Age of Revolutions

  • The United Provinces

    The United Provinces
    A federal republic also known as the United Provinces of the Netherlands. It consisted of 7 provinces with their own assembly led by the wealthiest merchants and members of the local bourgeoisie.
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    The Glorious Revolutions

    A bloodless conflict that ended the wars during the 17th century in England and in which a new parliamentary monarchy was established.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    In it was established that:
    - The monarch's power is limited and he/she cannot suspend or dispense power, pass laws or levy taxes without parliamentary permission.
    - A regular Parliament was needed, it consisted of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
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    War of the Spanish Succession

    Carlos II, the last Spanish monarch of the House of Habsburg, died without an heir; but he stated in his will that Philip, Duke of Anjou, of the House of Bourbon, would be his succesor. However, some european powers did not want the Bourbons to rule both France and Spain and they supported Charles, Archduke of Austria, as another candidate. The succession problem led to both a civil and an European war that broke out in 1701.
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    It was a treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succesion, in which Spain ceded territories to Austria, Great Britain and Savoy. After it, Felipe V was recognised king of Spain, nevertheless he had to renounce to the French Throne. Moreover Great Britain got a monopoly on the salve trade with the Spanish colonies in America called "Asiento de negros".
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    The Enlightenment

    It was an intellectual movement based on three pillars:
    -Reason: knowledge and understanding were based on reason.
    -Critical thinking: a process to question anything which does not represent well-reasoned understanding.
    -Progress: the idea that knowledge can transform society and improves human condition.
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    The Reign of Charles IV

    Carlos IV took the Spanish throne in 1788. He was not a popular monarch, because, among other things, he delegated all his power to his prime minister, Manuel Godoy.
    He was percieved as lazy and indifferent but friendly and gentle. He also married his cousin Maria Luisa of Parma in 1765.
  • Publication of the Encyclopedia

    Publication of the Encyclopedia
    It was the most influencial work of the Enlightenment, since it was a compilation of all the knowledge of that time, explained scientifically and based firmly on reason.
    It was published in 28 volumes and suppossed the beginning of the crisis of the Ancien Régime, as it spreaded ideas that opossed the ones established.
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    Crisis of the Ancien Régime

    It was a consequence of different factors that were driving changes. There was a demographic and economic growth, the Third Estate had a lot of aspirations, some parliamentary experiences had already taken place... All this together with the spread of the Enlightentment ideas led to the crisis.
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    The American Revolution

    The ideas of the Enlightenment settled well among the British Colonies, which opened their eyes leading them to consider the British government (and the thinghs they did) tyrannical. Some examples are the Stamp Act (1765) and the Tea Act (1773). They were a raise revenue through direct taxation of all colonial tea and commercial and legal papers.
    This led to three main consequences: the Boston Tea Party, the American War of Independence and the Constitutionod the United States od America.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    As time goes by, the tension between the mother country and the colonies increased. The most controversial affair was the taxes that the British Parliament imposed, where the colonists had no representation.
    As a result of this tension, in 1773, a group of colonists threw a whole shipment of tea on board British vessels into Boston Harbour.
  • First Continental Congress in Philadelphia

    First Continental Congress in Philadelphia
    Colonists expelled the British governors and
    prepared to war.
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    American War of Independence

    The war between the colonies and the mother country broke out in 1775 due to the tension responsible of the Boston Tea Party.
    Consequently, the Thirteeen Colonies issued their Declaration of Independence based on liberal principles.
    Finally, at the Treaty of Paris (1783) Great Britain recognized the United States of America as a sovereign nation.
  • Constitution of the United States of America

    Constitution of the United States of America
    Right after the war, the delegates of the states met in Philadelphia to draft the constitution, which contains the main ideas of the Enlightenment:
    -National sovereignty
    -Separation of powers
    -Individual rights and liberties
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    France experiencies a political, social and economic crisis; because:
    -The continuation of the absolute monarchy.
    -The inequality of the estate system.
    -Bad harvests that led to a raise of the bread's price.
    -A financial crisis due to the luxurious court and the expenses on the American War of Independence.
    To solve it the king wanted to collect more taxes and he summoned the Parliament. To decided they voted but... The Third Estate asked for ‘one deputy, one vote’, and their request was denied.
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    French Revolution

