Canadian History

  • Hudson Bay Company

    Hudson Bay Company
    Hudson Bay Company (HBC for short) was granted in 1670 by King Charles II of England monopoly on all trading around the Hudson Bay area (a.k.a they had all the trading rights, and they were the only ones allowed to trade with the natives). HBC was the biggest fur-trading company.
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    Hudsom Bay Company and Rupert's Land

    Hudson Bay Company controlled Rupert's Land from 1670-1869. Rupert's Land was territory around the Hudson Bay. It was inhabited, as it was rocky, not ideal land. Forts were built for trading, but life was tough.
  • End of 7 Year War

    The 7 year war ended with Britain's win and France's loss in 1759. Thus, Britain took control.
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    British Colonial Rule

    The 1763 Treaty of Paris agreed an end to the end of the 7 year war between Britain and France, and acknowledged Britain as the winner. Through this treaty, France was only able to keep 2 small islands off of Newfoundland.
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    Britain and the Great Lakes

    Britain occupied the area around the great lakes from 1763-1774.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    This treaty was signed on Feb. 10, 1763, as an agreement to end the Seven Years' War. Through this treaty, France was only able to keep 2 small islands off of Newfoundland.
  • The Royal Proclamation

    After the Seven Years' War, Britain issued the Royal Proclamation. Britain wanted the remaining French speakers still residing in "Canada" to adopt their customs, culture, and language. Many french speakers resided in Quebec. Many french people left, not wanting to become British. The First Nations were given an area-the Indian Reserve, hoping that they would adopt British ways as well. The Indian Reserve was located below Lake Michigan.
  • The Stamp Act

    The 7-Year War left Britain with no money (war is expensive), so they decided to tax all goods imported to Canada to gain more money. This was the Stamp Act, passed in 1765, and all Canadian goods were taxed.
  • Stamp Act Revoked

    Many riots were caused due to the Stamp Act, therefore the act was revoked a year later in 1766.
  • The Quebec Act

    The British Government passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which allowed Canadiens to maintain their French culture and character. This was done in hopes of gaining loyalty, strengthening the British Empire, and gaining rich fure producing areas around Quebec. (Quebec had fertileland rich with fur, which was very profit-making then.)
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    Fur-trading was at it's peak during this time.
  • Loyalist Migration

    Many Loyalists migrated from the Thirteen Colonies to the north. This was because the Loyaslists were treated badly by the Patriots after the American Revolution.
  • The Constitutional Act

    The Constitutional Act
    The English Loyalists who had moved north from the Thirteen Colonies to Quebec had many issues with the French Loyalists who lived there. Thus, Great Britain passed the Constitutional Act. The French were given Lower Canada, and Britain owned Upper Canada. Both Upper and Lower Canada had a Representative government, where people voted, creating two political parties. Therefore, the clergy were losing power.
  • Racism Banned

    In 1807, black racism was banned in BNA colonies and in Britain (a.k.a. you couldn't sell slaves anymore).
  • First Scottish Immigration

    Lord Selkirk was the Earl of Selkirk and was a Scottish nobleman. He wished to help his people, many of whom were farmers that were forced of their land. He wished to have them immigrate to Red River Valley, but the British government denied him the land grant. However, his father and all his brothers died, so he inehireted the family fortune and bought enough shares of HBC to gain control of it. He was able to get a land grant og 300 000 square km. Cont in First Scottish Immigration cont.
  • First Scottish Immigration cont.

    The land grant included Red and Assiniboine Rivers, and was named Assiniboia. Part of the land included Rupert's Land. The first group of Scottish settlers arrived at York Factory in 1811. It was a difficult winter with bad living conditions, but they made it through with help from the Natives and Metis.
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    The War of 1812

    In 1812-1814, there was a war vetween the USA and Great Britain. The two countries fought in Canada, as it was closer to the US than Britain was. The US chose to strike then as there was much discontentment between Canada and Britain at that time. Britain had begun taxing goods, which they said that they would not do. The US also thought the population may wish to join them because of the discontentment. This was the war no one won, though Canada would have lost had it not been for its Natives.
  • Travel to Red River Valley

    The scottish immigrants who had settled the winter before travelled to Red River Valley in the spring. Unofrtunately, they arrived in August and it was too late to plant crops.
  • Second Scottish Immigration

    The second group of scottish settlers settled in in spring 1813. Both settlement groups received help from the Natives.
  • The Pemmican Proclamation

