Color swatch

timeline

  • 432 BCE

    The Parthenon

    The Parthenon
    In Athens, built under the influential figure Pericles to thank Athena for Greek victory over the Persians.
  • 228 BCE

    Victory Monument in Pergamom

    Victory Monument in Pergamom
    Built in honor of Celtic defeat, contains the statues of The Dying Gaul and the Suiciding Gaul.
  • 50 BCE

    Snettisham Torcs

    Snettisham Torcs
    150 BCE-50CE, made of intersecting spiral with extraordinary size and heft. Decorated with hatchings and dots
  • AD 1

    The Start of the Common Era

  • 50

    Prima Porta Augustus

    Prima Porta Augustus
    1st century statue of Augustus who is the first emperor of Rome, probably carved posthumously
  • 50

    Battersea Shield

    Battersea Shield
    1st century BCE-1st century CE, displays insular and late La Tene Style
  • 50

    Romano-Celtic Mirror

    Romano-Celtic Mirror
    1st century BCE- 1st century CE mirror displaying La Tene Style and showing the spiral and trumpet theme within it
  • 113

    Trajan's Column

    Trajan's Column
    To commemorate victory in the Dacian Wars, a chronicle of Trajan's battle campaign in varying degrees of relief.
  • 193

    Column of Marcus Aurelius

    Column of Marcus Aurelius
    In honor of victory over Germanic tribes, an imitation of Trajan's column.
  • 284

    Diocletian becomes emperor

    Diocletian becomes emperor
    Brings order to the empire brought into chaos by its size and the soldier emperors and establishes the tetrarchy
  • 300

    Porphyry Portrait of the Tetrarchs

    Porphyry Portrait of the Tetrarchs
    Portrait of the 4 imperial rulers made from expensive purple stone, a testament of unity
  • 310

    Basilica in Trier

    Basilica in Trier
    Built by Constanine in hi mother's birthplace, under archbishop Eggbert in Ottonian period, contained late antique wall painting of women dressed in the jeweled style
  • 315

    Arch of Consantine

    Arch of Consantine
    In honor of victory over Maxentius in 312 where Constantine fights under the sign of the cross. Contains spolia from previous works.
  • 324

    The Founding of Constantinople

    The Founding of Constantinople
    The old city of Byzantium made the new capital of the Roman Empire, renamed Constantinople
  • 330

    Constantine's Column

    Constantine's Column
    Stood in the center of the forum, made from porphyry and adorned with religious imagery mixed with propaganda.
  • 360

    Old St. Peter's

    Old St. Peter's
    Basilica type church built over St. Peter's tomb in Rome by Constantine.
  • 400

    Roman legions leave Britain

    Roman legions leave Britain
    After about 400 years of occupation starting from the 1st century
  • 410

    The Sack of Rome

    The Sack of Rome
    Rome is attacked by the Visigothic leader Alaric sending shock waves through the world.
  • 450

    Traprain Law Treasure

    Traprain Law Treasure
    Found in Scotland, contains coins from times of turmoil and 53 pounds of silver from all over the empire.
  • 450

    Mildenhall Treasure

    Mildenhall Treasure
    Found in England, 4th century goods in Roman silver
  • 461

    St. Patrick returns to Ireland

    St. Patrick returns to Ireland
    He is compelled to return by a dream after escaping slavery there. Converts people as a bishop and founds monasteries.
  • 481

    Childeric's Tomb

    Childeric's Tomb
    Discovered in Tournai, the grave goods for the Frankish king Childeric, Clovis' father. The items are influenced by Rome, influential to French culture.
  • 493

    The Senigallia Medallion

    The Senigallia Medallion
    It's dating coincides with the beginning of the rule of Theodoric. Similar to Roman imperial portraiture with some 'barbarian' influence.
  • 500

    Domagnano Treasure

    Domagnano Treasure
    Ostrogothic 5th-6th century treasure found in Italy, contains stylized jewelry and equipment made of gold and garnet.
  • 500

