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OCF Orthodox History Timeline

By bzd58
  • Period: 161 to

    Reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius

  • Period: 205 to 270

    Life of Plotinus

    A neoplatonist writer, very influential on the concept of the Trinity and emanations
  • 235

    Emperor Severus is murdered by his own troops

  • Period: 235 to

    Crisis of the Third Century

  • Period: 250 to 336

    Life of Arius

    A Christian presbyter of Alexandria, he was the first proponent of the heresy of Arianism, stating that the divinity of Christ was not equal to that of the Father
  • Period: 251 to 356

    Life of Anthony the Great

  • Period: 300 to

    Life of Macarius the Great

  • Period: 306 to 337

    Reign of Emperor Constantine I

  • 310

    Armenia becomes Christian

    After being the first nation to legalize Christianity in 301, King Tiridates III makes it the state religion
  • 312

    Battle of Milvian Bridge

    Emperor Constantine defeats Maxentius, the beginning of his conversion to Christianity
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    Christians are allowed to worship freely
  • 325

    First Council of Nicaea (EC 1)

    Repudiate Arianism, declared Christ to be homoousious with the Father, original Nicene Creed adopted, fixed Easter date, recognized primacy of the sees of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch and granted the See of Jerusalem a position of honor
  • 326

    Construction of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem

    Constantine orders and old temple to Aphrodite to be demolished and builds the first part of the church. He ordered his mother Helena to supervise the construction of churches on holy sites for the life of Jesus. During the excavation of the Holy Sepulchre she discovers the True Cross.
  • 327

    Church of the Nativity at Bethelehem

    The first construction supervised by Helena and Macarious of Jerusalem. Rebuilt in its present form by Justinian I in 565
  • 330

    Constantinople, Emperor Constantine moves the capital

    The city of New Rome is consecrated
  • Period: 330 to

    Life of Basil the Great

  • Period: 335 to

    Life of Gregory of Nyssa

  • Period: 337 to 361

    Reign of Constantius II

    Considered to be a semi-Arian, generally did not use force but is considered to have tried to force the Church to accept his views.
  • Period: 345 to

    Life of Evagrius of Pontus

  • Period: 347 to 407

    Life of John Chrysostom

  • Period: 347 to 420

    Life of Jerome

    Known for his translation of The Latin Vulgate
  • Period: 354 to 430

    Life of Augustine of Hippo

  • 360

    First Inauguration of the Hagia Sophia

    Constantius II, son of Constantine I, inaugurate it
  • Period: 361 to 363

    Reign of Julian the Apostate

    Becomes Caesar and coregent in 355, he is the last pagan Emperor and attempts to revive paganism despite Christianity's advance
  • 403

    Persecution of Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria

    Due to popular resentment to Origenist followers, he persecutes and has many monks killed. Evagrius flees to Constantinople along with his followers
  • 405

    Chrysostom banished

    Due to his support of the Originest monks from Egypt and his conflict with the Empress Eudoxia he was banished to Georgia and died on his way there.
  • 410

    Sack of the Eternal City, Rome

    800 years since Rome was sacked last by the Gauls in 387 BC
  • Period: 412 to

    Life of Proclus

    A neoplatonist writer, possible the teacher of Pseudo-Dionysius
  • 431

    Council of Ephesus (EC 3)

    repudiated Nestorianism, proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiated Pelagianism, and reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.
  • Period: 434 to 453

    Reign of Atilla the Hun

  • 451

    Council of Chalcedon (EC 4)

    repudiated the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopted the Chalcedonian Creed, which described the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, human and divine. Reinstated those deposed in 449 and deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria. Elevation of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates. This is also the last council explicitly recognised by the Anglican Communion
  • Period: 457 to 474

    Reign of Emperor Leo I

    Tried to aid the faltering Western Empire, first emperor to legislate in Greek
  • Period: 474 to

