Amanda Arnold French Revolution

  • Deficit Spending and Economic Reform

    Deficit Spending and Economic Reform
    France's financial troubles came from previous kings and deficit spending. France kept borrowing more money, but half of the government's taxes were spent paying huge debts. Louis XVI hired Jacques Necker as his financial advisor. Necker told the king to reduce government spending and tax the First and Second Estates. Nobles and clergy did not want to give up their lavish lifestyles or exemptment from taxes. The clergy and nobles forced the king to fire Necker. This enraged the peasants.
  • Estates-General1

    Louis XVI called the Estates-General for the first time in 175 years. To prepare for the that event, Louis had cahiers from all three estates talk to the people and find out their thoughts and grievences. In other Estate-Generals each estate would get one vote, but this left the third estate always defeatd by the first two estates. Delegates from the Third Estate wanted everyone to meet and vote together all at the same time and count individually.
  • Estates-General2

    They estates could not come to an agreement. The Third Estate then declared themselves the National Assembly. Louis XVI was threatened by this and had their meeting hall locked and guarded. The delagates then went to a nearby tennis court. There they took the famous Tennis Court Oath. They swore to keep meeting until France had a fair and just constitution.
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    The Bastille was a prison in France. It was the symbol of horror and torture in France. Parisians attacked the Bastille looking for weapons. The commander of the Bastille would not open the gates, but eventually the mob broke through its defenses. The guards open fired on the crowd, but they were no match for the hundreds of people. The mob killed the commander and 5 guards and released prisoners. The French currently celebrate Bastille Day as their independence day.
  • Threats from Abroad

    Threats from Abroad
    Louis XVI and the royal family tried to escape their imprisonment. One night in June, the royal family disguised themselves. The King was discovered and their attempt failed. They were brought back by soldiers and were imprisoned again. Many people saw Louis XVI as a traitor to the Revolution. In August, the Declaration of Pilnitz was issued. Marie Antoinette's brother, the emeror of Austria, and the king of Prussia threatened to protect the French monarchy. The revolutionaries prepared for war.
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    National Assembly Acts

    In August, the nobles of the National Assembly voted and ended their privileges and exemption from taxes. They created and signed the Rights of Man and Citizen. In this document, they said every frenchman had the freedom of religion and freedom to run for public office. It also estabslished taxes in according to pay. On October 5th, women marched to see the king and started rioting. Louis XVI was forced to move with his family into the Tuileries palace in Paris.
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    National Assembly Acts 2

    The National Assembly put the power of the Church under state control. The Civil Constitution ended papal authority over France. Priests and bishops that were high paid officials were fired. The pope and clergy condemned it. The government pushed for clergy that supported the Civil Constitution. The Constitution of 1791 set up a limited monarchy, and ensured equality for all men before the law. The new Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on war tactics.
  • Radicals Delcare War

    Radicals Delcare War
    The sans-culottes were the working class men and women. The sans-culottes wanted a republic instead of a monarch. The Jacobins were a political club made up of middle-class lawyers , which the sans-culottes supported.The radicals gained the upper hand in the Legislative Assembly. In April 1792, they declared war on Austria, Prusissia, Britain and other countries. The war was expected to be a quick victory over France, but it lasted until 1815.
  • The Monarchy is Abolished

    The Monarchy is Abolished
    Revolutionaries thought the king was working with the enemies. On August 10, 1792 Parisians stormed the royal palace and killed the guards. The royal family was able to escape to the Legislative Assembly before the mob came. Radicals called for a new legislative body called the National Convention. They abolished the monarchy and set up the French Republic. Louis XVI was tried as a traitor to France and was found guilty. In January, he was beheaded. Marie Antoinette was also killed in October.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

    Maximilien Robespierre was a leading revolutionist. He was the head of the Committee of Public Safety and the most powerful man in France. Robespierre thought fear was the way to restore order and prevent those who disagreed with the revolution. People would be tried and executed for the smallest offenses. The people of Paris became extremely paranoid. During this time, 300,000 people were arrested and over 17,000 were executed.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror 2

    After some time, many people felt it was no longer necessary for such methods. One of Robespierre's collegues Danton spoke up. Robespierre had him executed along with his followers. The Jacobins took a stand against him, after they had realized Robespierre had gone to far. On July 27, 1793 Maximilien Robespierre was tried and beheaded. This ended the Reign of Terror. The people of France were at peace.
  • The Third Stage of the Revolution

    The Third Stage of the Revolution
    After the Reign of Terror ended, a man named Napoleon Bonaparte became popular. He was a young leader of the French Army. Bonaparte slowly began to become powerful. The war effort drastically improved. A new government was set up and the power was divided among all the political parties. France was becoming a united nation again.
  • Spread of Nationalism

    Spread of Nationalism
    Things in France improved. Taxes and prices of food were regulated, and the new government was ruling the country with ease. Many Frenchmen showed nationalism for the new France.People supported the war effort and showed strong passion for their new freedom. Citizens attended festivals and paraded through the streets. Life improved for every citizen of France. The Revolution had finally ended.