    Church of St. Genevieve

    Church of St. Genevieve
    Initially built by Clovis in dedication to St. Peter and Paul, but later is adapted by St. Genevieve who is considered the protectoress of Paris. Her cult takes over after her burial in the church.
  • 508

    Clovis converts to Catholic Christianity

    Clovis converts to Catholic Christianity
  • 526

    Mausoleum of Theodoric built in Ravenna

    Mausoleum of Theodoric built in Ravenna
    An engineering marvel in the shape of a decagon at its base and a circle above, contains the names of the 12 apostles around.
  • 530

    The Cisterns of Justinian

    The Cisterns of Justinian
    Underground, sometimes called a basilica in homage to the Stoa basilica above it
  • 532

    Nika riots in Constantinople

    Nika riots in Constantinople
    Fighting between two factions turns against the emperor with the introduction of new taxes. Half the city is destroyed with many dead.
  • 532

    Church of Hagia Eirene

    Church of Hagia Eirene
    Doesn't contain any pictures, very stark white and toned down. It's main feature is the cross in the middle.
  • 537

    The Church of Hagia Sophia

    The Church of Hagia Sophia
    Erected by Justinian at enormous expense, an iconic building. After its construction Justinian claims 'Solomon, I have outdone thee'
  • 547

    The Church of St. Vitale

    The Church of St. Vitale
    In Ravenna, a centrally planned Byzantine church with an octagonal structure. Contains a mosaic program of heavy imagery and basket capitals.
  • 550

    Visigothic eagle fibula

    Visigothic eagle fibula
    6th century brooches found in Spain worn to fasten cloaks and utilizing zoomorphic forms with different jewels and cloisonné technique
  • 550

    St. Augustine Gospels

    St. Augustine Gospels
    6th century manuscript in Latin, depicts the stories of the 4 evangelists. Depicts a general flattening of style.
  • 561

    Sant'Appolinare reconsecrated by Justinian

    Sant'Appolinare reconsecrated by Justinian
    First consecrated by Theodoric in 504, a complex program of imagery in mosaic.
  • 568

    The Lombards invade Italy

    The Lombards invade Italy
    Invade under the leadership of Albain and recover a lot of the land taken from the Ostrogoths by Justinian.
  • 587

    King Reccard renounces Arianism

    King Reccard renounces Arianism
    In Visigothic Spain, Reccard aligns with Rome and proclaims the kingdom Catholic, is met with fierce opposition
  • 595

    Monza Cathedral

    Monza Cathedral
    Theodolinda commissions a church in honor of John the Baptist and becomes its patroness, sends expensive gifts.
  • 597

    Mission to Anglo-Saxons in the British Isles

    Mission to Anglo-Saxons in the British Isles
    Sent by Pope Gregory from Rome, headed by a monk called Augustine.
  • 625

    The Cathach of Columba

    The Cathach of Columba
    An early manuscript, it is a Psalter which contains the 150 psalms in Latin translation. Contains embellished initials and Celtic design.
  • 630

    Abbey of Jouarre

    Abbey of Jouarre
    Merovingian burial vault of a monastery for women, founded by Abbess Theodechilde. Reuses Roman columns and capitals as well as building technique.
  • 650

    Staffordshire Hoard

    Staffordshire Hoard
    Found in 2009 at the intersection of two old Roman roads, largest cache of Anglo-Saxon metalwork found to date.
  • 656

    Sutton Hoo Ship Burial

    Sutton Hoo Ship Burial
    A collection of grave goods believed to have belonged to King Raedwald, a Christian buried ancestorally. Contains Celtic, Byzantine, and Germanic influenced items.
  • 661

    San Juan de Banos

    San Juan de Banos
    Dedicated to St. John the Baptist. It is said that the king of Visigoths, returning from a victory gets sick and is made better by the waters near the site, this is considered to be a miracle and commemorated in the church
  • 664

    Council of Whitby

    Council of Whitby
    Celtic and Roman Christianity is reconciled, the Roman traditions take over.
  • 675

