Humanities timeline

  • 44 BCE

    Death of Julius caesar

    Death of Julius caesar
    The assassination of Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators.​ They stabbed Caesar (23 times) to death on the Ides of March 15 March 44 BC.
  • Period: 44 BCE to 1453

    Rome

    Describes Rome and the Byzantine​ empiire
  • 27 BCE

    Roman Empire Begins

    Roman Empire Begins
    The Roman Empire began when Augustus Caesar (27 BCE-14 CE) became the first emperor of Rome
  • 117

    Rome at its greatest extent

    Rome at its greatest extent
    The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent at the time of Trajan's death
  • 284

    Rule of Diocletian

    Rule of Diocletian
    Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to ​Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor.
  • 306

    Rule of Constantine

    Rule of Constantine
    He became the Western emperor in 312 and the sole Roman emperor in 324. Constantine was also the first emperor to adhere to Christianity. He issued an edict that protected Christians in the empire
  • 330

    Split of the Roman Empire and move to Constantinople

    Split of the Roman Empire and move to Constantinople
    The founder of the Byzantine Empire and its first emperor, Constantine the Great, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium in 330 CE​ and renamed it Constantinople.
  • 337

    Legalization of Christianity

    Legalization of Christianity
    While on his deathbed Constantine the great legalized Christianity​
  • 387

    First Sack of Rome

    First Sack of Rome
    The story of the first sack of Rome is steeped in myth and legend, but it most likely began when the young city became embroiled in a conflict with a band of Gallic Celts led by the warlord Brennus.
  • 476

    End of Western empire

    End of Western empire
    In 476 C.E. Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west​ was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome.
  • 527

    Reign of Justinian

    Reign of Justinian
    The emperor Justinian I ruled the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire from 527 until 565. He is significant for his efforts to regain the lost provinces of the Western Roman Empire, his codification of Roman​ law, and his architectural achievements.
  • 732

    Battle of tours

    Battle of tours
    Marked the victory of the Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel over the invasion forces of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
  • Period: Oct 10, 732 to 1453

    Middle Ages

  • 742

    Rule of Charlemagne

    Rule of Charlemagne
    He united much of western and central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. He was the first recognized​ emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire.
  • 793

    Viking Invasions

    Viking Invasions
    Within ten years, the Vikings began attacks along the North coast of France. Charlemagne, king of the Franks, set up a series of defenses along the coast to ward off these Viking raids. In the late 700s, the Vikings invaded the British Isles, including areas of Ireland and Scotland. They established a settlement in Ireland, known as Dublin. They also attacked England, France, and Russia. Getting​ areas like Normandy and Daneclaw
  • 826

    Missionary of St. Cyril and Methodius

    Missionary of St. Cyril and Methodius
    Were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
  • 1056

    East-West Schism

    East-West Schism
    The East-West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which had lasted until the 11th century.
  • 1096

    Crusades

    Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between 1096 and 1291.
  • 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    The Magna Carta was a document signed by King John after negotiations with his barons and their French and Scots allies at Runnymede, Surrey, England in 1215. It is one of the most celebrated documents in the History of England. It is recognized as a cornerstone of the idea of the liberty of citizens.
  • 1236

    Mongol Invasion of Europe

    Mongol Invasion of Europe
    The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir.
  • 1296

    Architect Brunelleschi designs the dome for the Florence Cathedral

    Architect Brunelleschi designs the dome for the Florence Cathedral
    It was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to a design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was structurally completed by 1436
  • Period: 1296 to 1440

    Renaissance

  • 1300

    Dante writes his epic poem the Divine Comedy

     Dante writes his epic poem the Divine Comedy
    Dante Alighieri is the author of the Divine Comedy. In the Divine comedy poem, he is the main character. The plot is set up in 1300, around the time Dante was in exile from his native Florence. But the actual writing was done by him between 1308 and 1321 at the time of his death.
  • 1347

    The Black Plague

    The Black Plague
    The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351
  • 1376

    The Papacy returned to Rome

    The Papacy returned to Rome
    The most influential decision in the reign of Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378) was the return to Rome, beginning on 13 September 1376 and ending with his arrival on 17 January 1377.
  • 1415

    Jan Hus Dies

    Jan Hus Dies
    On this date in 1415, the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus (in English, John Hus or Huss), condemned as a heretic against the doctrines of the Catholic Church, was burned at the stake.
  • Period: Jul 6, 1415 to

    Reformation

  • 1439

    Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press.

    Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press.
    Invented around 1439, Gutenberg's movable type printing press initiated nothing less than a revolution in print technology. His press allowed manuscripts to be mass-produced at relatively affordable costs. The 42-line 'Gutenberg Bible', printed around 1455, was Gutenberg's most well known printed item.
  • 1453

    End of Byzantium

    End of Byzantium
    The end of the eastern Roman empire​ was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army
  • 1453

    100 year's war

    100 year's war
    The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war.
  • 1469

    Lorenzo de Medici ascends to power in Florence

    Lorenzo de Medici ascends to power in Florence
    Was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy
  • 1477

    Sistine Chapel

    Sistine Chapel
    The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City. Originally known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480.
  • 1486

    Botticelli completed the painting The Birth of Venus

    Botticelli completed the painting The Birth of Venus
    The Birth of Venus is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli probably made in the mid 1480s. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown
  • 1500

    Start of Counter-Reformation

    Start of Counter-Reformation
    The Counter-Reformation was a movement within the Roman Catholic Church. Its main aim was to reform and improve it.
  • 1503

    Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.

    Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.
    The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
  • 1511

    Erasmus published The Praise of Folly

    Erasmus published The Praise of Folly
    The praise​ of Follyis an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in June 1511. Inspired by previous works of the Italian humanist Faustino Perisauli [it] De Triumpho Stultitiae, it is a satirical attack on superstitions and other traditions of European society as well as on the Western Church.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther nails 95 Theses

    Martin Luther nails 95 Theses
    Martin Luther wrote his 95 theses in 1517 as a protest against the selling of indulgences
  • 1531

    Henry the 8th founds the Anglican Church

    Henry the 8th founds the Anglican Church
    The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England, who was responsible for the foundation of the English Protestant church that broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1538 over his divorce from Catherine
  • 1543

    Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory

    Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory
    Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. It positioned the Sun near the center of the Universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets orbiting around it in circular paths modified by epicycles and at uniform speeds.
  • Period: 1543 to

    Scientific Revolution

  • 1558

    Elizabeth I became Queen of England.

    Elizabeth I became Queen of England.
    Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.
  • The invention of the microscope

    Sometime about the year 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his father Hans started experimenting with these lenses. ... They had just invented the compound microscope (which is s microscope that uses two or more lenses). Galileo heard of their experiments and started experimenting on his own.
  • William Shakespeare builds the Globe theatre

    William Shakespeare builds the Globe theatre
    The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and grandson Sir Matthew Brend, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613.
  • Kepler discovered elliptical orbits

    Kepler discovered elliptical orbits
    Image result for Kepler discovered elliptical orbits
    Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. While Copernicus rightly observed that the planets revolve around the Sun, it was Kepler who correctly defined their orbits
  • Galileo studies planets with his telescope

    Galileo studies planets with his telescope
    He subsequently used his newly invented telescope to discover four of the moons circling Jupiter, to study Saturn, to observe the phases of Venus, and to study sunspots on the Sun. Galileo's observations strengthened his belief in Copernicus' theory that Earth and all other planets revolve around the Sun
  • 30 Years War

    30 Years War
    The Thirty Years War began as a religious civil war between the Protestants and Roman Catholics in Germany that engaged the Austrian Habsburgs and the German princes. The war soon developed into a devastating struggle for the balance of power in Europe.
  • Bacon published Novum Organum

    Bacon published Novum Organum
    The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum, is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620
  • Galileo was warned by the Catholic Church

    Galileo was warned by the Catholic Church
    Galileo was ordered to turn himself in to the Holy Office to begin trial for holding the belief that the Earth revolves around the Sun, which was deemed heretical by the Catholic Church. Standard practice demanded that the accused be imprisoned and secluded during the trial.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, largely ending the European wars of religion