Andrei Irimia_GyH_4F

Timeline created by andrei irimia
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    The Modern Age is the third of the historical periods into which world history is conventionally divided, between the 15th and 18th centuries. Chronologically, it houses a period whose beginning can be set in the discovery of America (1492), and whose end can be placed in the French Revolution (1789) or at the end of the previous decade, after the independence of the United States (1776).
  • Period: to

    Enclosure Acts

    Enclosure Acts A series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.
  • John Kay´s flying shuttle

    John Kay´s flying shuttle
    The flying shuttle was an improvement to the loom that enabled weavers to work faster. Increase speed
    production + wider fabrics
  • Period: to

    First Industrial Revolution

    The First Industrial Revolution was a process that began in Britain in the 18th century, from where it spread to other parts of the world.This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.
  • James Watt´s steam engine

    James Watt´s steam engine
    Burning coal → Boiled water → Steam →
    Pressure → ConƟnuous movement
    transferred to machinery
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.
    It is considered the first modern book on economics. Smith exposes his analysis on the origin of the prosperity of countries like England or the Netherlands. He develops economic theories about the division of labor, the market, currency, the nature of wealth, the price of commodities in labor, wages, profits, and the accumulation of capital. He examines different systems of political economy, in particular, mercantilism and physiocracy;
  • invention of the power loom

    invention of the power loom
    The first power loom was developed by Edmund Cartwright in 1784 and completed in 1785. Edmund Cartwright was an English inventor and is remembered today for inventing the power loom along with other devices important to the textile industry in England.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary History.

    The Contemporary Age is the name used to designate the historical period between the Declaration of Independence of the United States or the French Revolution, and today. It includes, if one considers its beginning in the French Revolution, of a total of 231 years, between 1789 and the present.
  • Period: to

    Constitutional History.

    Was the first phase of the Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly formed by
    moderate bourgeoisie, negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to establish a parliamentary monarchy in France.
  • Estates General meeting.

    Estates General meeting.
    Louis XVI convenes the assembly for the fiscal enquiry. Privileged estates demand a vote per estate, rather than per representative.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. This culminated in the appointment of Napoleon as First Consul in November 1799, which is generally taken as its end point.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The Third Estate went to a pavilion in Versailles (a tennis court: Jeu de Paume) and proclaimed themselves the
    National Assembly of France (the truly representatives of the nation). They promised to draft a constitution. During the end of June and first weeks of July, the Assembly’s proposals joined more and more supporters in Paris and the situation got more and more tense.
  • Storming of the Bastille.

    Storming of the Bastille.
    The Third Estate stormed the Bastille that was a castle
    used as a state prison by the kings of
    France. At that time, there were only
    7 prisoners in it, but it kept a lot of
    weapons and gunpowder.
    In summer 1789 the revolution spread to the countryside, triggering the Great Fear against nobles and in autumn 1789 Louis XVI, frightened by the situation, accepted the National Assembly. France became a constitutional monarchy.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.
    Recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women`s March on Versailles.

    Women`s March on Versailles.
    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to
    Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution.

    First French constitution.
    was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty.
  • Period: to

    Social Republic

    Was the second phase of the Revolution .It start because of :
    Betrayal by the king (Flight to Varennes).
    Military invasion of Prussia and Austria (absolute monarchies).
    This social republic was ruled by 1792-93: Girondists (moderate bourgeoisie) 1793-94: Jacobins (most radical sector).
  • Period: to

    Girondin Convection

    The Convention initiated a trial against Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Accused of treason they were convicted and executed in the guillotine (1793).
    The king's death provoked the alliance of european monarchies, who formed an absolutist coalition against France, while counter-revolutionary revolts and realistic conspiracies starring the former privileged groups broke out inside the country.
  • War of the First Coalation.

    War of the First Coalation.
    Is a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only loosely allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement; each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm  of Tuileries Palace
    Was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic.
  • Period: to

    Jacobin Convection

    A new Constitution was enacted recognizing popular sovereignty and the right to social equality. The executive was left to a Public Salvation Committee, which granted power to Robespierre, a Jacobin leader.
    To repel the Austrian invasion, a mass cam was organized, forcing all citizens to enlist in the army, and to end the conspirators the terror policy was pushed.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    Was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. The Terror originated with a centralized political regime that suspended most of the democratic achievements of the revolution, and intended to pursue the revolution on social matters.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI by guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. At a trial on 17 January 1793, the National Convention had convicted the king of high treason in a near-unanimous vote.
  • Period: to

    Conservative Republic

    After the coup, the conservative bourgeoisie took over the Revolución.Se he developed a new constitution granting board power, he re-established censer suffrage and entrusted legislative power to two chambers.Cloistered and persecuted the Jacobins, overthrew the Constitution of 1793 and overreacted all measures from that period.In 1799 a young Napoleon general Bonaparte with the support of the bourgeoisie starred in a coup that ended the Board of Trustees and established the Consulate 1799-1804
  • Period: to

    The Consulate

    French government established after the Coup of 18–19 Brumaire, during the French Revolution.. The executive branch was given the power to draft new laws, and the legislative branch became little more than a rubber stamp. Elections became an elaborate charade, with voters stripped of real power. Napoleon abolished the Consulate when he declared himself emperor in 1804.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
  • Constituition of 1800.