    In 1789, the events of the French Revolution caused in Spain:
    -Closing of the borders with France.
    -Fear for what was going on with the French Royal family, for the possibility the same might happened in the Spanish Royal court.
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    National Constituent Assembly

    Since the king refused to allow an individual vote, the third estate deputies declared themselves the National Assembly. They stormed the Bastille and a popular revolution began. The National Assembly became the National Constituent Assembly and they began to write a constitution. They also tried to end the Ancien Règime by...
    -Proclaiming the abolition of the estate system.
    -New rights
    -The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which reduced the clergy to the civil status of citizens.
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    After the request of ‘one deputy, one vote’ was denied to the Third Estate, they decided to abandon the meeting and joined separately in a tennis court nearby and made an oath. There they swore not to separate until a constitution was established.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris took the streets and stormed the Bastille, a fortress, and established symbol of royal authority. Violence spread through the countryside and a popular revolt began.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    A statement of the natural and inalienable rights of all men.
  • The French Constitution of 1791

    The French Constitution of 1791
    The first constitution of its kind in Europe. In it is established that...
    -France is now a constitutional monarchy.
    -Men who are over 25 and with a certain level of incomes can vote.
    -Powers are separated in three branches: executive (king + ministers), legislative (parliament) and judicial (judges).
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    It supposed the first 10 amendments to the Constitution:
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    Legislative Assembly

    Fearing for his life and concerned about the actions of the Assembly, the king Louis XVI tries to run away to Austia. His intentions were discovered he was forced to retun to Paris, where him and his family are confined in the Tuileries Palace. Against his will, Louis XVI accepted the constitution of 1791.
    European monarchs, feeling their thrones threatened, form the First Coalition, against revolutionary France.
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    He was a prime minister chosen in 1792 and known as "the last favourite" in Spain. He had poor origins and he was a handsome member of the Royal Corps. He became a close friend of the royal couple and ennobled by them.during the reign of Charles IV. He was hated by the nobility as he was an 'afrancesado' and he had too much power as well. In addition, he was an ally of Napoleon and therefore, Great Britain became Spain's greatest enemy.
  • The attack on the Tuileries Palace

    The attack on the Tuileries Palace
    When king Louis XVI was forced to stay the Tuileries Palace, the public opinion had already begun to turn against him and some called for his abdication. All this together with Prussia threats an attack to the palace took place and the royal family was arrested.
    This events led to a constitutional monarchy.
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    The Convention

    France is ruled by a government known as the Convention.
    After Louis' XVI death, Girondins and Jacobins alternate in power. A ten-month period of violence takes place known as the Reign of Terror, in which Robespierre is a key figure.
    The first republican constitution is passed by Jacobins.
  • French Constitution of 1793

    French Constitution of 1793
    A Constitution that established:
    -National Sovereignty
    -Male Universal Suffrage
  • Jacobean Government

    Jacobean Government
    The period in which the Jacobins, one of the factions of the National Convention, governed. They were the middle and petit bourgeoisie (radical liberals).
  • Execution of Louis XVI.

    Execution of Louis XVI.
    After the royal family was arrested, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are guillotined.
  • Girondin Government

    Girondin Government
    The period in which the Girondins, one of the factions of the National Convention, governed. They consisted of the upper bourgeoisie (moderate liberals).
  • French Constitution of 1795

    French Constitution of 1795
    In it a new form of government was established, it was called 'the Directory'.
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    The Directory

    After a coup d'état, Robespierre is executed. However, violence is not over and reprisals against the leaders and supporters of the previous period; this is known as the First White Terror.
    Nevertheless, the convention comes back and they adopt the constitution of 1795, in which the Directory (a committe made up of five members, so that power would not depend only on one person) is established as a new form of government. This body faced numerous problems.
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    The Consulate

