In Athens, built under the influential figure Pericles to thank Athena for Greek victory over the Persians.
Victory Monument in Pergamom
Built in honor of Celtic defeat, contains the statues of The Dying Gaul and the Suiciding Gaul.
150 BCE-50CE, made of intersecting spiral with extraordinary size and heft. Decorated with hatchings and dots
The Start of the Common Era
Prima Porta Augustus
1st century statue of Augustus who is the first emperor of Rome, probably carved posthumously
1st century BCE-1st century CE, displays insular and late La Tene Style
1st century BCE- 1st century CE mirror displaying La Tene Style and showing the spiral and trumpet theme within it
To commemorate victory in the Dacian Wars, a chronicle of Trajan's battle campaign in varying degrees of relief.
Column of Marcus Aurelius
In honor of victory over Germanic tribes, an imitation of Trajan's column.
Diocletian becomes emperor
Brings order to the empire brought into chaos by its size and the soldier emperors and establishes the tetrarchy
Porphyry Portrait of the Tetrarchs
Portrait of the 4 imperial rulers made from expensive purple stone, a testament of unity
Basilica in Trier
Built by Constanine in hi mother's birthplace, under archbishop Eggbert in Ottonian period, contained late antique wall painting of women dressed in the jeweled style
Arch of Consantine
In honor of victory over Maxentius in 312 where Constantine fights under the sign of the cross. Contains spolia from previous works.
The Founding of Constantinople
The old city of Byzantium made the new capital of the Roman Empire, renamed Constantinople
Stood in the center of the forum, made from porphyry and adorned with religious imagery mixed with propaganda.
Old St. Peter's
Basilica type church built over St. Peter's tomb in Rome by Constantine.
Roman legions leave Britain
After about 400 years of occupation starting from the 1st century
The Sack of Rome
Rome is attacked by the Visigothic leader Alaric sending shock waves through the world.
Traprain Law Treasure
Found in Scotland, contains coins from times of turmoil and 53 pounds of silver from all over the empire.
Found in England, 4th century goods in Roman silver
St. Patrick returns to Ireland
He is compelled to return by a dream after escaping slavery there. Converts people as a bishop and founds monasteries.
Discovered in Tournai, the grave goods for the Frankish king Childeric, Clovis' father. The items are influenced by Rome, influential to French culture.
The Senigallia Medallion
It's dating coincides with the beginning of the rule of Theodoric. Similar to Roman imperial portraiture with some 'barbarian' influence.
Ostrogothic 5th-6th century treasure found in Italy, contains stylized jewelry and equipment made of gold and garnet.
Church of St. Genevieve
Initially built by Clovis in dedication to St. Peter and Paul, but later is adapted by St. Genevieve who is considered the protectoress of Paris. Her cult takes over after her burial in the church.
Clovis converts to Catholic Christianity
Mausoleum of Theodoric built in Ravenna
An engineering marvel in the shape of a decagon at its base and a circle above, contains the names of the 12 apostles around.
The Cisterns of Justinian
Underground, sometimes called a basilica in homage to the Stoa basilica above it
Nika riots in Constantinople
Fighting between two factions turns against the emperor with the introduction of new taxes. Half the city is destroyed with many dead.
Church of Hagia Eirene
Doesn't contain any pictures, very stark white and toned down. It's main feature is the cross in the middle.
The Church of Hagia Sophia
Erected by Justinian at enormous expense, an iconic building. After its construction Justinian claims 'Solomon, I have outdone thee'
The Church of St. Vitale
In Ravenna, a centrally planned Byzantine church with an octagonal structure. Contains a mosaic program of heavy imagery and basket capitals.
St. Augustine Gospels
6th century manuscript in Latin, depicts the stories of the 4 evangelists. Depicts a general flattening of style.
Visigothic eagle fibula
6th century brooches found in Spain worn to fasten cloaks and utilizing zoomorphic forms with different jewels and cloisonné technique
Sant'Appolinare reconsecrated by Justinian
First consecrated by Theodoric in 504, a complex program of imagery in mosaic.
The Lombards invade Italy
Invade under the leadership of Albain and recover a lot of the land taken from the Ostrogoths by Justinian.
King Reccard renounces Arianism
In Visigothic Spain, Reccard aligns with Rome and proclaims the kingdom Catholic, is met with fierce opposition
Theodolinda commissions a church in honor of John the Baptist and becomes its patroness, sends expensive gifts.
Mission to Anglo-Saxons in the British Isles
Sent by Pope Gregory from Rome, headed by a monk called Augustine.
