About the local history: Istanbul, Kulupenai, Pobiedziska,Rhodes,Svishtov.
Turkey, Istanbul, PrehistoryThe earliest known settlement dates from 6700 BC, discovered in 2008, during the construction works of the Yenikapı subway station and the Marmaray tunnel at the historic peninsula on the European side.
Turkey, Istanbul, 7th c. BCE (Byzantium)In the place of the city there was in the antiquity the city of Byzance, a greek trade colony between 675BC- 196AD. Byzance was a trade colony as it was on the sea routes from Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Byzance was conquered by Roman Emperor Severus in 196 and became a Roman city.
Greece, Rhodes.The foundation of the city. Classical periodIn 408 B.C. the three major cities of the island - Ialyssos, Kamiros and Lindos - founded the city of Rhodes. The three centuries that followed were the golden age of Rhodes.
In the same period, Rhodes produced excellent artistic work. The most celebrated of all was the Colossus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, made between 304 and 293 B.C. by the Lyndian sculptor Hares.
Bulgaria, Svishtov, Roman colony: Novae 1st c.ADRoman military fortress at Novae was established in AD 45 by VIII Augustan Legion.
The I-st Italian legion was stationed there in AD 69 and until the second quarter of the 5th century AD Novae was its main camp.
Greece, Rhodes:Roman period, Byzantine periodThe independence of the city came to an end in 164 B.C. when Rhodes became a Province of the Roman Empire. But even as late as the 1st century A.D. Rhodes preserved much of its splendor and developed into one of the greatest centrs of learning, science and the arts. During the early Christian period (330-650 A.D.) Rhodes belonged to the eastern part of the christianised Roman Empire, which is known in history as the Byzantine Empire.
Turkey, Istanbul/Constantinople, Capital of the Byzantine Empire (East Roman) 330-1453ADIstanbul (Costantinapole) became the capital city of the Byzantine Empire ( East Roman Empire) from 330 until 1453 and one of the most important trade, economy center
Dec 24, 1048
Poland, Pobiedziska, The origin of the name of the cityPobiedziska is a small town in the west of Poland.The town's name comes from the word „pobieda”, which means „victory”. The name „pobieda”was given by Kazimierz Odnowiciel
in 1048 AD.
Dec 24, 1257
Poland, Pobiedziska, Town privilegesIn 1257, Pobiedziska was granted the town privileges
by Przemysł I and he made the town independent from
the Ostrów Lednicki castellany.
Dec 24, 1309
Greece, Rhodes:Knight's periodIn 1309 the island was sold to the Order of the Knights Hospitaliers of Saint John of Jerusalem
During the Knights' era the fortifications were extended, modernized and continuously reinforced. Α hospital, a palace and several churches were among the many public buildings constructed at that time, offering interesting examples of Gothic and Renaissance architecture
Dec 24, 1331
Poland, Pobiedziska, destruction by the Teutonic KnightsIn 1331, the town was destroyed and the development of the town was stopped by the invasion of the Teutonic Knights.
Dec 24, 1423
Poland, Pobiedziska. The foundation of the Church of the Holy Spirit.The town was often visited by Władysław Jagiełło, the king of Poland. In 1423 he funded a Church of the Holy Spirit.
May 29, 1453
Turkey, Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1923)In 1453, Fatih Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror conquered Istanbul. It was a turning point in European and World history. Istanbul continues to be a center of power in world stage.
Dec 24, 1522
Greece, Rhodes:Ottoman period.In 1522 the Ottoman Turks conquered the city after a second long siege. New buildings were constructed: mosques, public baths and mansions for the new patrons. The Greeks were forced to abandon the fortified city and move to new suburbs outside its walls. In the Ottoman era Rhodes lost its international character. The city maintained its main economic function as a market for the agricultural products of the interior of the island and the surrounding small islands.
Dec 24, 1566
Lithuania, Kulupenai, 16th to 18th c.First mentioned in historical sources in 1566;
In XV –XVII c. 20 peasant families lived there, most Catholics;
In XVI – XVII c., during wars, famines, plagues, lots of residents died and were buried in the village cemetery;
After the 1709-1711 plague, in 1738, only 11 families lived there.