    Reign of Emperor Zeno

    Revolt of 474-476 with Basilicus
  • 476

    Western Emperor Romulus Augustus is deposed

  • Period: 527 to 565

    Reign of Emperor Justinian I

  • 532

    Nika Revolt

    Two leaders of opposing factions are arrested, sparking a major revolt in Constantinople. Justinian I is nearly driven out, but his wife, Theodora, convinced him to stay. Large portions of the city were damaged or destroyed.
  • 534

    Corpus Juris Civilis

    The Codex Justiananus, first created out of Roman Law in 529, is reorganized and published and to be used for the rest of the Empire's duration. The basis of the Napoleonic Code now used by most of Europe.
  • 537

    Hagia Sophia is inaugurated

    In 532 Emperor Justinian I decides to rebuild the Hagia Sophia for the third time from scratch after the second collapsed. It is designed by physicist Isidore of Miletus and mathematician Anthemius of Tralles.
  • 542


    Greatly dimished the Empire's population
  • 550

    Church of the Holy Apostles Built

    The second most important church in the city after the Hagia Sophia. It held the tombs of the emperors including Constantine I. It was leveled in 1461 by the Ottomans to make room for the Faith Mosque
  • 553

    Second Council of Constantinople (EC 5)

    repudiated the Three Chapters as Nestorian, condemned Origen of Alexandria, decreed the Theopaschite Formula
  • Period: 560 to

    Life of Sophronius of Jerusalem

    Of Arabic descent.
  • 570

    Mass Immigration of Slavs into the Balkans

    Between 570 and 590 Slavs begin to immigrate in mass, going as far south as the Pelopennese
  • Period: 570 to Nov 8, 632

    Life of Mohammed

    The life and teachings of Mohammed lay the foundations of Islam
  • Period: 574 to

    Reign of Emperor Tiberius II Constantine

  • Period: Nov 8, 602 to Nov 8, 610

    Reign of Emperor Phocas I

  • Nov 10, 605

    Phocas removes the Danube Army

    New waves of attacks come from the north
  • Nov 8, 610

    The Quranic Revelation Begins

    Mohammed begins receiving his revelations, begins spreading his word to Meccans in 613
  • Period: Nov 8, 610 to Nov 8, 711

    Heraclian Dynasty

  • Period: Nov 8, 610 to

    Patriarchate of Sergius I of Constantinople

    Proponent of bridging the gap between Miaphysites and Dyophysites.
  • Period: Nov 8, 610 to Nov 8, 641

    Reign of Emperor Heraclius

    Mentioned the most of all Roman emperors by Arabic historiansIn Surah 30, the Qur'an refers to the Perso-Roman wars as follows:
    30:2 Certainly, the Romans will be defeated. 3 In the nearest land. After their defeat, they will rise again and win. 4 Within several years. Such is GOD's decision, both in the first prophecy, and the second. On that day, the believers shall rejoice 5 in GOD's victory. He grants victory to whomever He wills. He is the Almighty, Most Merciful.[42] Tried to reconcile the
  • Nov 10, 610

    Maximus works as protosecretary for Heraclius

  • Period: Nov 10, 611 to Nov 10, 616

    Persian and Slav/Avar Offensive

    The Persians make succesful attacks on all fronts and capture much of the Middle East, including Egypt and Asia Minor. Slavic/Avar forces from the north lay seige on Constantinople. Heraclius considers abandoning Constantinople for Carthage but is convinced otherwise by Patriarch Sergius
  • Nov 10, 614

    Maximus leaves for the monastic life

    He goes to Chrysopolis to a monastery
  • Nov 8, 617

    Maximus moves to a monastery in Cyzicus

    Persian forces take Chalcedon in 617, Maximus flees to Carthage where he comes under the tutelage of Saint Sophronius and begins to study Gregory the Theologian and Dionysius the Areopagite.
  • Nov 8, 620

    Latin Ceases to be the Imperial Language

  • Nov 8, 622

    The Hijra

    Mohammed and his supporters flee Mecca to Medina, beginning of the Islamic Calender
  • Nov 11, 622

