Once Antony and Cleopatra lost to Augustus in the Battle of Actium, Augustus became emperor, ending the Roman Republic
Period: 27 BCE to 180
Pax Romana of Augustus
Created the 200 period age of the Pax Romana. It made many advances and accomplishments in engineering and the arts. Rome’s citizens were secure, and the government maintained law, order, and stability.
The Aeneid is an epic created by Vergil. It was published, even after Vergil had said not to publish it because it was unfinished. It was not finished because Vergil dies.
Period: 16 BCE to 6
Conquering More Land
Augustus expanded the empire, adding Egypt, northern Spain and large parts of central Europe before invading Germany.
The Birth of Jesus
Jesus Born Dec 25 6BC
Death of Augustus
Nerva Is Born
Nerva is born into a senatorial family and is related to the Julio-Claudian family by marriage.
Jesus Died April 33 AD
With Tiberius Gemellus and Caligula as joint heirs to the throne, Caligula ordered Gemellus to be killed and became emperor
Period: 37 to 68
The Persecution of Christians
He persecuted many Christians including Peter and Paul. With the fire, this also lowered his popularity among the Roman people since they saw this as something sickening.
Good start for Caligula
Starting out great, he recalled exiles and reimbursed those wronged by the imperial tax system. Pretty much set things off to a good start.
Then he turned a bit crazy by showing his cruelty, immoral sexual incidents, or disrespect toward tradition and the Senate.
Titus is Born
The son of Vespasian and brother of Domitian
Assassination of Caligula
He was assassinated by his bodyguards
Came into power after Caligula’s brutal death. They found Claudius hiding and trembling with fear, thinking that he would be easy to control, they named him emperor.
Claudius great imperial freedmen
Claudius's reign is the first era of the great imperial freedman. This gave power to three men: Narcissus, Polybius, and Pallas.
Claudius expands Rome
He added more territory to Rome by invading and capturing Britain. Through this, he was able to show those who denied him, that he had military skills.
He was poisoned by his wife twice and died
Domitian is Born
Domitian is born to Vespasian. Domitian is his youngest son.
Nero Becomes Emperor
Nero succeeds to the throne
Nero exiled Otho, for falling in love with Poppaea and marrying her, but made him divorce her, so Nero could marry Poppaea. Otho was sent from Rome to govern Lusitania.
The Tyrant Nero
He passed a series of treason laws for those who spoke out against him or seen as a threat. Nero acts like a tyrant instead of an emperor
The Great Fire of Rome
A great fire destroyed much of Rome, it was though that Nero had to destroy Rome in order to rebuild it.
During Nero’s reign, he was sent to suppress the Jewish Revolt in Judea.
Nero had many enemies and many plotted assassinations but he killed himself, ending the Julian Claudio Dynasty.
The Four Emperors: Galba
First emperor who was not descended from the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
Galba elected Vitellius as governor of lower Germany
Once Galba was in power, he angered his troops by not paying them and Upper Germany refuses to swear allegiance to Galba
Assassination of Galba
He was killed by the Praetorian Guard and ended up ruling for only 7 months
The Four Emperors: Otho Proclaimed Emperor
Although Otho was not the succeeder of Galba, as he hoped he would be, he proclaimed himself emperor
Defeated at the Battle of Bedriacum
Otho gets defeated by Vitellius in northern Italy at the Battle of Bedriacum. Following his defeat, he committed suicide
The Four Emperors: Vitellius
Because Galba did not reward the troops by paying them, Vitellius swayed them to join his side. He organized a coup and declared himself emperor
The Four Emperors: The defeat of Vitellius
Like the two other emperors before him, Vitellius did not remain in power for long. He was defeated by Vespasian’s army, captured, humiliated and abused by the soldiers and then died
The Four Emperors: Vespasian
Vespasian is proclaimed emperor by his troops, the same time that Vitellius is proclaimed emperor. His reign began Rome’s age of stability.
