Julius caesar statue rome italy

Digital Project: The History of Julius Caesar

  • 100 BCE

    Birth of Julius Caesar

    Birth of Julius Caesar
    Born in Rome to the Julii family, a poor noble family in the Roman slums of Subura.
  • Period: 100 BCE to 44 BCE

    A Brief History of the Life and Death of Julius Caesar

    This timeline depicts the life of famous Roman emperor, Julius Caesar and the important events that transpired during his reign over Rome
  • 85 BCE

    Became Head of Family

    When his father died, Julius became head of the household and allied himself with his uncle Gaius Marius against Sulla
  • 84 BCE

    High Priest of Jupiter

    High Priest of Jupiter
    His Uncle Gaius Marius appointed him High Priest of Jupiter
    https://gnosticwarrior.com/priests-of-jupiter-amon.html
  • 84 BCE

    Married Cornelia Cinna

    Married Cornelia Cinna
    married his first wife, Cornelia Cinna, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cornelia_Cinna_Minor.jpg
  • 83 BCE

    Daughter born

    First daughter, Julia born
  • 82 BCE

    Stripped of Priesthood

    stripped of his title of high priest of jupiter by Sulla, an enemy of the Julii family, who was named Dictator of Rome following the victory of the battle at Collin Gate (1st November)
  • 81 BCE

    Forced into Hiding

    was forced into hiding for refusing to divorce his wife, was pardoned later that year
  • 81 BCE

    Served in Roman army

    Served in Roman army
    served in Roman army in turkey
    https://www.historynet.com/julius-caesar-war.htm
  • 80 BCE

    Civic Crown

    Civic Crown
    was awarded the Civic Crown for bravery during the siege of Mytilene
    https://notjustanotherbook.com/crowns.htm
  • 78 BCE

    Return to Rome

    Return to Rome
    Following Sulla, dictator of Rome's death, Caesar returned to Rome
    https://owlcation.com/humanities/An-antique-dictaor-LC-Sulla
  • 77 BCE

    Law career

    Julius Caesar became a lawyer for two years, and was known for the way he attacked and defended in court, an ancient shark!
  • 75 BCE

    Held for Ransom

    during a trip to Rhodes to learn the art of public speaking, Caesar was captured and held for ransom by pirates for a month
  • 75 BCE

    Revenge for Ransom

    Julius then set out to find the pirates who held him for ransom and execute them
  • 74 BCE

    Third Mithridatic War

    Third Mithridatic War
    Caesar raised his own army and participated in the Third Mithridatic War
    https://www.heritage-history.com/index.php?c=resources&s=war-dir&f=wars_mithridatic
  • 72 BCE

    Military Tribune

    served as military tribune for the year. Military Tribune is an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion. Young men of Equestrian rank often served as military tribune as a stepping stone to the Senate.
  • 69 BCE

    Quaestor for Spain

    served as quaestor, a low ranking magistrate with financial responsibilities, in Spain
  • 67 BCE

    Married Pompeia

    Married Pompeia
    Married his second wife, Pompeia, granddaughter of Sulla\
    https://todayinhistory.blog/tag/pompeia/
  • 65 BCE

    Served as Aedile

    served as aedile, responsible for temples, buildings and the Games. He staged lavish Games using money loaned from Crassus
  • 63 BCE

    Elected Pontifex Maximus

    elected pontifex maximus, the head of the principal college of priests, largely due to bribes.
  • 62 BCE

    Second Marriage Ended

    Their marriage ended in scandal. In 63 BC, Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus. An ambitious young nobleman named Publius Claudius Pulcher entered the house disguised as a woman, ostensibly for the purpose of seducing Pompeia. Rumors swirled about Pompeia's fidelity. Caesar felt that he had no choice but to divorce Pompeia, not because he personally believed the rumours, but because the wife of the Pontifex Maximus had to be above suspicion.
  • 62 BCE

    Served as Praetor

    a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army or an elected magistratus (magistrate)
  • 61 BCE

    Served as Governor of Spain

    61-60 BC he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain
  • 60 BCE

    Formed the First Triumvirate

    Formed the First Triumvirate
    formed an unofficial alliance(first triumvirate) with Pompey and Crassus. In return for support Caesar would support measures that would benefit them. Cicero was offered a part of the alliance but declined.
  • 59 BCE

    Served as Consul

    one of the two annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the republic
  • 59 BCE

    Agrarian Bill

    introduced an Agrarian Bill favored by Pompey that would redistribute wasteland in Italy to Pompey's soldiers and homeless poor people
  • 59 BCE

