Culture and Currents of Thought

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Aboriginals Evironment and Animism

    Aboriginals Evironment and Animism
    Aboriginals had great respect for their environment because they saw it as the reason they were able to survive. The resources they had access to were provided by the environment in which they lived, and, they had great respect for nature. Linking to animalism, all things have souls so only what was needed was taken, and returned to, the environment. If animals that they had just killed because they believed that the reason they had been able to kill it was because it had given itself to them.
  • Jan 1, 1501

    Social plan for FNP

    Social plan for FNP
    FNP social ideas:
    Respect for elders, Traditions, Freedom of actions (no written laws or private property), gift giving. They gave gifts as a sign of respect. The gifts were used to build strong bonds with the other groups, and preserve friendly relationships between groups. There was a gift given in return. They had festivities and feasts for the gift trading. It was a sign of respect as an ally and friend.
  • Jan 1, 1502

    Aboriginals Shamanism and Spirituality

    Aboriginals Shamanism and Spirituality
    Aboriginal people believed that dreams and smoke could show spirits. They saw dreaming was a way that the spirits could show themselves. Dreams could be prophetic, meaning that they could foretell events to come in the near of distant future. Smoke was a way of making contact with spirits. The shaman was like a priest and a medicine man, who was called upon to understand the meaning of dreams. They had Communications and Exchanges, in Oral Traditions, Song and Dance, and Ceremonies or Feasts
  • Jan 1, 1503

    FNP Chiefs

    FNP Chiefs
    Nomadic Chiefs were usually strongest hunters, they represented the communities as the spokesperson, however, they did not really have any decision making power. Iroquois Chiefs were excellent warriors and good speakers. Also the spokesperson for the community and were required to put the decisions made by the clan into practice.
  • Jan 1, 1504

    FNP encounters with Europeans (food and deaths)

    FNP encounters with Europeans (food and deaths)
    Sedentary Aboriginal peoples slowly introduced new vegetables, which had been known to the europeans, like onions, cucumbers and bread, and started to keep orchards for fruit. The europeans also imported domestic animals, like pigs, which made meat without hunting. Before the arrival of the Europeans, Aboriginal peoples waged war with bows, knives and clubs. Rifles made wars more deadly. However, it was epidemics that made significantly more deaths from the encounters with the Europeans.
  • Jan 1, 1505

    FNP encounters with Europeans (tools)

    FNP encounters with Europeans (tools)
    The europeans brought with them tools and utensils made of iron, steel and brass. From this time, these objects gradually became integrated into aboriginal material culture. For example, brass pots, which were more than pottery, eventually changed everyday food preparation. Following their encounter with the europeans, groups adopted wearing wool and cotton, which was integrated into their clothing. This lead to trades for new tools and cooking tools to the FNP and new clothes.
  • The Catholic Church in New France

    The Catholic Church in New France
    The missionaries and Jesuits were colonizing, by converting Aboriginal peoples to the Catholic faith, education, and to make New France a Catholic society. If you did not obey to the Church, you were excommunicated, which meant that Catholicism was the center of most of their lives. In the Aboriginal villages, the clergy settled and learned their languages. The Ursulines were teaching the young Aboriginal women, with the French women. In 1639, the Hotel-Dieu de Quebec became the first hospital.
  • New France's political ideology

    New France's political ideology
    Absolutism was a political ideology, where by the ruler was said to receive his power directly from god and was god’s representative on earth. Before 1663, royal absolutism was mostly through the control the king had over companies to which he granted exploitation monopolies. These companies had to answer to the king, who had the right to dissolve them. The governor and intendant also had these powers. This left decorations of the coat of arms of the french monarchy, on the doors of Quebec City.
  • The Canadiens after conquest

    The Canadiens after conquest
    The Catholic Church had privilege under the french. The Royal Proclamation, was to make the canadiens British colonists, and therefore, Anglophone and Anglicans. However, the British Crown had to make concessions in order to secure loyalty, encluding:
    Catholic Clergy and Canadien nobility, who were seen as the population’s elite, had some authority over the people. From this, a bishop to be appointed in 1766, which insured the Catholic Church’s survival.
  • The British Demands in the Colony

    The British Demands in the Colony
    The british merchants wanted the constitutional monarchy in the colony, which had:
    The sharing of power, The right to be represented in Parliament, Habeas Corpus, which granted British people not to be detained arbitrarily or without process, Freedom of expression and freedom of the press. The British merchants wanted their rights, but would deny these rights to the canadiens, who were not protestant. The Quebec act, of 1774, was taken as an insult to the British merchants.
  • Development of the press

    Development of the press
    The British got the granting of Habeas Corpus, and in 1791, a legislative assembly to the colony. In the first election, the majority was to the Canadiens. The British and the Canadiens oppositions lead to the formation of 2 parties, the Parti Canadien and the British party. They attacked each other in house, and in the newspapers. The Quebec Mercury newspaper, (english) defended the British Merchants. Le Canadien, a French newspaper, defended their demands. It promoted reformist liberalism.
  • Liberalism in the colony