    Theme System

    In order to more effectively govern and extract resources from the provinces, Emperor Heraclius the theme system which eventually becomes entrenched and alters the organization of society
  • Nov 10, 626

    Slavic/Persian Seige of Constantinople

  • Nov 10, 627

    Heraclius' Offensive

    Heraclius leads forces into the heart of Mesopotamia and forces the Persian Empire to capitulate. He takes the Persian title "King of Kings" later to become the epithet of the Byzantine Emperors
  • Nov 8, 630

    Return of the True Cross

    The True Cross is returned by the Persians to Emperor Heraclius as they sue for peace and returned to Jerusalem. The feast of the Elevation of the Precious Cross stems from this historical event as well as the refinding of the Cross in 326 by Saint Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine
  • Nov 8, 630

    Monoergenism Attempt

    Under the auspices of Patriarch Sergius I, a reconciliation is attempted by declaring that Christ is of one, theandric energy. Under the resistance of Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem, it is abandoned
  • Period: Nov 8, 630 to Nov 8, 700

    Life of Isaac of Nineveh (?)

    Born in Bahrain, he was ordained a bishop of Nineveh in what is now modern North Iraq
  • Nov 10, 630

    Maximus flees to the south, eventually to Carthage

    Persian forces take Chalcedon in 626, Maximus flees to Carthage where he comes under the tutelage of Saint Sophronius and begins to study Gregory the Theologian and Dionysius the Areopagite.
  • Period: Nov 8, 632 to Nov 8, 661

    Reign of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs

    Al-Khulifaah Al-Rashiduun:
    Abu Bakr (632-634 A.D.)
    Umar ibn al-Khattab, (Umar І) (634-644 A.D.) The islamic ummah is built and Arabic civilization begins
    Uthman ibn Affan (644-656 A.D.)
    Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661 A.D.)
  • Nov 10, 633

    Alexandrian Pact of Union

    A compromise pact between miaphysites and dyophysites
  • Nov 8, 634

    Sophronius elected Patriarch of Jerusalem

    He now begins to fiercely oppose Monothelitism
  • Aug 15, 636

    Battle of Yarmouk

    An Arab army defeats Heraclius' army and proceeds to conquer the Levant.
  • Nov 8, 636

    Overthrow of the Ghassanid Kingdom

  • Nov 8, 637

    Conquest of Syria

  • Period: Nov 8, 641 to

    Reign of Emperor Constans II

    In 642 he became the last emperor to be Roman Consul. He wanted to diffuse the conflict between the two religious camps by steering a middle path and avoiding debate. He is defeated by the Arabs several times but the first Fitna saves him. In 658 he defeats Slavic tribes in the Balkans.
  • Nov 8, 645

    Debate between Maximus and Pyrrhus

  • Nov 8, 651

    Conquest of Persia

  • Nov 8, 652

    Conquest of North Africa

  • Nov 8, 653

    Arrest of Pope Martin I and Maximus

    By the order of Emperor Constans they were captured and brought to Constantinople for their participation in the Lateran Council of 649
  • Period: Nov 8, 656 to Nov 8, 661

    First Islamic Civil Warm, Fitna

    Begins the division of Islam into the Sunni and Shi'a
  • Period: Nov 8, 661 to Nov 8, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Founded by Muawiyah I after the death of Ali
  • Nov 8, 662

    Second Trial and Death of Maximus

    Maximus is again condemned of heresy and has his tongue and his right hand cut off so that he could no longer speak or write. He was banished to Colchis in modern-day Georgia and died soon thereafter.
  • Nov 11, 674

    Arab Seige of Constantinople

    For four years the Arabs brought in a fleet to beseige the city but were repulsed each time. First mention of Greek Fire in history.
  • Period: Nov 8, 676 to