    A coup d'état brings an end to the Directory, but three of its leaders (Napoleon, Sieyès and Ducos) remain in power forming the Consulate.
    Napoleon is elected First Consul for Life in 1802. His government established:
    -Napoleonic Code: unification of the French legal system in one Civil Code
    -Careers open to talent: bourgeoisie becomes the new aristocracy thanks to merit
    -Stabilisation of the situation: police action, centralisation of administration, reestablishment of relations with church...
  • War of the Oranges

    War of the Oranges
    War in which Spain entered because of Manuel Godoy against Portugal.
  • Napoleon as an Emperor

    Napoleon as an Emperor
    Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor by a plebiscite.
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    Napoleonic Empire and The First French Empire

    In the period of Napoleon as an emperor a new Map of Europe, known as the Napoleonic Europe, is created.
    ·Direct and indirect control over other European powers
    ·The Continental System (1806): an economic blockade against UK
    ·Great victories and campaigns, until 1812.
    It finally ends when Napoleon is defeated in the Battle of Leipzig and he was exiled to the Mediterranean island of Elba.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    It was a naval battle at the Cape Trafalgar, in which Great Britain defeated Spain and France. It was a consequence of the old rivalry between Napoleon and Great Britain, along with Napoleon's ambition to dominate all Europe. In the end, Spain lost its naval fleet.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It was a treaty signed between France and Spain in the city of Fontainebleau. It consisted in the collaboration of Spain to invade Portugal, so that it would have been divided between France and Spain: but the truth behind it was that Napoleon wanted to invade Spain.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    In Napoleon's attempt to take Spain, the Spanish army was able to defeat the French army at this battle. However, to shift the conflict in France's favour, Napoleon led a large army into Spain himself, and ended up taking the country.
  • The Abdications of Bayonne

    The Abdications of Bayonne
    The abdications of the kings Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII in France. They were the consequence of a series of events, both kings together with Godoy, gathered with Napoleon, the father to have the crown back and the son to legimate his power. Napoleon forced them to abdicate and he later crowned his brother Joseph I Bonaparte as king of Spain.
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    The emancipation of Spanish America

    During the reign of Fernando VII, Spain's American colonies began fighting to gain their independence; this was due to:
    -The dissatisfaction of the criollos, since they felt ignored and that they were being excluded from colonial government.
    -The independence of the United States of America as an example to follow.
    -The lack of a government during the French invasion. This implied creating juntas not only in Spain, but also in America.
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    Supreme Central Junta

    A body that served as a regency and carried the legislative and executive powers during Ferdinand's VII abscense.
  • Mutiny of Aranjuez

    Mutiny of Aranjuez
    It was a revolt that took place in Madrid. It was caused because of the defeat of Spain in the Battle of Trafalgar, old alliances that Godoy made with Napoleon and many other factors that led to the uprising of the people backed by Ferdinand VII. The king was forced to remove Godoy and abdicate in favour of his son.
  • Popular uprising of Madrid

    Popular uprising of Madrid
    I was a popular revolt that took place in Madrid. It was caused because, after the abdications of Bayonne, the public opinion was that Ferdinand VII had abdicated under pressure and force. This resulted in an attack against the French troops. It was solved when the Mamelukes, part of the Napoleonic army, attacked the popular uprising.
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    The Peninsular War

    It started with the uprising of Madrid, against French occupation, resistance which spread to other parts of Spain
    One side was the French Army, led by Napoleon and part of the Spanish Army, supporting Joseph I. The other side was the British Army, the Portuguese Army, part of the Spanish Army (supporting Ferdinand) and the Spanish Guerrilla Warfare.
    It ended with the Treaty of Valençay, the agreement established the restoration of Ferdinand VII as King, who had been imprisoned in France.
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    Cortes de Cádiz

    It was a national assembly origined in 1810 and ended in 1814, which took place in Cádiz. This body passed the very first Constitution of Spain.
  • Independence of Paraguay

