220px la chasse galerie (1906)

Culture and Currents of Thoughts

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Aboriginals' Animism

    Aboriginals' Animism
    Natives held an extremely close and personal connection to the natural world, caused by their belief that each and every aspect of their world had an immortal soul. Their spirituality led to them taking care of hundred animals by performing prayers, and limiting the amount of total killed creatures. They believed that the animals had given themselves up for the humans. This animism went hand in hand with natives already limiting their resource collection, and their disbelief in accumulation.
  • Jan 1, 1505

    Social Relations of Aboriginals

    Social Relations of Aboriginals
    In opposition of many European customs, Natives held many different views on how society should be run. They held a high respect for elders who would orally pass traditions, and made sure that each member of the tribe had complete freedom over their actions, as long as it didn't harm anyone else. These tribes were headed by chiefs, a representative responsible for maintaining relations with other groups, using gifts and festivals. The chiefs weren't treated as kings, as consensuses were used.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Aboriginals' Dream, Spirits, and Use of Shamans

    Aboriginals' Dream, Spirits, and Use of Shamans
    Dreams, spirits, and visions were held in high regard by the Natives. Communicate with and respect of spirits were focused on, and they often used ceremonial tobacco to make contact. Dreams were used to decipher messages, and would be considered prophetic. For more important spiritual decisions, a Shaman was used as an intermediary between people and spirits. He'd interpret dreams, heal the sick and wounded, and would make recommendations for the tribe based off his visions and prophecies.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    Cultural Consequences of Encounters with Europeans

    Cultural Consequences of Encounters with Europeans
    Following the Europeans' need for fish leading them to North America, the Aboriginals began interacting with them, consisting mostly of the fur trade. In exchange for the skins of their hunted animals, the foreigners would provide new materials and technologies, like mirrors, steel tools, onions, bread, and even pigs. Sadly, the Europeans also introduces rifles, which made the wars between tribes more deadly, as well as many diseases, which Natives hadn't developed against.
  • Period: to

    French Regime

    The period in which France occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and multiple Central and Southeast States. It began with the foundation of Quebec, and officially ended with the signature of the Royal Proclamation.
  • Absolutism in New France

    Absolutism in New France
    As elements of the French culture are imported along the colonization, Aboriginals now have a new religion, Catholicism, and language, French, imposed on them. This revolves around the idea of Absolutism, a political ideology where by the ruler of a territory was said to receive their power from God and was his presence on Earth. Though it was present during the administration of the Company of 100 Associates, it became omnipresent when Jean Talon became Intendent.
  • Everyday Life in New France

    Everyday Life in New France
    The French lifestyle faded with relocation to New France. Winter coats became a necessity, shoes were abandoned for moccasins, and new transport such as sleds and snowshoes were used. Diets also now consisted of agriculture native to the Americas rose. Squash, corn, and maple syrup find their way to the kitchen table, and the smoking of tobacco becomes a popular hobby.
  • The Catholic Church's Presence

    The Catholic Church's Presence
    The French King's expansion into new lands meant new peoples for the Catholic Church to convert. Aboriginal missions performed by Jesuits and Missionaries are created, in hopes of assimilating and converting Natives to the religion. The Church was directly correlated with power, and those that opposed were excommunicated and shunned. Church life was the norm. Sundays were days of God, tithes were to be payed, and the clergy was highly respected. Religious social services were provided.
  • Period: to

    British Rule

    The period in which England occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and several Maritime Provinces. It began with the signature of the Royal Proclamation, and officially ended with the forming of the Canadian Confederation.
  • Collaboration between the Catholic Church and the English

    Collaboration between the Catholic Church and the English
    When the French are forced from the province by the English, the Catholic Church are revoked of many privileges previously held when under the French Administration. As time progressed, to prevent a French revolt, the British gave back certain benefits. The Clergy was allowed to remain, even allowing a Bishop. In exchange, the Church excommunicated American supporters, in order to further the British agenda.
  • The Rise of Liberalism