    Liberalism in the colony
    Liberalism is a political ideology based on individuals having equal fundamental rights, and have protection from abuse from monarch’s power.
    Thanks to the printing press, liberalist ideas were spread and turned into political demands. They were formulated by the British merchants, and others, who immigrated after the conquest, and also some Canadien professionals and merchants. In the 1830’s some Canadiens adopted a radical position, which lead to the rebellions of 1837-1838.
  • Nationalism and Republicanism

    Nationalism and Republicanism
    The patriotes were established to get the liberal reform rights. This lead to republicanism, with the Patriotes revolts, to guarantee respect for peoples fundamental rights. The patriotes republicanism was connected to nationalism. Language, culture and French origin were considered the main characteristics of the Canadien. These cultural nationalists were joined by English speaking colonists, (mostly Irish Catholics) in their demands for political reforms.
  • Ultramontanism in the Colony

    Ultramontanism in the Colony
    Ultramontanism is a political and religious doctrine where the Catholic church dominated in every way, including political power. The creation of United Canada made French Canadians a minority politically, and English became the only official language. After 1840, the Catholic Church obtained permission to summon new monks and nuns from Fance. This increases the number of Church representatives in the colony, and Ultramontanism started that Catholics should not leave religious parts.
  • The Church, Education, and, Social Services

    The Church, Education, and, Social Services
    In the 1840s, education laws, such as the School act:
    Denominational school system establishment, which Remained in place until the quiet revolution, The Catholic Church was involved in all levels of education, from elementary school to university, Education was not yet compulsory, The literacy rate for the french canadiens increased, No girls, Some higher education was available, to the rich, and schools for girls opened, which was for a domestic life
    The church imposed its values by these ways
  • Anticlericalism

    Anticlericalism was a way to follow liberal ideology, during the growth of ultramontanism. The creation of the Institut Canadien de Montreal, was created.
    This offended the Church, who caused some to leave the Institut.
    Some who continued to support the Institut began to push for the separation of Church and state.
    Their opinion was to separate Church and State, since the clergy had no right in political, cultural, and intellectual life. Anticlericalism was the opposite of Ultramontanism
  • Capitalism

    Industrial development required the investments of large amounts of capital as well as an abundant labour force, to work cheaply. British Elite makes more Capital needed
    Rich get Richer makes Capitalism Capitalism and Industrialization left their mark on the cities, which began to divide into districts where they were based on socioeconomics, language, identity, and culture. (ex: Irish, Scotish, Like little italy today.)
  • Social Reformism

    Social Reformism
    Social Reformism is an ideology, where they encouraged a change, that fights poverty, and other consequences of industrialisation. Charities and Charitable Associations begun from the British business class, and also from the French Canadian Bourgeoisie. These associations followed a traditional view of women, whom they saw as mothers and wives. These women believed that as part of their duty as mothers, it was to concern themselves with the education and health.
  • Feminism

    Women could not vote yet, and considered minors, so Feminist views were their demands. The demands of the feminist reformists was against being seen as a threat to the social order. The Catholic Church and the supporters of survival nationalism weren’t alone in rejecting the feminist demands. In 1822, women were asking the government not to grant women the right to vote, and 45 000 women agreed. Despite this, women obtained the right to vote at the federal level in 1918 and in Quebec in 1940
  • Capitalism and Mass Culture

    Capitalism and Mass Culture
    Newspapers made information spread out.
    Businesses used the newspapers to publish advertising, in order to encourage readers to consume their products. Early 20th Century were marked by:
    The invention of motion pictures.
    First movie theater in Montreal was in 1906, and by 1933 Quebec had 134 theaters, where films as well as new programs were shown.
    The radio
    In 1919, Montreal was the first city in the world to inaugurate a radio station
    Expansion of sports teams: Lacrosse, Hockey
  • Church Conservatism

    Church Conservatism
    Catholic Church promoted a traditional way of life and values, where it judged essential for the survival of the identity and culture of French Canada. In the 1920’s, the bishop published several letters in which they condemned dancing, movies and theater.
    Tried to close theaters
    Keep sunday as a holy day
    Managed to ban some films
  • French Canadian Nationalism (1)

    French Canadian Nationalism (1)
    In the second half of the 19th century, the French Canadian Nationalism remained survival nationalism. There was concern about the French Canadian exodus to the United States, therefore, the leaders of the province saw a return to the land as a solution. Agriculturalism was beginning through the adoption of various new methods, which aimed to modernize agriculture and encouraging the opening of new regions to colonize.
  • French Canadian Nationalism (2)

    French Canadian Nationalism (2)
    Between 1920 and 1950, the social and cultural effects on capitalism led to the bringing back the themes of survival: Family, Religion, and Agriculture. In the 1920’s, Agriculturalism was led to counter urbanization. French Canadian nationalists judged capitalism to be the cause of social injustices. In order to raise the capital necessary for rural development, they counted on Cooperatism (Co-ops), which would allow for the pooling of savings. (Caisses populaires Desjardins for example)
  • Canadian Imperialism