    Independence of Paraguay
    In Río de la Plata
  • Spanish Constitution of 1812

    Spanish Constitution of 1812
    The Cortes de Cádiz passed the very first effective Spanish constution called "La Pepa" which established a constitutional monarchy.
  • The Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna
    The states that had defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna (at Vienna), which lasted a year, in order to reorganise the Napoleonic Europe. Despite almost all countries were involved, the decisions were actually made by Russia, Prussia, Austria and the UK. They did not restore the territorial boundaries in place before Napoleon, but they drew a new map of Europe. France returned to its 1792 borders.
  • Battle of Salamanca

    Battle of Salamanca
    With the support of Great Britain and Portugal, Spain was able to win multiple battles against France and finally defeat them in the Battle of Salamanca.
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    The reign of Ferdinand VII

    It was divided into three periodas: the Absolutist Sexennium, the Liberal Triennium and the Ominous Decade
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    The Absolutist Sexennium

    When Ferdinand VII returned to Spain, he is urged by reactionaries to abolish the Cortes of Cádiz and all they had created (including the constitution), re-establishing the Ancien Régime.
    Ferdinand rules Spain as an absolute monarch, persecuting the liberals and forcing them into exile. Furthermore, he tries to regain control oh the Spain's American colonies
  • The German Confederation

    The German Confederation
    An Association of 39 German States created by the Congress of Vienna.
  • The Empire of the Hundred Days

    The Empire of the Hundred Days
    Napoleon escaped from his exile and returned to Paris. There he reassumed power and governed for a period known as The ‘Empire of the Hundred Days’. His final defeat was in the Battle of Waterloo in the same year.
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    The Holy Alliance

    Agreement between the rulers of Russia, Prussia and Austria; plus France. It was created to rule in a spirit of Christian charity and to
    assist each other in times of trouble. This alliance was one of those that were formed together with the quadruple and quintuple to protect the monarchs from revolution.
  • Independence of Argentina

    Independence of Argentina
    Argentina was released by José de San Martín.
  • Independence of Chile

    Independence of Chile
    José de San Martín crossed the Andes and defeated the troops at Maipú giving Chile its independece.
  • The Gran Colombia

    The Gran Colombia
    After some countries were released by Simon Bolivar: Colombia (1819), Venezuela (1821) and Ecuador (1822); they created the Gran Colombia with Panama as well. It ended up dissolving in 1830.
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    The revolutions of 1820s

    All the revolutions of 1820’s were put down by the Holly Alliance (Spain and Naples).
    Attempts to have liberal regimes were made, liberals wanted to bring and end to absolutism through constitutions and parliaments (census suffrage).
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    The Liberal Triennium

    A liberal military leader called Rafael del Riego forces Ferdinand VII to swear to uphold the Constitution through a coup d'état, carrying out what it is known as a "pronunciamiento"
    Nevertheless, Ferdinand immediately requests the help of the Holy Alliance. Consequently, France sends some troops to Spain called "The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis", which defeated the liberals and restored the king.
  • Independence of Mexico

    Independence of Mexico
    Different revolts with different supports (creoles, indigenous peoples, mestizos, Miguel Hidalgo’s movement…) were not supported by the American elites, until Agustin de Iturbide promised to maintain the social privileges of Spanish and creoles.
  • Independence of the United Provinces of Central America

    Independence of the United Provinces of Central America
  • Independence of Peru

    Independence of Peru
    Self-explanatory title.
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    The Ominous Decade

    Ferdinand VII executes Rafael del Riego and starts to persecute the liberals again. During this decade, (and until Ferdinand's death) Spain is ruled by absolutism.
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    The revolutions of 1830s

    ·They started in France, with the July Revolution of 1830. As a result the Bourbons were removed from power and Louis-Philippe of Orleans was appointed.
    ·In Greece, the nationalist movement achieved independence from the Turkish Empire in 1832.
    ·There was an attempt in Spain which failed.
    ·Belgium gained independece from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It had been united with the Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna.
  • Young Italy Movement