Vespasian won in the second Battle of Bedriacum against Vitellius and took his position as the first Flavian emperor by the Senate
The Flavian Dynasty
The emperors were Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. The dynasty lasted from 69 A.D. to 96 A.D.
Focusing on his army, he restored discipline, removed officers loyal to Vitellius and ended the war in Judaea and in Britain, he conquered Wales and northern England.
Period: 70 to 79
Vespasian rebuilding Rome
He raised taxes and reclaimed public land. Vespasian was able to refill the vaults with money. With the money he built temples, a theater and early work on what would become the Colosseum.
Birth of Hadrian
Hadrian was born into a Hispanic and Roman family.
Titus became emperor after the death of his father. He became well liked because of his generosity after the eruption of Vesuvius.
Domitian Gives Relief
Domitian provides relief to the Roman people by restoring a lot of destruction caused by the Great Fire. He built around 50 buildings.
Mount Vesuvius Erupts
Mt. Vesuvius erupts causing a lot of pollution and death. Mount Vesuvius was able to destroy a town and the smoke was carried to a lot of neighboring town.
The Flavian Ampitheater was built under Titus' reign. It is also known as the Colosseum.
Games! Games! Games!
Titus had 100 days of games in the Colosseum. It is said he did this in order to please the Roman people and gods.
Titus is said to have died from a fever.
Domitian raises wages for the army to gain their favor.
Birth of Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius was born. Most of the men in his family had been consuls
Nerva is chosen by the Senate because they wanted a temporary emperor and someone that would not have extreme actions.
Nerva is given the title Pater Patriae because he is quickly welcomed by the public.
Murder of Domitian
A praetorian guard and his own wife murders Domitian. Domitian's death causes a lot of anger with the soldiers.
The Five Good Emperors
The Five Good Emperors era consisted of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Nerva is Imprisoned
A praetorian guard imprisons Nerva because he wants the release of the men that killed Domitian, but Nerva declares that he would rather die.
Trajan is Adopted
Trajan is adopted by Nerva to be able to ensure his succession. The difference between this adoption and others, is that Trajan is the first non-Italian.
Many people believe Nerva dies from a stroke.
It was built in celebration of the victories against the Dacians. There are 155 scenes carved into the structure.
Trajan the Fighter
Trajan leaves to fight on the Eastern Frontier of Italy.
Death of Trajan
Trajan dies of poor health.
Hadrian came into power after Trajan's death. Hadrian was married to Trajan's grand-niece.
Marcus Aurelius' Birth
Marcus was born into a wealthy family.
Hadrian's Wall Construction
Hadrian began the construction of a wall to separate the Roman Empire and Britain, where the Barbarians were.
Jews begin to revolt against Hadrian because he had promised to allow them to build a temple. However, Hadrian later does not allow them to build their temple.
Hadrian’s death is said to be slow and very painful. His pain is believed to come from heart failure.
Antoninus became emperor after the death of Hadrian. Antoninus was not the son of Aurelius, but he became his adopted son and was able to get the throne.
Faustina Marries Aurelius
This further secures Aurelius’ succession after Pius.
Celebration of Rome
For Rome’s 900th anniversary, many games were held in the Colosseum. Before the celebration, Antoninus even created coins with mythical creatures.
Death of Antoninus Pius
Antoninus died of a possible fever. It is said he got the fever after eating cheese.
Period: 161 to 180
Marcus Aurelius' Reign
Marcus Aurelius became leader by marrying Faustina the Younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius.
Small Pox Outbreak
After coming back from a victorious war, a small pox outbreak occurs. The next few months were primarily focused on finding solutions to the outbreak and the celebration was soon forgotten.
Invasion of Italy
Barbarians invade Italy and Aurelius is forced to travel to the north frontier in order to push them far back into their land.
Marcus Aurelius' Death
Aurelius dies of disease, but does not drink or eat food for days to speed up his death.