    Guarrazar treasure

    Guarrazar treasure
    Late 7th century treasure, contains hanging crowns and crosses. The jeweled style of Byzantine and Rome captured by artisans in open work.
  • 680

    The Book of Durrow

    The Book of Durrow
    Latin manuscript which displays a pattern of carpet pages, evangelist symbols, and initials A mélange of Celtic, Germanic, and Mediterranean influence.
  • 681

    San Pedro De La Nave

    San Pedro De La Nave
    contains a horseshoe arch and sculpture in the Germanic mode, shows continuity in Visgothic art
  • 700

    Lindisfarne Gospels

    Lindisfarne Gospels
    made by the Bishop of Lindisfarne Eadfrith in dedication to St. Cuthbert, abstract art, contained later Old English translations
  • 700

    Codex Amiatinus

    Codex Amiatinus
    An Italian manuscript, the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible.
  • 711

    The forces of Islam enters Spain

    The forces of Islam enters Spain
    In 7 years, all but a little of Spain is the North is taken by the army of Tariq ibn Ziyad, non-Muslims required to pay the jiyza
  • 725

    Stonyhurst Gospels

    Stonyhurst Gospels
    Early 8th century manuscript, the earliest preserved leather binding from the Latin West
  • 744

    Ratchis Altar

    Ratchis Altar
    Commissioned by Duke Ratchis who is the king of the Lombards in 744. Displays the abstraction in Germanic figural art.
  • 750

    Gelasian Sacramentary

    Gelasian Sacramentary
    Merovingian and Gaelic liturgical book, inspired by Frankish metalwork and technique
  • 750

    Canterbury Codex Aureus

    Canterbury Codex Aureus
    Copy of Italian manuscript mixed with British tradition, inscription in Old English claims it was bought back by an Anglo-Saxon couple after the pagan Vikings took it during a raid
  • 751

    The Merovingian dynasty is overthrown

    The Merovingian dynasty is overthrown
    A palace coup is staged by Pepin the Short, the mayor of the palace. The Carolingian dynasty begins.
  • 754

    Gundohinus Gospels

    Gundohinus Gospels
    Merovingian, amateur effort, doesn't fit the artistic tradition of representing the Gospels, zoomorphic initials, uses capitalis rustica.
  • 755

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
    Records historical events of the Anglo-Saxons, commissioned by Alfred the Great
  • 760

    Oratory of Santa Maria della Valle

    Oratory of Santa Maria della Valle
    Contains statues of female saints, made from stucco. Displays the absorption of classical tradition. In the Lombardic city of Cividale.
  • 774

    The Lombards are conquered by Franks

    The Lombards are conquered by Franks
    The kingdom is integrated into Charlemagne's empire
  • 775

    Gellone Sacramentary

    Gellone Sacramentary
    8th century manuscript, inspired by Persian and Byzantine silk, start of the figure initials
  • 783

    Godescalc Gospels

    Godescalc Gospels
    Mixes the orders of the Bible, made for queen Hildegard and Charlemagne to honor the birth of their son. Takes from artists all over.
  • 785

    Works begins on the Mosque of Cordoba

    Works begins on the Mosque of Cordoba
    By the Ummayad Emir of Cordoba, reused Roman and Visigothic columns and capitals, expanded in its later life
  • 790

    Charlemagne's Palace

    Charlemagne's Palace
    Centrally planned and octagonal, contains west work, inspired by Old St. Peter's and the Exarch's Palace in Ravenna.
  • 800

    Charlemagne crowned emperor in Rome

    Charlemagne crowned emperor in Rome
    Crowned by Pope Leo III, revives the Western Roman Empire. An inspiration to many leaders to come.
  • 800

    Soissons Gospels

    Soissons Gospels
    Made in Aachen, distinct transformation of iconography: more realistic and Romanized, uses late antique motifs
  • 800

    Coronation Gospels

    Coronation Gospels
    Luxury purple manuscript, a very different style of soft dramatic lighting and 3D atmosphere, shows Carolingian adaptation of British initial letters
  • 814