    In 1814, the Pemmican Proclamation was passed. This proclamation stated that no food could be taken from Assiniboia without a license, as food needed to be conserved for the harsh winters. Metis had no license, but were furious, as pemmican had a large role in their lives (it was their main food source, and they made it to sell to fur traders). Metis were so furious, they destroyed settlers' crops, and attacked Fort Douglas. Many settlers fled from the Red River area.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The American immigration was discouraged, but immigration from Great Britain was greatly encouraged. This led to the Great Migration, from 1815-1850.
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    The Great Migration

    During this timespan, many people from Great Britain migrated over to Canada. Many were Irish, because of the Irish Potato Famine. Irish mostly grew potatoes, and there was a potato epidemic disease, causing many Irish to die, as many people were dependant on potatoes for food. Another reason that there was much migration to Canada was because of the Underground Railway. Around that time, many American black slaves were secretly travelling north to Canada, where it was slave-free.
  • Battle at Seven Oaks

    Battle at Seven Oaks
    On June 19, 1812, Metis met the new governor in Seven Oaks. The meeting was supposed to be peaceful, and was arranged to discuss about laws. Unfortunately, the meeting resulted in violence, though it is unknown which side started it. In the end, 1 Metis died, and 21 settlers died. The remaining settlers abandoned the settlement.
  • Lord Selkirk makes a Comeback

    All remaining settlers had abandoned the settlement in the Red River area in 1816, but Lord Selkirk brough 90 Swiss/German soldiers (called de Meurons) the following year to regain control. After, many settlers returned, especially after the HBC and NWC united, as it meant less conflict.This affected the Metis for the worse.
  • HBC and North West Company

    People who were not in the HBC formed another fur-trading company, the North West Company, located in Montreal. There was much rivalry and competition. Eventually, in 1821, the two companies joined together and settled, and was called Hudson Bay Company.
  • Lachine Canal

    The Lachine Canal was built in 1823 to bypass the rapids in the St. Lawrence River.
  • Welland Canal

    The Welland Canal was built in 1829 to bypass the Niagara Falls.
  • Chloera Epidemic

    In the June of 1832, a chloera epidemic started, brought by Irish immigrants. It ended at the end of the ear. The disease was most likely brought because the timber ships which the Irish came in had many dead, rotting bodies.
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    The government at this time was oligarchy; people in power were the only ones allowed to choose other people in power, and no one was allowed to vote. The assembly was voted on, but it had no power. The citizens weren't content with the government, and a rebellion began. The rebellion was led by newspaper editor William Lyon Mackenzie (Upper Canada), fellow newspaper editor Joseph Howe (Atlantic), and lawyer Louis Joseph Papineau (first Patriot). The rebellion led to bloodshed, and many died.
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    Responsible Government in Atlantic

    IN the 1840s and 1850s, all four Atlantic colonies achieved a responsible government.
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    Increase in Population

    From 1840-1951, the population of Canada West quickly grew. Though Canada East used to have much more citizens than Canada West, this changed in 1851. The reason was due to the Great Migration of 1850.
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada into a single united provicne of Canada, Canada West and Canada East (respectively). Canada West and East were both linked by a single government. This act also led to them both working together to build railways, expand industry, and increase growth in farming and forestry.
  • Canal Loan

    In 1841, a loan was givento build canals. The government wished to build so many canals as they thought they were important to the progression of Canada. But canals/waterways would freeze in the winter and could only reach whereever water was available, so railways were used more.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    In 1846, Britain passed the Repeal of the Corn laws, which guaranteed no cheap corn (corn is the British way of saying wheat) would be imported. This would mean British people would no longer buy Canadian wheat, because it was more expensive, and would buy local wheat. Due to this, BNA (British North America) farmers abandoned farms and sawmills, and moved south to U.S.A, as they couldn't compete with the British market.
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    Lord Elgin as Governor General

    From 1846-1954, Lord Elgin was the Governor General. During his time as Governor General, he passed the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849.
  • Responsible Government in Nova Scotia

    Responsible Government is achieved in Nova Scotia. Responsible Government is when members of the Executive Council are chosen from the group with the most elected members in the Legislative Assembly (instead of being selected by the Governor.
  • Bankruptcy in BNA