    Canadian Imperialism
    British North American Act was meant to protect Catholic faith and the French language within Canada. Henri Bourassa thought the Canadians should unite to defend Canada’s autonomy, with regards to Great Britain. Imperialists viewed Canada as a part of the British Empire, and believed that English should be the only official language, and Protestantism the only official religion. WW1:
    Imperialism meant conscription
    Henri Bourassa and the nationalists wanted voluntary participation
  • Socialism, Communism, and Fascism

    Socialism, Communism, and Fascism
    Socialism was was meant to be a critique of capitalist industrial development. It was against the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few, with no private ownership. Communism wanted the end of the capitalist system and social classes, by sharing the means of production. Groups like Young Communist League of Canada, devoted themselves to the union movement in defence of workers. Fascism promoted traditional ways. ex: (Superior religion, all power leader, military and discipline)
  • Secularization after WWII

    Secularization after WWII
    Criticism of traditionalism became more varied. Traditionalism, defended by the Church, Duplessis government and the alliance between Church and State. The main critics of traditionalism were artists and intellectuals. In 1948, a group of artists published Refus Global, a manifesto that denounced the Catholic Church and its traditional values. Pierre Elliott Trudeau and Gerard Pelletier denounced the traditional values promoted by the Catholic Church and Duplessis’ nationalist government.
  • Americanism and Secularism after WWII

    Americanism and Secularism after WWII
    After WWII, QC was very prosperous, thus traditionalism and the influence of the Catholic Church on Quebec society were increasingly questioned. New Customs and a new way of life
    More money made a better lifestyle and more time to spend Americanism, was the new habits of consumption (clothing, appliances, etc)
    1952 had the invention of the television, which had a lot of families to buy a television set, along with dances, music, and theater shows. Secularism
    Separation of Church and State
  • State Intervention, Nationalism, and Secularization of Education

    State Intervention, Nationalism, and Secularization of Education
    The death of Maurice Duplessis in 1959 allowed interventionist governments to obtain power. This let the state take over education, health, and social services, and also became active in culture. Jean Lesage’s Liberal provincial government, introduced measures including:
    In 1961, school was made free and compulsory to the age of 15.
    In 1964, the Ministry of Education was created, and the Catholic Church lost education. However, the education system remained either Catholic or Protestant.
  • The Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ)

    The Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ)
    Other independantistes wanted more radical changes. They chose other means to make themselves heard besides forming a party. This was the case of the militants, who, beginning in 1963, joined Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ). The FLQ held anti colonial and socialist views, and believed that Quebec could only attain independence through armed struggle.
  • Rally for National Independence (RIN)

    Rally for National Independence (RIN)
    In the 1960s, the idea of "nation" began being associated with Quebec. The RIN, promoted nationalism. They were inspired by the decolonization in Africa.
    They argued that independence would free them from colonialism.
    They viewed the French language and culture as the main parts of the nation.
    They followed socialism, and said that the government of an independent Quebec should intervene to control the economy, and help the distribution of wealth, without eliminating private business.
  • The State and Culture

    The State and Culture
    It was in the mid 20th century, that the state began to change in visual arts, music, theater, literature and communications. In 1961, the Government of Quebec set up a film board, the provincial counterpart of the National Film Board of Canada, created in 1939. The federal, provincial, and municipal governments led to Montreal’s hosting of the 1967 World’s Fair and the 1976 Olympic Games.
    These events not only brought Quebec to the attention of the rest of the world but also opened diversity.
  • Rene Levesque and Parti Quebecois

    Rene Levesque and Parti Quebecois
    In 1967, Rene Levesque founded the SAM. Unlike RIN supporters, they believed that the independence of Quebec would allow them to defend the economy, culture, and political interests of the French Canadian Nation. In 1968, the SAM and RIN united, forming the PQ. They had two referendums to get the population of Quebec to negotiate independence with the Canadian government. Both referendums were refused, the first by 59.44% of the population, and the second by 50.58% of the population.
  • Feminism from the 1960s to 1980s

    Feminism from the 1960s to 1980s
    Feminists demanded improvements to ensure equality in the social, legal, economic and political rights. The Front de libération des Femmes (FLF), founded in 1970, was inspired by socialism, and the struggles against colonialism.
  • Aboriginalism

    Beginning in the 1970’s, Aboriginal peoples began to become a nation.
    Large Hydroelectric projects of the 1960s and 1970s made the flooding of lands that stopped the traditional way of life for some FNP. They wanted Quebec and Canada to recognize their rights and see their interests, and cultural characteristics. The provincial government signed the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement in 1975, and promised to consult the Inuit and that Innus regarding everything that concerned them.
  • Oka Crisis

    Oka Crisis
    The Mohawk nation was upset that a golf course wanted to expand on ancestral land. The Canadian Army had to be called in to protect locals and fight against the warriors. The Mohawks were were fighting for their rights and wanted the Canadian/Provincial government to acknowledge them.