    In Praise of the Holy Cross by Rabanus Maurus

    In Praise of the Holy Cross by Rabanus Maurus
    Contains figured poems which are very calculative and difficult. Poetry that appeals to the ear and to the eye.
  • 817

    The Plan of St. Gall

    The Plan of St. Gall
    Depicts an ideal monastery, made by Gozbert: the Abbot of the monastery of St. Gall in Switzerland. Never made into actuality.
  • 830

    The Utrecht Psalter

    The Utrecht Psalter
    Illustrates the words of the psalms, highly metaphoric and likely made in Reims, monochrome with brown ink and rapid line drawing
  • 834

    Oseberg Ship Burial

    Oseberg Ship Burial
    A Norwegian royal burial of a youngish high born woman and an old one, possibly her maid. Depicts detailed interlace and zoomorphic carving
  • 835

    Ebbo Gospels

    Ebbo Gospels
    Made in the style of Reims, with frenzied brushstrokes and excited style, contains animated and lively imagery of columns on Canon Tables, some similarity to the Coronation Gospels
  • 840

    Grandval Bible

    Grandval Bible
    In Carolingian minuscule, continuous narrative which contains four full pictures placed next to meaningful places depicting the history of salvation
  • 850

    Durrow High Cross

    Durrow High Cross
    9th century cross found in the monastery of Durrow, very characteristic, a ritual point for procession
  • 850

    San Julian de los Prados

    San Julian de los Prados
    9th century chapel, interior wall paintings contain no images of living creatures.
  • 850

    Charlemagne's Ewer

    Charlemagne's Ewer
    Carolingian pouring vessel, once thought to have contained jewels from Charlemagne's wars with the Avars, its enamels come from the Near East
  • 850

    Gotland Memorial Stones

    Gotland Memorial Stones
    Commemorates the dead with images from Nordic mythology and the Pantheon of Asgard
  • 850

    Offa's Dyke

    Offa's Dyke
    Giant linear earthwork commissioned in the 8th century by Mercian king Offa, follows the border between Wales and England, indication for ambitions for power
  • 850

    Anglo-Saxon reliquary cross

    10th century walrus tusk ivory cross with gold leaf and filigree wire depicting the 4 evangelists in enamel around the T-shaped body of Jesus
  • 851

    Drogo Sacramentary

    Drogo Sacramentary
    Ivory covers depict scenes from the liturgy in an unusual cycle, characteristic to Metz style, contains historiated initials and gold decorations
  • 875

    The Repton Stone

    The Repton Stone
    Late 8th century relief of equestrian figure from St. Wynstan's church, carries distinctive saxe sword
  • 875

    Alfred Jewel

    Alfred Jewel
    Piece of tear-shaped crystal with enamel depicting a figure holding two sticks, contains gold decoration and inscription which claims Alfred ordered it to be made
  • 875

    The Fuller Brooch

    Late 9th century silver and niello brooch that depicts the five senses with sight in center. Because of the similarities of the depiction of sigh on this brooch and the Alfred Jewel some people have suggested the jewel actually depicts sight.
  • 900

    Gokstad Ship Burial

    Gokstad Ship Burial
    The ocean going vessel that served as the grave of a local chieftain who was killed in battle, contains goods such as beds, a tent, a sleigh, and various animals such as horses and dogs.
  • 920

    The Leon Bible

    The Leon Bible
    Abstract, depicts the gospels, resemblance to Frankish-Merovingian manuscripts
  • 925

    Athelstan Psalter

    Small Carolingian manuscript given to King Athelstan, for personal devotion, contains all the signs of the zodiac, illuminations were added in by his court
  • 940

    Madinat al-Zahra

    Madinat al-Zahra
    The administrative center of al-Andalus, destroyed after 80 years, had spolia capitals and columns, similarity to Cordoba in distinct motifs and designs
  • 945

    Morgan Beatus

    Morgan Beatus
    Probably created for San Miguel dela Escalada by artist Magius, contains commentary on the Book of Apocolypse
  • 950