    Life of John of Damascus

    Died near Jerusalem. He served as the chief adminstrator to the Caliph at Damascus. Until the age of 12 he was educated in a Muslim fashion. His family worked as imperial administrators for the Byzantines as well, his grandfather Mansur for Heraclius.
  • Period: Dec 1, 705 to Dec 1, 711

    2nd Reign of Justinian II

    With the help of the Khazars and Bulgars he retakes Constantinople. He is considered a tyrant by his subjects and is captured and executed in an uprising. His six year old son and heir is found and executed at St. Mary's of Blachernae. The Heraclian dynasty ends
  • Nov 8, 712

    Conquest of Sindh

  • Period: Dec 1, 717 to Dec 1, 741

    Reign of Leo III the Isaurian

    Born in northern Syria, Leo was in the service of Justinian II. He forced the abdication of Emperor Theodosius III. Beginning of his reign the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople. Reforms Byzantine law, invites Slavs into depopulated lands. In 722 he tried to enforce the baptism of all Jews and Montanists, he started Iconoclasm
  • Period: Dec 1, 717 to

    Isaurian Dynasty

  • Period: Nov 8, 730 to

    First Period of Iconoclasm

  • Period: Dec 1, 741 to Dec 1, 775

    Reign of Constantine V

    Civil war with his brother-in-law Artabasdos and continuation of iconoclast policies.
  • Period: Nov 8, 750 to Nov 8, 1258

    Abassid Caliphate (Period I)

  • Dec 1, 766

    Repression of the Iconodoules

    The emperor threatens to blind and exile all monks who venerate icons
  • Dec 1, 772

    Lombard King Desiderius takes Byzantine Rome

  • Period: Dec 1, 775 to

    Reign of Leo IV

    Son of Constantine V from his first wife Irene of Khazaria
  • Dec 1, 1009

    St. Symeon Exiled

    Despite the support of Patriarch Sergius II, Symeon is denounced by a synod and sent into exile to a location on the asian coast of the Bosphorus
  • Dec 1, 1014

    Campaign against the Bulgars

    The last major campaign against the Bulgars under Tsar Samuel, Basil earns his title "Boulgaroktonos". Despite his reputation for cruelty, he shows clemency to the Bulgars and effectively administrates them.
  • Period: Dec 1, 1018 to Dec 1, 1078

    Life of Michael Psellos

    A famous historian and scholar, during his lifetime Byzantium's intellectual life flowers.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Constantinople falls to Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II and the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos dies.
  • Battle of Adrianople, Emperor Valens killed

  • First Council of Constantinople (EC 2)

    repudiated Arianism and Macedonianism, declared that Christ is "born of the Father before all time", revised the Nicene Creed in regard to the Holy Spirit
  • Third Council of Constantinople (EC 6)

    Repudiated Monothelitism and Monoenergism, Maximus is rehabilitated
  • Second Council of Nicaea (EC 7)

    restored the veneration of icons (condemned at the Council of Hieria, 754) and repudiated iconoclasm
  • First Sunday of Lent declared the "Triumph of Orthodoxy"

  • Split of the Roman Empire

    Emperor Theodosius I dies and the Roman Empire splits into the East and West Roman Empire
  • Henotikon

    Emperor Zeno tries to reconcile Chalceonianism and Miaphysitism by avoiding the matter in public decrees, fails
  • Empress Theodora dies

  • Ecthesis, Monothelitism

    Once again Heraclius and Sergius I attempt a reconciliation. Now they say that Christ is of two natures but of one will. Pope Honorius dies and is replaced by Severinus who rejects it outright. Heraclius dies shortly thereafter
  • Lateran Council of 649

    Pope Theodore calls a council to condemn Monothelitism and is backed by Maximus. This is seen as the first attempt of the pope to act independent of the Emperor.
  • Anno Martyrum

    The beginning of the Coptic Calender, corresponds to the year Diocletian became Emperor and the beginning of the Great Persecution
  • Battle of Karbala

    Hussein, son of Ali and brother of Hassan, is defeated and behead by Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The day of his death is commemorated by the Shi'a
  • Conquest of Egypt