    Young Italy Movement
    A nacionalist movement which was created by Giuseppe Mazzini to work for a united, republican Italian nation..
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    The reign of Isabel II (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dST-Jp0bZ4w)

    It started out absolutist, but became liberal aiming to gain popular suport. There were divisions:
    -Progressives (1854-56): They favoured popular sovereignty, wider census suffrage and greater municipal autonomy, created the Constitution of 1837 and their major plan involved disentailments.
    -Moderates advocated joint sovereignty, centralised government and a resrictive census suffrage. They ruled during most of her reign: imposed the Constitution of 1845 and signed a contract with the Holy See.
  • Zollverien

    A coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
  • The revolutions of 1848

    The revolutions of 1848
    Several European nations were swept by a series of simultaneous revolutions, except Great Britain and Russia.
    They mostly failed, but still governments started to introduce reforms.
    Due to this revolutions, the ideas of demanding freedom and independence for the nations became stronger, so Nationalism in each country strengthened. As well as the idea of national unity based on common language, culture, religion, and shared history.
  • Frankfurt Parliament

    Frankfurt Parliament
    A Pan-German Parliament which was called to discuss reforms and attempt to draft a constitution for a unified Germany, however it failed.
  • Otto von Bismarck

    Otto von Bismarck
    Otto von Bismarck was appointed Prussian Prime Minister to the German Confederation.
  • Annexation of Lombardy

    Annexation of Lombardy
    Lombardy is annexed to the Italian Kingdom after Austria is defeated against France. In 1860, there are nacionalist insurrections in Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Papal Romagna; which voted to join Piedmont.
  • The Two-Sicilies and Central Italy.

    The Two-Sicilies and Central Italy.
    The 'red shirts' conquered the Kingdom of the Two-Sicilies (Naples+Sicily) led by Garibaldi.
    And the Piedmontese invade the Papal States (Umbria+Marches).
    Lastly, the Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel II as a king.
  • Holstein-Schleswig Wars

    Holstein-Schleswig Wars
    A conflict of Austria and Prussia against Denmark over the possession of the German-speaking duchies of Scheleswig and Holstein. At the end, Denmark is defeated, under the terms of the Treaty of Vienna. In consequence, Prussia will administer Scheleswig and Austria will govern Holstein.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    A conflict between Prussia and Austria, over the administration Schleswig and Holstein. In it, Prussia was established as dominant German state, and the north was unified.
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    Rome and Veneto

    Venice is added to the Kingdom of Italy after the Austro-Prussian War. And after the Franco-Prussian War the capital of the kingdom is moved to Rome in 1871.
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    Six Years of Democracy

    The next six years of history after the overthrow of Isabel II in the Glorious Revolution were very confusing. They were divided into three periods:
    The Revolutionnary Period and Constitution, the Monarchy of Amadeo I and the Federal and Authoritarian Republic.
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    The Revolutionary Period and Constritution

    The democratic Constitution of 1869 was passed in the course of this stage. One of the greatest problems during this period was determining which type of government would be settled.
    Finally, they decide on a monarchy and, after a thorough search, Amadeo of Savoy (and I of Spain) is elected king. His main supporter was the Prime Minister Prim.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    Military uprising that forced the queen Isabel II to abdicate and exile in France, giving rise to the Six Years of Democracy.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    A one year long coalition of German States, in which Prussia defeats Napoleon III at the Battle of Sedan, invading France. As a result, Northern and Southern Germany were united.
    After it the German Empire was proclaimed in 1871.
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    Democratic Monarchy of Amadeo I

    Prim is murdered before he had reached Spain, which meant a difficult start for the reign of Amadeo. He later experiences pressuring from Carlists, Afonsists and republicans, which led to his abdication and flight from Spain.
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    The Federal and Authoritarian Republic

    Finally, the First Republic is established in 1873.
    As a result of some other affairs, in Jan 1874, a coup d'état by General Serrano dissolves the Cortes an he takes the power. Another pronunciamiento takes place at the end of the year proclaiming the Bourbon Restoration and the beginning of the reign of Alfonso XII.