    The Rise of Liberalism
    With a rise in production of the printing press in Quebec, there was a rise in the diffusion of ideas. This made the monarch's power limited, and with time, began raising awareness for fundamental rights and personal protection. However, the printing press also grows a pre-existing rift between the French and English. English merchants, though the minorities, want English laws and customs, while the French Canadiens felt underrepresented due to the lasting effects of British Imperialism.
  • Liberalism

    The English in British North America had a pre-existing knowledge of Liberalism and its positives. It's the centrepiece of a constitutional monarchy and of parliamentarism. The limitations it imposed on Monarchs' powers, the sharing of power, freedom of expression, and individuals' rights made it a wildly popular idea amongst both the French and English.
  • Partisan Press

    Partisan Press
    In 1791, a Legislative Assembly was founded in British North America and the first elections were held. This grew the already present tensions between the English and French, who'd use their respective newspapers to attack the other. As time passed, two parties arised from this rivalry: the Parti Canadien and the British Party. The sole thing they could agree on is the establishment of a Responsible Government (decisions dependent on the support of an elected assembly, not that of a monarch).
  • The Rise of Nationalism, and the Ensuing Republicanism

    The Rise of Nationalism, and the Ensuing Republicanism
    The rift between English and French continued to grow eventually leading to the French Canadiens feeling that they are their own nation. This grows the ideology of nationalism, in which a group of individuals share common characteristics and feel like they belong to a nation. Overtime, this sentiment grows and radicalizes, sparking revolts in 1837 and 1838. Their republicanism connects to their nationalism, and entices the Irish to join them, through religion.
  • Ultramontanism and its Dominance on the French Canadiens

    Ultramontanism and its Dominance on the French Canadiens
    The failures of the Patriotes lead to the French population feeling like a minority, which leaves them susceptible to the Church's influences. A rise in dedication to the Church is felt, and the faith uses its doctrine to dominate both the personal and political spheres of the people's lives. A change in laws also helps the Church grow, as the Bishop of Montreal was allowed to call clergy members from France to Quebec starting in 1840.
  • The Expansion of Social Services Provided by the Church

    The Expansion of Social Services Provided by the Church
    The Church's dominance extended to social services, like schools and hospitals, and they grew towards the middle of the 19th century with the School Act. It creates the Denomination School System, which separates schools by religion (Protestant or Catholic), allows the Church to control all levels of education, and focused women's education on domestic life. The Church imposes its values using the system, but literacy does grow under it.
  • Anticlarism's Rise in Response to Ultramontanism

    Anticlarism's Rise in Response to Ultramontanism
    An ideology founded on the belief that the Church has no role in politics, it began to gain steam as a result of the widespread ultramontanism during the 19th century. The institut Canadien de Montreal, an intellectual establishment, is founded, and raises questions surrounding the Church's involvement. They believe in the separation of Church and State, which angers the Clergy.
  • The Rise of Agriculturalism

    The Rise of Agriculturalism
    The modernizing of technologies and opening of new lands to colonize opens the gates for an explosion in agricultural production during the 19th century. In conjunction, the rise of the French Canadian Nationalism provides a sentiment of survival and Conservatism, leading more people out of the big cities. Agriculturalist counters Urbanization, but the funds needed for the growth of these areas are scarce. Co-operatism allows for the pooling of funds, which funds the rural development.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Times

    The period in which Canada is an independent nation formed of multiple provinces and territories. It began with the forming of the Canadian Confederation and continues to this day.
  • Capitalism and its Cultural Consequences

    Capitalism and its Cultural Consequences
    The industrial development of the time requires capital, and through the system of capitalism, the rich get richer while the poor remain poor. This divides cities into districts, determined by its population's socioeconomic position, languages, and culture. Much of the capital is sent from the United States and Great Britain, which is what stimulates the growth in Canada.
  • Reformism and Feminism of the 19th Century