The Cathach of Columba
An early manuscript, it is a Psalter which contains the 150 psalms in Latin translation. Contains embellished initials and Celtic design.
Abbey of Jouarre
Merovingian burial vault of a monastery for women, founded by Abbess Theodechilde. Reuses Roman columns and capitals as well as building technique.
Found in 2009 at the intersection of two old Roman roads, largest cache of Anglo-Saxon metalwork found to date.
Sutton Hoo Ship Burial
A collection of grave goods believed to have belonged to King Raedwald, a Christian buried ancestorally. Contains Celtic, Byzantine, and Germanic influenced items.
San Juan de Banos
Dedicated to St. John the Baptist. It is said that the king of Visigoths, returning from a victory gets sick and is made better by the waters near the site, this is considered to be a miracle and commemorated in the church
Council of Whitby
Celtic and Roman Christianity is reconciled, the Roman traditions take over.
Late 7th century treasure, contains hanging crowns and crosses. The jeweled style of Byzantine and Rome captured by artisans in open work.
The Book of Durrow
Latin manuscript which displays a pattern of carpet pages, evangelist symbols, and initials A mélange of Celtic, Germanic, and Mediterranean influence.
San Pedro De La Nave
contains a horseshoe arch and sculpture in the Germanic mode, shows continuity in Visgothic art
made by the Bishop of Lindisfarne Eadfrith in dedication to St. Cuthbert, abstract art, contained later Old English translations
An Italian manuscript, the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible.
The forces of Islam enters Spain
In 7 years, all but a little of Spain is the North is taken by the army of Tariq ibn Ziyad, non-Muslims required to pay the jiyza
Early 8th century manuscript, the earliest preserved leather binding from the Latin West
Commissioned by Duke Ratchis who is the king of the Lombards in 744. Displays the abstraction in Germanic figural art.
Merovingian and Gaelic liturgical book, inspired by Frankish metalwork and technique
Canterbury Codex Aureus
Copy of Italian manuscript mixed with British tradition, inscription in Old English claims it was bought back by an Anglo-Saxon couple after the pagan Vikings took it during a raid
The Merovingian dynasty is overthrown
A palace coup is staged by Pepin the Short, the mayor of the palace. The Carolingian dynasty begins.
Merovingian, amateur effort, doesn't fit the artistic tradition of representing the Gospels, zoomorphic initials, uses capitalis rustica.
Records historical events of the Anglo-Saxons, commissioned by Alfred the Great
Oratory of Santa Maria della Valle
Contains statues of female saints, made from stucco. Displays the absorption of classical tradition. In the Lombardic city of Cividale.
The Lombards are conquered by Franks
The kingdom is integrated into Charlemagne's empire
8th century manuscript, inspired by Persian and Byzantine silk, start of the figure initials
Mixes the orders of the Bible, made for queen Hildegard and Charlemagne to honor the birth of their son. Takes from artists all over.
Works begins on the Mosque of Cordoba
By the Ummayad Emir of Cordoba, reused Roman and Visigothic columns and capitals, expanded in its later life
Centrally planned and octagonal, contains west work, inspired by Old St. Peter's and the Exarch's Palace in Ravenna.
Charlemagne crowned emperor in Rome
Crowned by Pope Leo III, revives the Western Roman Empire. An inspiration to many leaders to come.
Made in Aachen, distinct transformation of iconography: more realistic and Romanized, uses late antique motifs
Luxury purple manuscript, a very different style of soft dramatic lighting and 3D atmosphere, shows Carolingian adaptation of British initial letters
In Praise of the Holy Cross by Rabanus Maurus
Contains figured poems which are very calculative and difficult. Poetry that appeals to the ear and to the eye.
The Plan of St. Gall
Depicts an ideal monastery, made by Gozbert: the Abbot of the monastery of St. Gall in Switzerland. Never made into actuality.
The Utrecht Psalter
Illustrates the words of the psalms, highly metaphoric and likely made in Reims, monochrome with brown ink and rapid line drawing
Oseberg Ship Burial
A Norwegian royal burial of a youngish high born woman and an old one, possibly her maid. Depicts detailed interlace and zoomorphic carving
Made in the style of Reims, with frenzied brushstrokes and excited style, contains animated and lively imagery of columns on Canon Tables, some similarity to the Coronation Gospels
In Carolingian minuscule, continuous narrative which contains four full pictures placed next to meaningful places depicting the history of salvation
Durrow High Cross
9th century cross found in the monastery of Durrow, very characteristic, a ritual point for procession
San Julian de los Prados
9th century chapel, interior wall paintings contain no images of living creatures.
