Rome - From Founding to Late Republic

  • 1200 BCE

    Myth of Aeneas

    Myth of Aeneas
    Aeneas with his brother, father, and others fled the burning city of Troy. Eventually, Aeneas lands at the mouth of the Tiber River. The men in the group wanted to continue travelling; however, the women did not. The women burned the ships and stranded the Trojans. Some legends claim that Rome was named after Roma, a woman who was travelling with Aeneas. Aeneas was an ancestor of Rome's founders - Romulus and Remus. This legend was written as part of the Aeneid written by Virgil.
  • 1200 BCE

    Etruscans Arrive

    Etruscans Arrive
    The Etruscan arrive in the area in and around Italy. Their land would eventually be known as Etruria. The Etruscans would become instrumental in helping Rome build a burgeoning city that would eventually become a world power.
  • 753 BCE

    Founding of the city of Rome

    Founding of the city of Rome
    According to ancient legend, the city of Rome was created on this day. The founders were brothers Romulus and Remus. These brothers are considered to be demi-gods. They were supposed descendants of Aeneas. The brothers were abandoned as babies, and they were helped fed by a she-wolf and a woodpecker. Eventually the brothers started creating the city with many arguments. Romulus was made fun of by Remus for his wall, and Romulus killed him. Romulus then named the city after himself.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 510 BCE

    Regal Period in Rome

    During this time Rome is ruled by kings. This starts with Romulus and ends with Tarquin the Proud. This time period is accompanied by Etruscan rule over the city of Rome.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 716 BCE

    King Romulus' Reign

    The first of 7 kings to rule Rome.
  • Period: 715 BCE to 673 BCE

    King Numa Pompilius Reign

    The 2nd of 7 kings to rule Rome.
  • Period: 673 BCE to 642 BCE

    King Tullus Hostilius' Reign

    The 3rd of 7 kings to rule Rome.
  • Period: 650 BCE to 600 BCE

    Etruscan Invasion

    Etruscans start exerting their power and influence over the city of Rome at this time. Some of their advanced skills, such as techniques in warfare, metalworking, and more, were shown to the Romans during time. The Etruscans eventually take control over Rome during this time period.
  • Period: 642 BCE to 617 BCE

    King Ancus Marcius' Reign

    The 4th of 7 kings to rule Rome.
  • Period: 617 BCE to 579 BCE

    King Tarquinius Priscus' Reign

    The 5th of 7 kings to rule Rome, beginning of Etruscan rule of Rome.
  • Period: 578 BCE to 535 BCE

    King Servius Tulius' Reign

    The 6th of 7 kings to rule Rome, 2nd king of Etruscan rule of Rome.
  • Period: 535 BCE to 509 BCE

    King Tarquin the Proud' Reign

    The last of 7 kings to rule Rome, ending of Etruscan rule of Rome.
  • 510 BCE

    Patricians and Plebeians

    Patricians and Plebeians
    The clear split between patricians and plebeians is beginning to form in Rome. Early patricians get their name from "father, so they are known as the fathers of their country. The first patricians were collectively known as the Senate and gave advice to their leaders in government.
  • 510 BCE

    Rome/Carthage Treaty

    Rome/Carthage Treaty
    The first known treaty between Rome and Carthage is signed. This signals proof to historians that this was the beginning of Rome's dominance in the area.
  • 510 BCE

    Etruscan Rule Ends

    Etruscan Rule Ends
    The Etruscans are expelled from Rome.
  • Period: 510 BCE to 287 BCE

    Roman Expansion

    Rome begins to expand it borders throughout parts of Italy.
  • 509 BCE

    Roman Republic Begins

    Roman Republic Begins
    The final king of Rome (and of Etruscan rule), Tarquin the Proud, is removed from power. A rival politician, Lucius Junius Brutus (pictured; relative of future assassin of Caesar) changed and reformed the type of government that ruled Rome. He helped establish the Roman Republic.
  • 500 BCE

    Patrician Clans

    Patrician Clans
    About 50 different patrician clans have formed by this time. A clan are families of patricians that have grown larger and larger through marriage and adoptions of fellow patricians. These clans represent less than 10% of Rome's population at this time.
  • 496 BCE

    Battle of Regallus

    Battle of Regallus
    During this battle the Romans are able to conquer the Latins and expand their territory.
  • 494 BCE

    Plebeian Strike

    Plebeian Strike
    The plebeians go on strike by gathering outside the city of Rome. They refused to move until the patricians gave them representation in the Roman Republic. This becomes known as the Conflict of Orders.
  • Period: 494 BCE to 287 BCE

    Conflict of the Orders

    This time period references the conflicts that arise between the plebeians and the patricians in government and society.
  • 471 BCE

    More Plebeian Rights

    More Plebeian Rights
    The law Lex Publilia Voleronis allows more rights to the plebeians. During this year the plebeians increased the amount of tribunes that they had from 2 to 5, thus gaining more representation within their government.
  • 449 BCE

    Laws of the Twelve Tables

    Laws of the Twelve Tables
    These laws are the earliest known written-down laws in Rome. These laws covered a wide range of activities for both criminal and civil situations. These laws covered information from debt to punishments for crimes to funerals.
  • 445 BCE

    Plebeian/Patrician Marraige

    Plebeian/Patrician Marraige
    The law Lex Canuleia, continued to gain more rights for the plebeians. This new laws allowed intermarriage between plebeians and patricians, which had be forbidden before.
  • Period: 437 BCE to 426 BCE

    Roman Fidenaen War

    This was the beginning of Rome being seen as a danger for some empires and civilizations in the Mediterranean area. They were able to conquer the town of Fidenae in this war.
  • Period: 406 BCE to 396 BCE