    In 1848, Lord Elgin reported to the British government that "3/4 of tge Merchants in Montreal face bankruptcy." Because of the bankruptcy, many people talked of Canada joining together with U.S.A.
  • Responsible Government in Canada West and East

    Because of continued conflict, Responsible Government was achieved in 1849 in Canada West and East. Responsible Government is when members of the Executive Council are chosen from the group with the most elected members in the Legislative Assembly (instead of being selected by the Governor.
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    Canada West had been granted repayment for damage caused by the Rebellion of 1837-38. The people of Canada East wanted repayment for the losses during the rebellion as well. Many people, such as the Tories, were angered for not being repayed. The Rebellion Losses Bill was signed by Lord Elgin in 1849, despite the fact that he disagreed. The money mostly went to French Canadians, and many disagreed. A protest began and the Parliament Building was burned down.
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    Ineffective Government

    During the 1850s, the fovernment became ineffective because of a political deadlock (when 2 parties had no majority and no winner, and both disagreed with each other).
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    Popularity of Railways

    During the 1850s, railway building was booming, as it was the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act

    The Fugitive Slave Act
    In 1850, the American government passed the Fugitive Slave Act. This meant that it was against the law to help out the Underground Railway, and anything related to helping black slaves escape. If anyone was caught housing a slave, or knowing the whereabouts of a slave, they would be sent to prison or punished in some way. Therefore, the slaves quickly hurried to Canada, where many settled in Dresden.
  • First Longer Railway

    The first longer railway was completed in 1853. The railway was from St. Lawrence to the Atlantic Railway.
  • The Treaty of Reciprocity

    In 1854, Lord Elgin managed to persuade U.S.A. to sign the Reciprocity Trety. This treaty allowed greater trade between Canada nad U.S.A., which increased Canada's economic stability.
    Lord Elgin had managed to convince U.S.A. by talking up on Canada's resources. These included fish, wheat, and waterways. If U.S.A. signed the treaty, they would have access to the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. Of course, Lord Elgin skillfully managed to persuade U.S.A. into agreeing to the Treaty.
  • A Capital is Chosen

    Due to the fact that the Parliament Building was burned down (almost 10 years ago), the capital alternated between Toronto and Quebec City every 2 years (this was a political deadlock). Finally, in 1858, Ottawa was chosen as the Capital.
  • Gold Rush

    Gold Rush
    In 1858, gold was found in Fraser River. Many people began to move in, and many sawmills were built. Unfortunately, the gold rush caused aboriginal rights to be ignored.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    The four Maritime BNA colonies were considering a Maritime union, and called a meeting in Charlottetown, P.E.I. The United Province of Canada wished to attend as well. The first meeting was on Sep. 2, 1864, and it lasted about a week. The United Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and P.E.I. attended this conference. The conference was very casual and social, with lots of parties. It was decided union had merit, and discussions would continue in Quebec.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    Continuing the discussion from the Charlottetown Conference, the United Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, P.E.I. and newcomer Newfoundland attended this conference in October 1864, at Quebec. In the end, it was decided that the Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick would join together. They drew up the 72 resolutions which would act as a guide for the construction of the Canadian nation.
  • End of Reciprocity Treaty

    During the American Civil War, Britain had sided with Southern US, as they had lots of trades with Britain (the Southern side was for slavery). However, when the war finished and the anti-slavery side won, so there was animosity between the US and Britain . Due to this animosity, the Reciprocity Treaty ended in 1866. This caused the BNA colonies to think of joining together with each other so they could trade with each other for free, and they would be "allied".
  • London Conference

    The final conference was held in the United Kingdom, and started on Dec. 4, 1866. Delegates from the four unifying colonies went to Britain, and together with British officials, drafted the British North America Act, 1867. John A. MacDonald was the chairman, and the bill was passed by the Queen on July 1, 1867.
  • First Election

    The first federal and provincial elections were both held in 1867, and resulted in tie and coalition (coalition is when 2 parties join together to achieve a similar goal).
  • Alaska is bought

    In 1867, USA purchased Alaska from Russia. Canada feared that the USA would also start to take ontrol of the territories.
  • BNA Act is accepted

    Confederation was accomplished on March 29, 1867, when the Queen gave royal assent to the BNA Act. The act stated many things, once of which was that the West was to become part of Canada.
  • Confederation

    On July 1, 1867, four BNA colonies joined together and formed the Dominion of Canada. These colonies consisted of Canada East and West (a.k.a. Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.
  • A Deal is Struck

