.
  • Treaty of Neuilly

    Treaty of Neuilly
    It was a peace treaty imposed by the allies on Bulgaria after the First World War, signed at the Neuilly palace, Paris. In it, territorial modifications were established, marking the limits of Bulgaria with Romania, Yugoslavia and Greece. War reparations payments were also imposed by the allies for spendings because of the war.
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    It was an international organization created after the First World War in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to ensure world peace of the order established after the war. It should be made up of all independent countries and its mission was to solve international conflicts peacefully. Several problems made this organization fail, antecedent of the current UN.
  • Treaty of Trianon

    Treaty of Trianon
    It was a peace treaty imposed by the allies on Hungary after the First World War, signed at the Trianon Palace, Paris. It definitively established the division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, since Hungary had proclaimed its independence from Austria on November 16, 1918. War reparations payments were also imposed by the allies for spendings because of the war.
  • Treaty of Sèvres

    Treaty of Sèvres
    It was a peace treaty imposed by the allies on the Ottoman Empire after the First World War, signed at the Sèvres palace, Paris. The Ottoman Empire lost most of its possessions. The empire was limited to Istanbul and part of Minor Asia. After a revolution in 1923, it became the Republic of Turkey. War reparations payments were also imposed by the allies for spendings because of the war.
  • New Economic Policy

    New Economic Policy
    To solve the economic crisis after the civil war in Russia, the Government adopted a new economic policy, the NEP, which tried to partially return to a market economy. Private property in the countryside, small industries and commerce was admitted and free internal trade was authorized. As a result, hunger had ended, rationing had finished, and the bourgeoisie resurfaced.
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    In the USA there was a great industrial growth. The automobile, electrical, household appliances, petrochemical industries... developed thanks to chain work, standardized production and the creation of large business groups capable of making heavy investments. Construction was also very important. As a consequence, the standard of living increased and the consumer society emerged.
  • URSS formation

    URSS formation
    In 1922 the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was born. It was a federation of republics, whose number was expanding. It was a multinational and multi-ethnic state, almost as big as the old empire of the Tsars. His policy was controlled by the Communist Party.
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    Germany, suffering from a serious economic crisis, could not pay war reparations to France. France, in turn, if it did not receive that money, it could not pay its debts to the USA. Faced with this situation, France occupied the Ruhr, an important German region producing coal and steel, with the intention of exploiting the mines and keeping the benefits. However, German workers responded with strikes and halted production, intensifying the German economic crisis.
  • First Constitution of the USSR

    First Constitution of the USSR
    In 1924, the first Constitution of the USSR was approved, which established that the republics had autonomy in internal politics and could leave the union if they wished. The highest legislative body was the Supreme Soviet, elected by the Soviets of the republics. However, it was really the only party (CPSU) that exercised all the power.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    To solve the problem posed by the German economic crisis and the occupation of the Ruhr, the US launched the Dawes Plan: Germany would receive a loan from the US that would allow it to pay reparations to the allies, and these, in turn, could pay their debts to the United States.
  • Treaty of Locarno

    Treaty of Locarno
    The effectiveness of the Dawes Plan contributed to the improvement of international relations between Germany and France. The result was the signing of the Locarno Treaty, by which Germany recognized its borders with France and Belgium as they had been established in the Peace of Versailles and accepted that the demilitarized zone of the Rhineland would remain under British and Italian control.
  • Germany is admitted to the League of Nations

    Germany is admitted to the League of Nations
    In 1926, Germany was admitted to the League of Nations thanks to the signing of the Locarno Treaty. In it, Germany accepted the border and territorial changes established in the Peace of Versailles, after the First World War.
  • Briand-Kellog Pact

    Briand-Kellog Pact
    From the signing of the Locarno Treaty, a pacifist impulse was born among European countries. this spirit seemed to be confirmed in the Briand-Kellog Pact, in which the signatories rejected war as a way of solving international conflicts.
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    Stalin monopolized all the powers and established a personal dictatorship through the cult of the personality of the leader (thanks to propaganda), the reinforcement of the power of the CPSU (from the Soviets), terror (through the NKVD, the atmosphere of suspicion in the population and the purges) and control over culture (since art was used as propaganda for the party and the revolution).
  • Black Thursday

    Black Thursday
    It was the day on which the New York stock market crash began, which would later give rise to the Crash of 29. During the previous years, the increase in speculation produced a spectacular rise in the price of shares, but their value did not match with the profits of the companies. On Black Thursday, a massive sell-off of stocks took place on the New York Stock Exchange, causing the stock to lose all its value and all investors to go bankrupt.
  • Wall Street Crash of 1929

    Wall Street Crash of 1929
    After Black Thursday, millions of shares were put up for sale in the US, but there were no buyers. Consequently, its value sank and companies and investors went bankrupt. More than 5,000 banks, commercial and industrial companies failed, beginning the Great Depression. This produced a high level of unemployment, which reduced consumption and led to the failure of more companies and banks and the fall in prices.
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    It was a series of political repression and persecution campaigns carried out in the Soviet Union in the late 1930s. Hundreds of thousands of CPSU members, socialists, anarchists and opponents were persecuted or watched by the police; in addition, public trials were held, hundreds of thousands of people were sent to Gulag concentration camps, and others were executed.
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    It was a program, launched by US President Roosevelt, that imposed greater state intervention in the economy through investment in public works, subsidies to farmers, improvements in working conditions and the restructuring of the financial system. The objective of these measures was to increase consumption and enhance the US economy, in order to get out of the Great Depression after the crash of 29.
  • London Economic Conference

    London Economic Conference
    It was a conference convened by the League of Nations in order to take joint economic measures to get out of the financial crisis caused by the crash of 29. Its objectives were to combat the global depression, reactivate international trade and stabilize international currencies. However, it failed, as each nation limited itself to defending its own interests.
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    It was a series of trials, held at Stalin's instigation, in which former Communist Party leaders were convicted, tortured (to ridiculously extract confessions), imprisoned, or shot. Many Bolshevik veterans who served in the Russian Revolution of October 1917 were convicted in these rigged trials.