    Veii Conquered

    The Romans were able to conquer the Etruscan city of Veii. This is a continuation of the Roman Fidenaen War, in the fact that they are starting to be seen as a major power in the area and a potential danger for some.
  • 390 BCE

    Gaul occupies Rome

    Gaul occupies Rome
    The Gauls are able to occupy the city of Rome and eventually burn it to the ground. About 7 months later, the Roman army surrenders due to widespread famine. The Romans paid the Guals in gold, and the Gauls eventually moved to an area just south of the Alps.
  • 350 BCE

    Roman Wall

    Roman Wall
    Rome completes the wall around their city.
  • 338 BCE

    Roman citizenship for many

    Roman citizenship for many
    Rome was putting down many rebellions which eventually led to the Latin League (group of villages with the main purpose of defending their lands) being dissolved. The former members of the Latin League were granted either partial or full Roman citizenship.
  • 335 BCE

    Rome's First Colony Founded

    Rome's First Colony Founded
    Ostia becomes the first colony created by the Roman Republic. It is founded at the mouth of the Tiber River. Throughout the centuries this city becomes a major port during the time of the Roman Empire thanks to expansions to this harbor by Emperors Claudius and Trajan.
  • 300 BCE

    Ogulnian Law

    Ogulnian Law
    This law allowed the government to increase the number of pontiffs (high priests) to 8 (previously 4). It also increased the number of augurs (priests who study gods' will through birds) to 9 (previously 4). These new positions that were created were forced, by law, to be filled with plebeians.
  • 287 BCE

    Plebeian Dictator

    Plebeian Dictator
    For the first time in the Roman Republic a plebeian by the name of Quintus Hortensius was made dictator of Rome.
  • 287 BCE

    Plebeian Laws

    Plebeian Laws
    A law passed by plebeian dictator Hortensius made sure that all laws passed by the Council of the Plebs was law for all Roman citizens. This is the end of the period known as the Conflict of the Orders.
  • Period: 280 BCE to 275 BCE

    Pyrrhic Wars

    This was between Rome and Pyrrhus of Epirus. The Romans came out victorious and, as such, they started being seen as the dominant superpower in the western Mediterranean Sea area.
  • 267 BCE

    Roman Expansion

    Rome now controls the entire boot of Italy south of the Po River.
  • Period: 264 BCE to 145 BCE

    Punic Wars

    The 3 wars between Rome and Carthage.
  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    1st Punic War

    The First Punic War takes place between Rome and Carthage. The war is over the island of Sicily. Rome builds a navy and is able to defeat the Carthaginians and make Sicily Rome's first province.
  • Period: 224 BCE to 154 BCE

    Rome Northern Border Expansion

    Rome continues expanding it's borders in the north.
  • Period: 224 BCE to 200 BCE

    Boii Defeat

    The Romans defeat the Boii.
  • Period: 218 BCE to 201 BCE

    2nd Punic War

    The Carthaginians attack the city of Saguntum. The people of Saguntum turned to Rome for help, but none arrived. This event sparked the beginning of the 2nd Punic War between Carthage and Rome.
  • 202 BCE

    Battle of Zama

    Battle of Zama
    Carthage and General Hannibal are defeated by Rome and General Scipio at the Battle of Zama, effectively ending the 2nd Punic War. As a result of the end of the war, Carthage had to surrender their navy, leave Spain, and had to pay a steep fine to the Romans.
  • Period: 200 BCE to 191 BCE

    Insurbres Defeated

    The Romans defeat the Insubres.
  • Period: 197 BCE to 154 BCE

    Ligurians Defeated

    The Romans defeat the Ligurians
  • Period: 178 BCE to 177 BCE

    Istrians Defeated

    The Romans defeat the Istrians.
  • 163 BCE

    Tiberius Gracchus is born

    Tiberius Gracchus is born
  • Period: 156 BCE to 155 BCE

    Dalmation Coast Conquered

    The Romans conquer the Dalmatian Coast.
  • 153 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus is born

    Gaius Gracchus is born
  • Period: 149 BCE to 146 BCE

    3rd Punic War

    The 3rd and final Punic War between Carthage and Rome.
  • 146 BCE

    End of the Punic Wars

    End of the Punic Wars
    After conquering Carthage, the Romans killed all the Carthaginian men over the age of 12. They sold the remaining women and children in Carthage into slavery. The Romans then burned the city to the ground and poured salt throughout the neighboring farmland.
  • 133 BCE

    Tiberius Gracchus Killed

    Tiberius Gracchus Killed
    Tiberius wanted reelection as tribune, which his political opponents viewed as illegal. They feared and told the public that Tiberius was attempting to become a tyrant. During the election, fighting occurred between Tiberius' opponents and supporters. Eventually, Tiberius was beaten with wooden chairs to death. Three hundred of his followers died in the same manner.
  • 133 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus appointed to the land commission at 12 years old.

  • 126 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus becomes a quaestor in Sardinia.

    A quaestor is a low-ranking judge in Rome. They would typically deal in matters relating to the treasury.
  • 123 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus elected tribune.

  • 122 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus easily reelected tribune.

  • 122 BCE

    Junoisa founded

    Junoisa is the colony that Gaius Gracchus founded in north Africa. It is near Carthage. He chose not to place the colony in or closer to Carthage, since the land was still bad from the salt the Romans placed there after the 3rd Punic War.
  • 121 BCE

    Gaius Gracchus Killed

    Gaius Gracchus Killed
    A law in Rome gave the Senate the power to declare anyone they wanted as an enemy of the state. They could execute him without a jury trial by law. The Senate raised a mob to get Gaius. Gaius knew his death was coming, so he committed suicide on Aventine Hill. Three thousand of Gaius' supporters were also arrested and killed.