    Reformism and Feminism of the 19th Century
    With the diffusion of ideas due to the printing press, reformist beliefs began to take a hold on the Canadian population. The ideology encouraged social change, fighting poverty and other negative consequences caused by Industrialization. Along with reforminism, we see the start of feminims. Consisting of both the British business class and the French Bourgeoisie, they still maintain the tradition view of women, but involve themselves in education, health, and poverty. They still can't vote.
  • Church Conservatism

    Church Conservatism
    With the changing times, the Church begins to lose its grasp on the population. Mass Culture, women's voting rights, and films all grow, leaving the Church with fewer and fewer supporters. In response, the Church opposes women's voting rights, closes certain theatres, even managing to ban some films, and condemns dancing. These measures overtime fail, as women see their restrictions revoked in 1918 nationally (1940 in Quebec), and films continue to grow in popularity.
  • The Ideologies in Response to The Great Depression: Socialism, Communism, and Facism

    The Ideologies in Response to The Great Depression: Socialism, Communism, and Facism
    The Great Depression exposes Capitalism for its faults, opening the door to new political ideologies. Socialism becomes a rational alternative. It critiques capitalist industrial development, is against the concentration of wealth and prevents private ownership. To the left of it, Communism is found, and ideology founded in the end of all capitalism and socialism classes by sharing the means of production. Facism is also adopted by some, which glorifies an all powerful authoritarian leader.
  • The Effects of Secularism and Americanism

    The Effects of Secularism and Americanism
    The influents of modernization gave way to an American culture takeover, which the Church obviously opposed. It introduced a new way of life to many Quebecquers, by showing new habits of consumption like TV. Secularism also takes a grasp on the province. Following Maurice Duplessis's term, the liberal government is able to pass a law seperating Church and State. Previous to the liberal government, during Duplessis's reign, a group of journalists denounce their government in the Refus Global.
  • Feminism's Rise

    Feminism's Rise
    During WWII, while their husbands were at war, women began working. However, once the war had come to an end, women were not intent to give up their jobs. So they began demanding better conditions and the ability to work without men's opinion on the matter. As time goes on, they begin opposing all types of discrimination.
  • Liberals' State Involvement

    Liberals' State Involvement
    With the death of Maurice Duplessis in 1959, Jean Lesage's liberal government is able to take power at the turn of the decade. He provides progressive policies to Quebec, like making school free and compulsory, and making education, health, and social services fields independent of the Church. School boards remain either Catholic or Protestant. He also encourages and promotes Quebec culture, in the forms of Expo 67, the 76' Olympics, and the establishment of the Quebec Film Board.
  • Neo-Liberalism

    During slumps and recessions with the economy, the ideology of Neo-Liberalism began to rise. It states that government shouldn't involve itself in most affairs, especially economy. They believed that this would fix the country's economic shortcomings.
  • The Rise of The Parti Quebecois and Other French Nationalist Movements

    The Rise of The Parti Quebecois and Other French Nationalist Movements
    In 1967, Réné Lévesque, a former Liberal Party member, founds the Sovereignty Association Movement, which then unites with the RIN to form a new political party in Quebec, the Parti Québecois, which utilizes the province's population's hatred of English and Anglophones to gain support. They hold 2 referendums for independence, both of which lose, the latter by close margins. Others take more radical options, and the FLQ is formed, a terrorist group responsible for the October crisis.
  • Aboriginalism and The Oka Crisis

    Aboriginalism and The Oka Crisis
    Following their suppression during the past 400 years, First Nations Peoples began to assert their concept of nation during the 1970s. They started opposing certain projects, including the construction of certain hydroelectric dams, which would destroy ancestral hunting grounds. This turns violent with the Oka Crisis in 1990, where the expansion of a golf course threatened ancestral Mohawk land. The standoff lasts 3 months, and ends with the arrests of Mohawks.