Absolutism and Revolution

  • Thirty Year's War

    Thirty Year's War
    This war started in Bohemia, which is the Czech Republic of today. Ferdinand, the king of Bohemia, was a devote catholic, and tried to suppress the Protestants. In the may of 1618, few rebellious Protestants pushed two royal officials out of a window in Prague; this act known as the Defenestration of Prague. This started a revolt; both sides sought to gain allies of different countries, and what started off as a small conflict, turned into an European war.
  • English Bill of Rights

    English Bill of Rights
    In order to be crowned rulers of England, William and Mary; James's Protestant daughter, they had to accept the English Bill of Rights. This ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. This action helped create a limited monarchy; and also gave all citizens natural rights.
  • War of the Austrian Succession

    War of the Austrian Succession
    This war started out with the Thirty Years' war; a religious conflict between the Protestant and Catholic countries. As the conflict continued; it turned to be about power and land. This, in turn, created two new states; Austria and Prussia. These two states engaged in the War of the Austrian Succession, a fight for power after the dead of Charles VI. However, it was Fredrick II of Prussia trying to take the Hapsburg province of Silesia that sparked the eight year War of Austrian Succession.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    At first; the colonists had major disadvantages for their revolution. But in 1777, America had a victory over the British in the Battle of Saratoga. Because of this; America gained France's alliance against the British. In 1781, Washington forced a British Army to surrender; in turn crumbling the British war effort. Soon enough; America, Britain, and France signed the Treaty of Paris; finally ending the war.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    Ever heard of "No taxation without representation"? This is what that saying what about. The Stamp Act taxed small items like newspapers, and the colonists saw this action as an attack on their rights. Because they had no representatives inside Parliament; they believed that Parliament had no right to put taxes on items. Eventually, Parliament repealed the Act. Along with the Stamp Act came the Boston Massacre, 1770, and the Boston Tea Party, 1773.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    With the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the American Revolutionary War was officially over. Diplomats from America, Britain, and France signed the peace treaty, two years after Washington forced a British army to surrender in Yorktown, Virginia. Britain officially and formally acknowledged the independence of the United States of America.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    This was a political revolution, inspired by the ideas of Enlightenment. During the French Revolution many things happened; the Tennis Court Oath, Storming the Bastille, the Reign of Terror, and Nationalism. In the end it removed the old social order, overthrew the monarchy, and got state control over the church. Nationalism happened; giving the French a sense of pride and identity in their country.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    Members of the Third Estate wanted to change the fact that they had very little to say in their government. They claimed to represent the citizens of France; the National Assembly. They were scared that the king would dismiss them, so they moved to an indoor tennis court and made the oath: "never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution".
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    More than 800 Parisians gathered outside the Bastille, a prison is Paris. This crowd challenged the king, demanding the weapons and gunpowder that was rumored to be kept in the prison. The commander of the Bastille rejected the crowd's demands, and opened fire onto the crowd; killing many. The mob eventually broke through the defenses, killing the commander and a few guards and freed a few prisoners. This marked the beginning of the French Revolution and the end of the absolute monarchy.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    The wars with the other Europeans and inside rebellions worried the government; leading them to create the Committee of Public Safety to deal with the threats. Jacobin Maximilien Robespierre led the committee; one of the main persons of the Reign of Terror. Many executions by guillotine occurred of the accused of resisting the Revolution. About 17,000 were killed; and many were the victims of false accusations.