    Wall paintings of the Church of St George in Reichenau

    Wall paintings of the Church of St George in Reichenau
    Originally built 724, basilica style, contains surviving wall paintings from the Ottonian era, very close to what was made in manuscripts of Reichenau
  • 960

    Leon Bible of 960

    Leon Bible of 960
    Colophons included in the bible, depicts Goliath and the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, similar to the bible of 920
  • 961

    The mihrab of the Cordoba Mosque is begun

    The mihrab of the Cordoba Mosque is begun
    Voussoirs cusped into the arch, stucco work, mosaic work with Quranic verses on the ceiling
  • 962

    Otto I crowned emperor in Rome

    Otto I crowned emperor in Rome
    Revival of the Roman empire in different territories, beginning of the Holy Roman Empire
  • 962

    Casket for the daughter of Abd Al Rahman III

    Casket for the daughter of Abd Al Rahman III
    Made of elephant ivory, could have hold ointments, precious objects etc., includes an inscription
  • 965

    The rune stone of Jelling

    The rune stone of Jelling
    Commemorates military victory and religious faith. Erected by kind Harald in the memory of his parents, depicts living Christ in a cruciform nimbus, surrounded by vines.
  • 966

    New Minster Charter

    Ushers in reform in Winchester and the golden age for Anglo-Saxon art supported by King Edgar
  • 971

    The Benedictional of St. Athelwold

    The Benedictional of St. Athelwold
    A lavish book of prayers in Winchester style with gold frames, foliage, and linework.
  • 972

    Marriage Document

    Marriage Document
    Between Otto II and Theophano, speculated to have been made by Gregory Master
  • 977

    Sandal reliquary of St. Andrew

    Sandal reliquary of St. Andrew
    A speaking reliquary, gives a hint to what kind of relic is inside, commissioned by Egbert of Trier
  • 980

    Madonna of Essen

    Madonna of Essen
    Golf leaf on wooden core, revival of free standing sculpture, oldest statue of the Virgin and child
  • 980

    Circular fortress in Trelleborg

    Circular fortress in Trelleborg
    Earthwork built under the reign of Harald for protection
  • 982

    Ivory Plaque with Otto II and Theophano

    Ivory Plaque with Otto II and Theophano
    Christ blesses the marriage between the king and Byzantine princess, similar to an earlier Byzantine copy
  • 1000

    Gospels of Otto III

    Gospels of Otto III
    Made in Reichenau, demonstrates the life of Christ in 4 cycles and Otto himself, more image than writing, decorative and distinctive
  • 1000

    Harley Psalter

    A copy of the Utrecht Psalter in Anglo-Saxon style with colored ink.
  • 1000

    Year 1000

    Year 1000
    Time of great fear with many worrying about the coming of the Apocalypse. This fear manifests itself within art styles.
  • 1015

    The column and doors of the Church of St Michael

    The column and doors of the Church of St Michael
    Basilica style church, its doors depict Old Testament and New Testament scenes opposing each other, the column is an imitation of Trajan's column and depicts the public ministry of Christ
  • 1020

    Hitda Codex

    Hitda Codex
    Made by the abbess of Meschede, made in Cologne style with big brushes and a lot more liquid paint, shows emotion
  • 1024

    Egbert's Codex

    Egbert's Codex
    A soft style, made for the archbishop of Trier, seven miniatures in it are drawn by Gregory Master
  • 1030

    Codex Aureus of St. Echternach

    Codex Aureus of St. Echternach
    Contains ivory and enamels, silver gilt over wood, impressive bindings
  • 1066

    The Battle of Hastings

    The Battle of Hastings
    The Normans take over England under the leadership of William the Conqueror after the death of Edward the Confessor.
  • 1075

    Bayeux Tapestry/ Embroidery

    Bayeux Tapestry/ Embroidery
    11th century work depicting a continuous narrative of the Norman conquest in 1066 showing the history and pre-history of the battle. It is stem stitched.
  • 1180

    Synagogue in Toledo

    Synagogue in Toledo
    Jewish people live in relative tolerance in Visigothic and Muslim Spain, contains horseshoe arches, complex and geometric capitals with light dark effects