  • Conquest of Spain

  • Type of Constans

    An Imperial Edict that made it illegal to discuss in any manner the topic of Christ possessing either one or two wills, or one or two energies.
  • First Trial of Maximus

    Monothelitism was starting to be favored by the Emperor and the Patriarch. Maximus was condemned and exiled for 4 years
  • Synod of Hippo

    The first council to create a definitive version of the modern Bible.
  • Theodosian Decrees

    Emperor Theodosius I declares paganism illegal, disbanding the Vestal Virgins, the Altar of Victory was removed from the Senate, the eternal fire put out, and most temples closed in Rome.
  • Chrysostom becomes Patriarch of Constantinople

  • Revolt of the Heraclians

    Heraclius the Elder, Emperor Heraclius' father, revolts against Phocas. In 610 Phocas is defeated
  • Avar Seige of Thessalonica

  • Avars approach the capital

  • Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    Given the lack of a male emperor in the east, Pope Leo III uses the opportunity to crown Charlemagne
  • Rebellion of Bardas Skleros

  • Rebellion of Bardas Phokas

  • Methodius becomes bishop of Moravia

    Pope Adrian II authorizes the Slavic liturgy
  • Conversion of the Rus

    Vladimir I accepts Orthodox Christianity. His grandmother Olga had been Orthodox and he married Basil's sister Anna.
  • Conversion of the Bulgars

    Boris I converts to Orthodox and takes the name of Michael after his godfather Michael III.
  • Cyril's Mission to the Khazars

  • Cyril and Methodius to Rome

    Pope Nicholas I invites them to Rome and blesses their work among the Slavs.
  • First Translations into Slavonic

    Cyril and his brother prepare translations of material in Slavonic before their expedition in Const.
  • Methodius condemned

    Due to pressure from the archbishop of Salzburg, Methodius is condemned along with his disciples and Slavonic liturgy is forbidden
  • Rastislav of Moravia requests missionaries

    Due to Frankish pressures and a desire to make closer ties with Byzantium, Rastislav asks Michael III for help
  • Photios excommunicated by Pope Nicholas I

    Four years later Photios excommunicates Nicholas for the heresy of double procession of the Holy Spirit.
  • Symeon meets St. Symeon the Studite

    At the monastery of Stoudios, Symeon becomes his spiritual father but is told to wait before joining a monastic community
  • Symeon enters St. Mamas Monastry

  • Monks rise up

    30 monks under Symeon rise up and demand and end to his discipline. The go to Patriarch Sisinios who supports Symeon and exiles the monks.
  • St. Symeon the Studite dies

    St. Symeon begins to worship his spiritual father as a saint despite not being confirmed by the church. Archbishop Stephen takes issue with this
  • Empress Theodora restores Icons

  • Russian Siege of Constantinople

  • Methodius' disciples driven out

    Methodius and his disciples are driven out and flee to Bulgaria, they devise Cyrillic as Glagolitic is banned at the time. Pope Stephen bans the Slavic liturgy
  • Period: to Mar 15, 662

    Life of Maximus the Confessor

  • Period: to 253

    Life of Origen

  • Period: to

    Authorship of Pseudo-Dionysius?

  • Period: to 305

    Reign of Emperor Diocletian I

  • Period: to Nov 8, 602

    Justinian Dynasty

  • Period: to 527

    Reign of Emperor Justin I

  • Period: to

    Reign of Emperor Theodosius I

  • Period: to

    Second Period of Iconoclasm

  • Period: to 450

    Reign of Emperor Theodosius II

    Built the Theodosian Walls, New Rome starts to be refered to as Constantinople
  • Period: to Nov 8, 602

    Reign of Emperor Maurice

    Murdered by Phocas
  • Period: to

    Life of Gregory the Theologian

  • Period: to 451

    Life of Nestorius

    Condemned for his belief that Christ's human and divine natures are completely distinct. He was Archbishop of Constantinople from 428 to 431. He represents the Antiochian tradition
  • Period: to 456