    Constituition of 1800.
    New political system that :
    • Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    • Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    • States organized in departments, run by perfects.
  • Period: to

    The Napoleonic Empire

    The Napoleonic Empire was now a complex power bloc engulfing most of western and southern Europe, as much as an imperial mass, in the conventional sense. It was a hegemony, exercised through three different methods. During the Napoleonic Wars Prussia, Austria and Russia were both enemies and unhappy allies.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor.

    Napoleon crowned emperor.
    The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on, December 2, 1804 , at Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, by the Pope.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king.

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king.
    In 1808, Spain was invaded
    and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor`s brother, was
    made king.
  • Period: to

    Luddite movement

    First workers to protest in England
    Violent destruction of machinery (responsible for low wages and unemployement).
    The original Luddites were British weavers and textile workers who objected to the increased use of mechanized looms and knitting frames.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty.

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty.
    Organizer :
    Austrian Chancellor Metternich objetives :
    - Stop the spread of liberal ideas
    - Restore absolutism  Principles of the Restoration :
    - Legitimacy of absolute monarchs
    - Denial of national sovereignty
    - Balance of power
    - Right of intervention  Consequences :
    - Holy Alliance Treaty (1815): Absolute
    monarchs would unite against any threat of
    liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) - Change of borders and political powers in
    Europe
  • Battle of Waterloo.

    Battle of Waterloo.
    The Battle of Waterloo was fought on 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition, a British-led coalition consisting of units from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal. The battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Period: to

    Greek War of Independence.

    Was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830. The Greeks were later assisted by Great Britain, France and Russia, while the Ottomans were aided by their North African vassals.
  • Abolishment of the combination Acts.

    Abolishment of the combination Acts.
    The English Combination Acts forbade workers to organize for the purpose of obtaining higher wages or controlling work-place conditions. The acts were repealed in 1824 as the result of a campaign led by the radical London tailor and political agitator Francis Place and the radical member of Parliament, Joseph Hume.
  • Stephenson´s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson´s Steam locomotive
    Benefits :
    More passengers and goods
    Less time
    Lower cost
  • Revolutions of 1830.

    Revolutions of 1830.
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the
    liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of
    some European peoples.  Two main opposition forces appeared : Liberalism and Nationalism. The movement began in France and insurrections
    spread all over Europe, with a significant popular
    support. Successful > absolutism replaced by
    liberal political systems governed by
    a constitution in which the
    bourgeoisie held power. Unsuccessful > Back to Absolutism
  • Period: to

    The Belgian Revolution.

    Background
    1815 (C. Vienna): Kingdom
    of the Netherlands. Kingdom of Holland:
    protestant and absolutist.
    +
    Belgium: catholic and liberal. Development
    1830 -39: Armed conflict
    after Belgium’s declaration of
    independence. 1839: Recognition of
    independence. Liberal
    monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein.

    Zollverein.
    Economic organization configured as a customs union. Numerous German states joined forces to create a free trade zone and establish customs tariffs against third countries. With Europe bleeding to death in the Napoleonic wars, the first voices were beginning to emerge calling for a German trade union.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union.

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union.
    The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. brought together different types of workers to :
    - Defend the wright of association.
    - Improve wages.
    - Regular Child labour.
  • Revolutions of 1848.

    Revolutions of 1848.
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy). Rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
  • invention of the Bessemer converter

    invention of the Bessemer converter
    Bessemer Converter is a large pear-shaped container in which molten iron is converted to steel by the Bessemer process. Bessemer process is a method for making steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron to burn out excess carbon and impurities.
  • Period: to

    Italian Unification process.

    Background
    Divided into several states.
    C. of Vienna: Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia Development
    1859. Kingdom of Piedmont, ruled by the liberal
    monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister,
    started the unification.
  • Period: to

    German Unification process.

    Background
    Divided into 36 states, associated with the
    German Confederation, where Prussia and
    Austria were competing for power. Development
    1834. Prussia created a customs union
    (Zollverein).
  • First International.

    First International.
    First International of international Workingmen’s Association was created at the initiative of Marx in 1864.
    Ideological differences between Marxists, anarchists and trades union made it unworkable and it split un 1876.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital.

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital.
    Das Kapital, also known as Capital. A Critique of Political Economy, is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics by Karl Marx. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production in contrast to classical political economists.
  • Second International.

    Second International.
    Second International was founded by Marxist in 1889 to coordinate the various socialist parties. Established symbols of the labour movement :
    - Anthem " The Internationale".
    - International Workers’ Day.