Poland, Pobiedziska. Under German controlThe partitions were conducted by the Russian Empire,
the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria which divided Poland among themselves. After the partitions of Poland, the town was under German control in the late 18th century.
Lithuania,Kulupenai, 19th c., November UprisingSome men, participants of November Uprising in 1830-1831, (armed rebellion against the Russian Empire in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus) were taken into captivity by Russians;
Separate homesteads (later- villages) began to evolve.serfdom still existed in some areas;
Bulgaria, Svishtov, The first Bulgarian community center, 19th c.Founded on 30th of June, 1856.
Launched the community center activities in Bulgaria.
Established at the home of Revival Dimitar Nachovich. The other founders were Emmanuel Vaskidovich, George Vladikin and Hristaki Filchov. In 1904 Kiril D. Avramov made a gesture of generosity and donated 200,000 gold leva for the building of a facility for theater and community center.
Bulgaria, Svishtov, The liberation from Ottoman rule, 19th c.On June 27, 1877 Svishtov became the first town to be liberated from Ottoman rule. The liberators landed on the night of 26th-27th of June in the area Tekir Dere (today “Monuments”), forcing the Danube at Zimnicea Svishtov and ensuring springboard for Russian troops assigned to General Mikhail Dragomirov.
Today the area was turned into a park.
Lithuania, Kulupenai, Kulupenai M. Valancius Basic Shool1904 : a primary school opened in a farmstead;
1913 :30 students (18 boys, 12girls), 10 schooll desks;
1949: a seven year school (later – eight and nine year);
1995 :basic (ten year) school;
1998: the name of the writer Motiejus Valancius given;
- 1995 – basic (ten year) school;
- 1998 – the name of the writer Motiejus Valancius given;
Greece,Rhodes: Italian periodItalian troops took over the island and the rest of the Dodecanese in 1912 and in 1923 Italy established a colony Isole Italiane del Egeo.
The Italians undertook extensive infrastructure works (roads, electricity, port, etc.) and radically transformed the town of Rhodes, which was supplied with a new urban plan, building regulations and many new public and private buildings.
Poland, Pobiedziska, Uprising again GermansOn December 29, 1918, the inhabitants of Pobiedziska took part in Wielkopolska uprising and took control of the town from German officials.
Turkey, Istanbul, modern period, 1923-presentUpon founding of the Turkish Republic, Ataturk moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara. However, Istanbul is the culture, economy, and trade center of Modern Turkey with its 15 million population.
Lithuania, Kulupenai, 20th c, ExpansionΙn 1923: 75 homesteads in the village; - in 1931- 1932 part of the railway, station and the biggest railway bridge built in the region;In 1931, the bridge across the river Salantas being built.
Poland, Pobiedizka, World War IIThe nightmare of the World War II consumed many lives
and stopped the economic development
Greece, Rhodes: Modern periodAfter Word War II, in 1947, Rhodes, together with the other islands of the Dodecanese, was reunited with Greece
In 1988, the old town of Rhodes was designated as a World Heritage City by UNESCO.
Lithuania, Kulupenai: under Soviet Regime.in 1947, Flaxmill Malting and power plant completed;
- after WWII, village community divided in two political parts: 1) loyal to the soviet regime,
2) against the soviet system;-some young men became partizans – „The Forest Brothers“- waged guerrilla war (1944-1953) against soviet rule, and were killed; - in 1945- 1952, about 20 (67 people) families were deported to Siberia by NKVD ( Soviet Commisssariat for Internal Affairs)..
Bulgaria, Svishtov, Nikolay Katranov Secondary Education SchoolFounded in 1964.
Named after Nikolay Dimitrov Katranov (Bulgarian poet, translator and revolutionary, born in Svishtov, 1929).
Nowadays, the school has 760 students and 70 teachers, working with them.
Lithuania, Kulupenai, The church of the communityfirst construction began before WWII, but stopped due to soviet occupation;
- 1993, a chapel established in the community centre, but too small for the village;
- 1997, the construction plan confirmed and the work began;
- 4th April, 2014, opened and blessed - after 8 years of construction works;
- many people of Kulupenai made donations for the church to be built;
Turkey, Istanbul, 2016:On the heaven of Istanbul!