    Life of Eutyches

    Condemned for his belief of Monophysitism, that is, that Christ's nature was a complete fusion of the human and divine and so making him physically different from other human beings. He was archimandrite at Constantinople for several years and was one of the first to condemn Nestorius.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Constantine IV and Irene of Athens

    Although a iconoclast, he signed the decrees of the Council of 787. He lost much of his support from both sides and was overthrown in 797 by his mother's supporters. Irene restores the veneration of icons and supports the election of Patriarch Tarasios
  • Period: to

    Reign of Michael III

  • Period: to

    1st Patriarchate of Ignatios

    In 858 he refused to let Michael III into the Hagia Sophia because he accused him of having a mistress. For that Michael has him deposed and exiled.
  • Period: to

    1st Patriarchate of Photios

  • Period: to

    2nd Patriarchate of Ignatios

  • Period: to

    2nd Patriarchate of Photios

  • Period: to Dec 1, 1056

    Macedonian Dynasty

  • Period: to

    Reign of Leo VI the Wise

    Son of Empress Eudokia Ingerina, who was the mistress of Michael III as well as wife of Basil. Unsure whether he is the son of Michael of Basil. We tried to control the church more and clashed with aristocratic families. He married 4 times and only at the end had a male offspring. Got in trouble with the Patriarch, asked for papal support.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Constantine VII

    Illegitemate son of Leo VI, he lost several military campaigns.. He was dominated by co-regents, such as his mother from 913-919 and by chamberlain Romanos Lekapenos from 920 to 945.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Romanos II

    His general Nikephoros Phokas leads a fleet and recaptures Crete. He celebrates a triumph. He makes sons Basil II (5 years old then) and Constantine VIII co-emperors in 960.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Nikephoros II Phokas

    Successful general, succeeds Romanos II after his untimely death. Leads many military campaigns but a poor administrator
  • Period: to

    Reign of John I Tzimiskes

    Poor adiministrator.
  • Period: to Dec 1, 1025

    Reign of Basil II

    A very successful ruler, he spent his youth as a womanizer and let magistrates dominate the government. After two rebellions against his claim to the throne he gives up his life of luxury and commits himself to the empire. Famous for his conquests of Bulgaria and the Middle East, we was also a very capable administrator, leaving the empire much wealthier than he found it.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Boris I

    The Bulgars begin to slavinize despite their Turkic ancestory
  • Period: to

    Reign of Khan Krum

    Start of the first Bulgarian Empire
  • Period: to

    Life of Saint Cyril

  • Period: to

    Life of Saint Methodius

  • Period: to

    Reign of Emperor Constantine IV

    Oversaw the first reversal of the Arab advance as well as the 6th Ecumenical Council which denounced Monothelitism.
  • Period: to

    1st Reign of Justinian II

    Became emperor at age 16. In an agreement with the Arabs, he took in a resettlement of 12,000 Maronites from Lebanon who were being rebelious, some to Cyprus. Resettled Balkan Slavs to Anatolia. He was deposed by Leontius and his nose cut off, later to be replaced by a golden replica.
  • Period: to

    The Amorian Dynasty

  • Period: to

    Reign of Leo V the Armenian

    Fought with Krum of Bulgaria, started the 2nd Iconoclastic period
  • Period: to

    Reign of Basil I

    Born of Armenian peasant descent in the province of Macedonia, he had a thick accent. He worked his way up and became a chief magistrate of Michael III. He was declared co-emperor but when Michael III started looking elsewhere he had Michael assassinated. Considered a very effective emperor, the "Second Justinian." Promulgate the Basilika, new codex of laws
  • Period: to Dec 1, 1022

    Life of St. Symeon the New Theologian

    One of three people to hold the title of theologian, after John the Apostle and Gregory of Nazianzos. Studies in the court of Basil II, he was known for his zeal and charisma. Got in trouble a few times with other clergymen. Important expounder of the concept of Divine Light