    Canada made a deal with the Hudson Bay Company. They purchased Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories from the company. The lands were placed under the direct control of the Crown, and did not formally belong to Canada yet.
  • The Red River Rebellion Begins

    The Canadian government sent surveyors to survey the land in the Red River Settlment. They went to divide the land for roads and such, but a system had already been set up; a seigneurial system was in use, instead of the usual grids used by the British. The Metis and settlers who lived in the Red River area began to protest about the surveyors and the changes they wished to implement, and the surveyors soon left.
  • Warfare between First Natives

    Many settlers settled into Cree land, since buffalo had become in the Red River Settlement. This caused the Cree to be pushe dout of their land and into Blackfoot Confederaccy (unfortunately, the Cree and Blackfoot were enemies). This resulted in a wrfare between tribes in 1869. Hundreds died.
  • William McDougall is sent out

    On Nov. 2, 1869, MacDonald sent William McDougall to got to the Red River settlement, but he was blocked by 14 armed Metis, who wanted to negotiate.
    On the same day, Fort Garry is captured by the Metis, but with no bloodshed. This was very important, as it was the HBC's headquarters. The winter weather was also a natural barrier against Canadian forces, so the Fort was a safe plae for the Metis to reside in. The fort also had many resources.
  • Meeting between Metis and English

    On Nov. 16, 1869, Louis Riel (the voice and leader of the Metis), met with 12 english and 12 french in the Red River Settlement. The Canadian party was led by John Schultz, but they were surrounded by Riel and his men.
  • Provisional Government is Set Up

    On Dec. 8, the Provisional government was set up by Riel and other Metis. It was a short-term government, and was made because the Metis wished to have their voices heard. They drew up a Metis Bill of Rights, which were conditions for the Canadian government to abide by. Some included allowing the NW Territories into Confederation, amnesty for all those involved in the resistance, the right for any male over 21 to vote, separate school, and many other things. Cont.
  • Provisional Government is Set Up Cont.

    McDougall returned home and gave up. In his place came Donald Smith, who explained Canada's plans and negotiations to the Metis. A new Metis Bill of Rights were drawn up. Eventually, the Bill was accepted, but some conditions were not. For example, amnesty was not granted, and Louis Riel fleed to US. His supporters went to Saskatchewan, where they entered the lands of the Cree and Blackfoot.
  • Dresden-A Settlement

    Dresden-A Settlement
    Dresden is a town in Southern Ontario. It became a village in 1871, and a town ten years later. It was a settlement for black people who had escaped slavery in the US. There was housing, schools, etc...
  • Dominion Lands Act

    In 1872, the Dominion Lands Act was passed. It gave settlers a great deal of land out west. However, a $10 registration fee was required, and the settlers would have to live and work on the land for 3 years in order to actually obtain it. Clifford Sifton was the dynamic federal Mminister of Immigration. He used false advertising with beautiful people to attract Europeans to Canada. Unfortunately for them, life was harder than expected, with no wood and livestock. Many died.
  • North West Mounted Police

    North West Mounted Police
    There was no authority in the West, but lots of murders, illegal whisky trades, etc... One major incident was the Cypress Hills massacre. Therefore, in 1873, MacDonald's Conservative government created the North West Mounted Police (NWMP). They were established to keep peace, look over the construction of the CPR in the prairies, cease American invasion, and stop whisky traders.
  • Pacific Scandal

    Pacific Scandal
    On April 2, 1873, a Liberal Member of Parliament revealed the Pacific Scandal. John A. MacDonald needed money for his party campaign, and was bribed by Sir Hugh Allan with $360 000. Many companies were bidding to build the railway, and Allan wanted to win very much. He resorted to bribing the prime minister. (MacDonald had promised companies that if they helped build the CPR, he would give them free land and financial help)
    Due to the scandal, MacDonald resigned.
  • Cypress Hills Massacre

    On June 1, 1873, an incident occured in Cypress Hills (within the NW Territories) involving a group of American Bison hunters, American wolf hunters, American and Canadian whiskey traders, Métis cargo haulers, and a camp of Nakoda (or Assiniboine) people. The incident resulted in the death of many people, and convinced the government to implement a police force.
  • Liberals Take Over