Carolingian pouring vessel, once thought to have contained jewels from Charlemagne's wars with the Avars, its enamels come from the Near East
Gotland Memorial Stones
Commemorates the dead with images from Nordic mythology and the Pantheon of Asgard
Giant linear earthwork commissioned in the 8th century by Mercian king Offa, follows the border between Wales and England, indication for ambitions for power
Anglo-Saxon reliquary cross
10th century walrus tusk ivory cross with gold leaf and filigree wire depicting the 4 evangelists in enamel around the T-shaped body of Jesus
Ivory covers depict scenes from the liturgy in an unusual cycle, characteristic to Metz style, contains historiated initials and gold decorations
The Repton Stone
Late 8th century relief of equestrian figure from St. Wynstan's church, carries distinctive saxe sword
Piece of tear-shaped crystal with enamel depicting a figure holding two sticks, contains gold decoration and inscription which claims Alfred ordered it to be made
The Fuller Brooch
Late 9th century silver and niello brooch that depicts the five senses with sight in center. Because of the similarities of the depiction of sigh on this brooch and the Alfred Jewel some people have suggested the jewel actually depicts sight.
Gokstad Ship Burial
The ocean going vessel that served as the grave of a local chieftain who was killed in battle, contains goods such as beds, a tent, a sleigh, and various animals such as horses and dogs.
The Leon Bible
Abstract, depicts the gospels, resemblance to Frankish-Merovingian manuscripts
Small Carolingian manuscript given to King Athelstan, for personal devotion, contains all the signs of the zodiac, illuminations were added in by his court
The administrative center of al-Andalus, destroyed after 80 years, had spolia capitals and columns, similarity to Cordoba in distinct motifs and designs
Probably created for San Miguel dela Escalada by artist Magius, contains commentary on the Book of Apocolypse
Wall paintings of the Church of St George in Reichenau
Originally built 724, basilica style, contains surviving wall paintings from the Ottonian era, very close to what was made in manuscripts of Reichenau
Leon Bible of 960
Colophons included in the bible, depicts Goliath and the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, similar to the bible of 920
The mihrab of the Cordoba Mosque is begun
Voussoirs cusped into the arch, stucco work, mosaic work with Quranic verses on the ceiling
Otto I crowned emperor in Rome
Revival of the Roman empire in different territories, beginning of the Holy Roman Empire
Casket for the daughter of Abd Al Rahman III
Made of elephant ivory, could have hold ointments, precious objects etc., includes an inscription
The rune stone of Jelling
Commemorates military victory and religious faith. Erected by kind Harald in the memory of his parents, depicts living Christ in a cruciform nimbus, surrounded by vines.
New Minster Charter
Ushers in reform in Winchester and the golden age for Anglo-Saxon art supported by King Edgar
The Benedictional of St. Athelwold
A lavish book of prayers in Winchester style with gold frames, foliage, and linework.
Between Otto II and Theophano, speculated to have been made by Gregory Master
Sandal reliquary of St. Andrew
A speaking reliquary, gives a hint to what kind of relic is inside, commissioned by Egbert of Trier
Madonna of Essen
Golf leaf on wooden core, revival of free standing sculpture, oldest statue of the Virgin and child
Circular fortress in Trelleborg
Earthwork built under the reign of Harald for protection
Ivory Plaque with Otto II and Theophano
Christ blesses the marriage between the king and Byzantine princess, similar to an earlier Byzantine copy
A copy of the Utrecht Psalter in Anglo-Saxon style with colored ink.
Gospels of Otto III
Made in Reichenau, demonstrates the life of Christ in 4 cycles and Otto himself, more image than writing, decorative and distinctive
Time of great fear with many worrying about the coming of the Apocalypse. This fear manifests itself within art styles.
The column and doors of the Church of St Michael
Basilica style church, its doors depict Old Testament and New Testament scenes opposing each other, the column is an imitation of Trajan's column and depicts the public ministry of Christ
Made by the abbess of Meschede, made in Cologne style with big brushes and a lot more liquid paint, shows emotion
A soft style, made for the archbishop of Trier, seven miniatures in it are drawn by Gregory Master
Codex Aureus of St. Echternach
Contains ivory and enamels, silver gilt over wood, impressive bindings
The Battle of Hastings
The Normans take over England under the leadership of William the Conqueror after the death of Edward the Confessor.
Bayeux Tapestry/ Embroidery
11th century work depicting a continuous narrative of the Norman conquest in 1066 showing the history and pre-history of the battle. It is stem stitched.
Synagogue in Toledo
Jewish people live in relative tolerance in Visigothic and Muslim Spain, contains horseshoe arches, complex and geometric capitals with light dark effects