    Arrested Cato for speaking against his Agrarian Bill

    Cato opposed every law he suggested, especially the agrarian laws that established farmlands for Pompey's veterans on public lands. Caesar responded by having Cato arrested while Cato was making a speech against him at the rostra. So many senators protested this extraordinary and unprecedented use of force by threatening to go to prison with Cato, that Caesar finally relented.
  • 59 BCE

    Pompey Married Julius Caesar's daughter, Julia

    In 59 B.C. Pompey married the much younger daughter of Caesar, Julia, who was already engaged to Q. Servilius Caepio. Caepio was unhappy so Pompey offered him his own daughter Pompeia.
  • 59 BCE

    Married Calpurnia Pisonis

    Married Calpurnia Pisonis
    married his third wife, Calpurnia Pisonis, who was said to be a very shy and humble woman who tolerated Caesar's infidelities.
  • 58 BCE

    Made Governor of Roman Gaul for a four year term

    Made Governor of Roman Gaul for a four year term
    He set about planning to conquer all of Gaul and his subsequent conquest is known as the Gallic Wars
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallic_Wars
  • 58 BCE

    Defeated Swiss at the Battle of Arar

    Defeated Swiss at the Battle of Arar
    After 15 days of pursuit, Caesar decided to make a diversion to Bibracte. The Helvetii attacked the Romans but suffered a decisive defeat. The Helvetii Caesar defeated were part of the pagus of the Tigurini, which in 107 BC had slain the Consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, as well as the legate Lucius Calpurnius Piso, the grandfather of the Lucius Calpurnius Piso who was the father-in-law of Caesar.
    https://www.estory.io/timeline/view/nZnnRZ/269/The_Gallic_Wars_Pt_1_-_The_Helvetii
  • 58 BCE

    Conquers the Swiss

    After a decisive victory at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar and his army defeated the Swiss
  • 57 BCE

    Defeated the Suebi at the Battle of Vosges

    Defeated the Suebi at the Battle of Vosges
    Caesar had for the moment secured his German border. Caesar did not stop there. He chased them into Germania, building a bridge to cross the Rhine in only 10 days.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vosges_(58_BC)
  • 57 BCE

    Defeated the Belgians at the Battle of Axona

    Defeated the Belgians at the Battle of Axona
    Caesar sent three legions and all his cavalry to attack the rear of the Belgic marching column. In his account of this action, Caesar claims that these Roman forces killed as many men as the daylight allowed, without any risk to themselves (as the Belgic forces were taken by surprise and breaking rank, sought safety in flight).
    http://dcc.dickinson.edu/images/map-battle-axona-t-dodge
  • 57 BCE

    Defeated Nervii tribes at the Battle of Sabis

    Defeated Nervii tribes at the Battle of Sabis
    Julius Caesar, commanding the Roman forces, was surprised and nearly defeated. According to Caesar's report, a combination of determined defense, skilled generalship, and the timely arrival of reinforcements allowed the Romans to turn a strategic defeat into a tactical victory.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Sabis
  • 57 BCE

    Unrest in Rome

    tensions grew high in Rome due to several poor harvests resulting in grain shortage. Many citizens believed Caesar's Agrarain Law was to blame. It did not help that the relations between Caesar's allies Pompey and Crassus were becoming increasingly strained.
  • 56 BCE

    Luca Conference

    Luca Conference
    this conference reaffirmed the First Triumvirate and extended his Governorship of Gaul
    https://sites.psu.edu/firsttriumvirate/the-problems-and-patching/
  • 55 BCE

    Began German Campaign

    campaign pushed the Roman territory beyond the Rhine for the first time ever
  • 55 BCE

    Two failed expeditions to Britain

    During teh first expedition in late August, Caesar landed on a beach in Deal but was unable to push further inland. He made a second expedition in July 54 BC but withdrew to Rome for the winter
  • 54 BCE

    Death of Daughter

    Caesar's daughter, Julia who was married to Pompey, died in childbirth during September of 54BC
  • 53 BCE

    Death of Crassus and Fall of the First Triumvirate

    Death of Crassus and Fall of the First Triumvirate
    At the decisive Battle of Carrhae, the Roman army found itself surrounded by Parthian archers. Parthian archers shot them all to death with their arrows. Crassus was killed. Caesar and Pompey realized that one of them could actually realize their imperial dreams in the opportunity that they now had. Within four years of Crassus’s death, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River and started a civil war with Pompey in order to acquire this supreme power.
    https://sites.psu.edu/firsttriumvirate/crassus/
  • 52 BCE