    Liberals Take Over
    In 1874, the Conservatives lost the election, and the Liberals came to power. Alexander MaxKenzie became the new Prime minister. He brought two new developments into Canada; he introduced the secret ballot and the statement filled on how much money was spent on campaigns. The secret ballot would allow citizens to vote privately, and the statement would prove the amount spent was legit, and there were no bribes.
    MacKenzie also didn't care about the CPR very much, so the construction was delayed.
  • Indian Act

    In 1876, the Indian Act was passed to identify people as indians, with an "Indian Status". This only applied to full-blooded indians, and Metis were not included. Should the person give up their indian status, theu would have to leave the reserve and their family, but be allowed to vote.
  • Conservatives Return

    In 1878, the Conservatives got elected back in power. MacDonald also proposed a National Policy, which was made because of the delayed construction of the CPR. The policy included protective tariffs; he raised taxes on foreign manufactured goods, which made imports more expensive. Some thought the taxes would strengthen the Dominion, help trade and industries, and form a political unity. Others feared the goods from other countries would become too expensive.
  • Start of CPR

    On Feb. 16, 1881, the construction of the CPR began.
  • William Van Horne is Given Charge

    William Van Horne is Given Charge
    In 1882, William Van Horne-the general manager of the CPR-was given charge. He hired navvies, purchased materials, etc...
  • Chinese Navvies

    In 1882, Ottawa allowed Underdock to continue using Chinese laborers to construct the CPR. Much racism was demonstrated, and the Chinese were given the hardest work and lowest pay. Many died.
  • Railway Relief Bill

    The construction was progressing rapidly, but the funding was becoming dangerously low. On January 31, 1884, the government passed the Railway Relief Bill. It provided $22.5 million in loans to the CPR. The bill received royal assent on March 6, 1884.
  • Metis Try to Petition

    In 1885, the Metis tried to petition for more rights and such, but MacDonald ignored them. The Metis then decided to call Riel, who they believed to be "all-powerful".
  • Chinese Immigration Act of 1885

    After the construction of the CPR finished, 6000 chinese labourers stayed and applied for lega status. A head tax was placed to discourage any more Chines eimmigration; all Chinese would have to pay $50.
  • Protestant Church is Seized

    On March 19, 1885, a Protestant Church in Batoche was seized by Riel and his supporters.
  • Riel Surrenders

    Riel Surrenders
    On May 15, after the Battle of Batoche (May 9-12), Riel surrended to Canadian forces and was arrested.
  • Riel's Trial

    Riel's Trial
    In July 1885, Riel's trial took place, and lasted for 5 days. His lawyer wanted Riel to plead insanity, but he redused. In the end, Riel was found guilty. He could either be sent to jail, or be executed. MacDonald wanted him to be executed, as an example for others to not go against the government. The Queen urged for him to go to prison instead, as an execution might upset the French and cause an uproar. In the end, he was to be executed.
  • The Last Spike

    The Last Spike
    On Nov. 7, 1885, in Craigellachie, British Columbia, the last spike was driven by Donald Smith, a CPR financier. He had provided lots of money to the construction of the CPR. The last spike signified the completion of the CPR.
  • Riel's Execution

    On Nov. 16, 1885, Riel was hanged for treason against the government. After the execution, MacDonald published a photo of the hanging to discorage people from going afainst the government. This turned out to be effective.
  • New President of CPR

    In 1888, William Van Horne became the president of the CPR.
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    Klondike Gold Rush

    From 1896-1899, the Klondike Gold Rush occured in Yukon. Around 100, 000 people arrived to dig for gold. It happened during an economic growth. However, people quickly left the ara for the gold in Alaska.
  • Chinese Immigration Act of 1923

    The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 stopped the immigration of Chinese completely, except for business people, clergy, educators, students, and other categories.
  • Quebec's Official Language

    In 1974, Quebec's official language became French.
  • Referendun #1

    In 1980, the government asked the public citizens if Quebec should become its own separate country. The citizens said NO.
  • End of National Policy

    In 1990, the National Policy ended, and Canada moved to a free trade agreement with the U.S.A. and Mexico.
  • Referendun #2

    In 1995, the government asked the public citizens again if Quebec should become its own separate country. The citizens said NO, again.
  • Confederation Bridge

    Confederation Bridge
    In 1997, the Confederation Bridge was constructed, and it connected P.E.I. to the mainland.
  • Head Tax Reimbursement

    In 2006, the Canadian government apologized, and Stephen Harper payed $20 000 as an apology.