    Siege of Avaricum

    Caesar's legions were in no mood to spare any of the 40,000 Gauls within Avaricum, especially after 25 days of short rations and great frustration. Only 800 managed to escape the massacre that followed. After feeding and resting his men at Avaricum until early June, Caesar moved on Gergovia, determined to draw Vercingetorix into battle in a campaign that would eventually culminate in the Battle of Alesia.
  • 52 BCE

    Siege of Gergovia (Gallic War)

    Given the size of the losses, Caesar ordered a retreat. In the wake of the battle, Caesar lifted his siege and fled the Arverni lands northeastwards in the direction of Aedui territory.
  • 52 BCE

    Siege of Alesia (Gallic War)

    Alesia proved to be the end of generalized and organized resistance against Caesar's invasion of Gaul and effectively marked the end of the Gallic Wars. In the next year (50 BC) there were mopping-up operations. During the Roman civil wars Gallia was essentially left on its own.
  • 51 BCE

    Ordered to Return to Rome

    now that Pompey and Caesar's alliance was over, Pompey ordered Caesar to come back to Rome as he was the leader of the senate and Caesar's term as governor of Gaul had ended
  • 50 BCE

    Request for Re-Election

    Caesar refused to return to Rome without magistrate status under fear that he would be attacked, so he requested that he stay in Gaul and run for reelection. However, the senate refused his request and demanded that he return to Rome
  • 49 BCE

    Returns to Rome

    Returns to Rome
    Caesar decides to return to Rome, with the thirteenth legion. This was taken as an act of aggression and forced Rome into Civil War.
    http://www.lakesuperiortheatre.com/julius-caesar.html
  • 49 BCE

    Pompey Flees

    Pompey Flees
    Pompey and other senators flee Rome for Greece, but unfortunately forget to take the treasury with them.
    https://www.heritage-history.com/index.php?c=resources&s=char-dir&f=pompey
  • 49 BCE

    Defeats Pompey Loyalists

    defeats forces in Spain that were loyal to Pompey
  • 49 BCE

    Lay Siege to Massilia

    Lay Siege to Massilia
    Caesar lays siege to Massilia, which was loyal to Pompey, leaving the newly raised 17th, 18th, and 19th legions to conduct the siege under the command of Gaius Trebonius. Caesar himself marched with his veteran legions to Hispania to fight the Pompeian generals Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius. He would return to the siege of Massilia after defeating his opponents at the battle of Ilerda. The city fell in September.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Massilia
  • 48 BCE

    Battle of Dyrrhachium

    Caesar went against Pompey in Macedonia and was forced to retreat to avoid being defeated.
  • 48 BCE

    Battle of Pharsalus

    a decisive victory over Pompey, who fled to Egypt after the loss.
  • 48 BCE

    Pursued Pompey to Egypt

    Pursued Pompey to Egypt
    Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt, but upon arrival was presented with Pompey's head by Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy had hoped this would gain favor and win the support of Caesar in his Civil War against his sister Cleopatra. Horrified by the murder of Pompey, Caesar demanded the return of the money Egypt owed to Rome. He took the city of Alexandria for his headquarters, and decided to side with Cleopatra rather than her brother.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompey
  • 48 BCE

    Ptolemy Lays Siege to Alexandria

    Caesar backed Cleopatra in the Egyptian Civil War and becomes her lover. Ptolemy then lays siege to Alexandria
  • 47 BCE

    Siege of Alexandria was Lifted

    the siege was lifted due to a large force under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived in Egypt from the North Eastern region of the Empire
  • 47 BCE

    Battle of the Nile

    Julius Caesar was victorious against the forces of Ptolemy XIII. Ptolemy drowned in the Nile
  • 47 BCE

    Caesarion Was Born

    Caesarion Was Born
    Cleopatra, who was famously known to be romantically involved with Julius Caesar, may have given birth to his son who was named Caesarion
    https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/rehabilitating-cleopatra-70613486/
  • 46 BCE

    Dictator of Rome

    Julius Caesar was (self)appointed Dictator of Rome for ten years
  • 46 BCE

    Battle of Thapsus

    Julius Caesar defeated Pompey loyalists under Metellus Scipio
  • 45 BCE

    Introduced the Julian Calendar

    created the calendar which set the year at 365.25 days divided into 12 months. It remained in effect until the 16th century
  • 45 BCE

    Announced His Heir

    Announced His Heir
    Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus
  • 45 BCE

    Battle of Munda

    Forces loyal to Pompey's sons were defeated and the elder son was killed
  • 44 BCE

    Appointed Dictator of Rome for Life

    self appointed himself as the dictator for life, greatly angering the rest of the senators and the citizens of Rome
  • 44 BCE

    Assassinated

    Assassinated
    Julius Caesar was stabbed 23 times by disgruntled senators