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History of Rome

  • 600 BCE

    Etruscans settle in Italy

    The Etruscans created cities in northern and central Italy, bringing people to the area.
  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    First Punic War

    The first war between the Romans and the Carthaginians (of three wars).
  • 218 BCE

    Hannibal invades Italy

    Hannibal invades Italy
  • Period: 135 BCE to 132 BCE

    First Servile War

  • 79 BCE

    Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius

    Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
    Mt. Vesuvius erupted near Pompeii in 79 BC. Ashes covered the town and perfectly preserved artifacts and even humans! It is estimated that 13,000 people died from the eruption.
  • Period: 73 BCE to 71 BCE

    Slave uprising lead by Spartacus

  • 64 BCE

    Pompey invades Jerusalem successfully

  • 45 BCE

    Caesar defeats Pompey and makes himself the first dictator of Rome

  • 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar is Assassinated

    Julius Caesar is Assassinated
    Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Theater of Pompey by Roman senators. He was stabbed 23 times.
  • Period: 44 BCE to 31 BCE

    Second Triumvirate

    Rome is lead by Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus.
  • 31 BCE

    Octavian defeats Cleopatra and Marc Antony

    Octavian defeats Cleopatra and Marc Antony
  • 27 BCE

    Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar

    Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar
  • Period: 27 BCE to 14

    Augustus is the first Roman emperor

    Augustus was the great-grandson and adopted son of Julius Caesar. He was the first emperor in the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. The Pax Romana was during his reign, which made Romans prioritize art and building new structures. Augustus passed many reforms, such as raising the birth rate in Rome, made adultery illegal, offer tax incentives for families with more than three children, and create penalties for childless marriages. He charged his daughter and granddaughter for adultery.
  • 19 BCE

    The Publication of the Aeneid

    The Publication of the Aeneid
    The book was published when Vergil died. However, the book was not finished and Vergil wanted to have the 12-book series destroyed; yet, Augustus, who authorized the initial writing of the book, forced the book to be published.
  • 19 BCE

    Augustus given supreme power

    In 19 BCE, Augustus was given supreme power, known as Imperium Maius, over every province controlled by the Roman empire.
  • 2 BCE

    Augustus named Pater Patriae

    In 2 BCE, Augustus was named the Pater Patriae, the father of his country.
  • 4

    Jesus is born

    Jesus is born
    Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem. His parents were Mary and Joseph, who came to Bethlehem in order to complete a census.
  • Period: 14 to 37

    Tiberius rules as emperor

    Tiberius is the adopted son of Augustus and his role as emperor was chosen unwillingly by his mother Livia. Tiberius didn’t want to be the emperor and had his own villa on Capri. Tiberius stopped the indulgence and waste of the imperial money, which left behind twenty times the wealth Tiberius had inherited when he died.
  • 20

    Tiberius exiles Jewish Community

    In Rome, when it was thought that fours Jews were planning to steal a woman’s treasure, Tiberius exiled the entire Jewish community.
  • 23

    Drusus, Tiberius's son, dies

    Tiberius’ son Drusus died, which had then saddened him and seen Tiberius trust most of his time to the command of the Praetorian Guard, Senjanus.
  • 27

    Tiberius moves to Capri

    Tiberius left Rome to visit parts in Southern Italy, and proceeded to stay at the island of Capri and never return. Capri is where he built many villas, with dungeons and a variety of entertainers.
  • 36

    Jesus is crucified

    Jesus is crucified
    The Gospels agree that Jesus died on a Friday during Passover and under the authority of Pontius Pilate, Jesus was charged to be crucified for blasphemy.
  • 37

    Caligula's mental state deteriorates.

    Caligula's mental state deteriorates.
    Caligula starts acting delusional. He was seen to dress in women’s clothes, practiced ugly expressions in the mirror, and favored the horse, Incitatus, that he gave it a house and marble stall.
  • Period: 37 to 41

    Caligula emperor

    Caligula was the son of the general Germanicus and was the first emperor to be assassinated. He was said to have experienced a serious illness that made him act deranged.
  • Period: 39 to 40

    Caligula leads military campaigns

    In 39 and 40, Caligula led military campaigns to the Rhine river and English Channel. Instead of paying attention in battle, he more focused on theatrical displays.
  • 41

    Caligula and his family are stabbed

    In January 41 AD, he and his family were stabbed by Praetorian Guard officers, who were led by Cassius Chaerea.
  • Period: 41 to 54

    Claudius is emperor

    Claudius came to power unexpectedly and was known for adding provinces into the Roman Empire. He was the son of Drusus, was considered the embarrassment of the family, and composed 20 books of Etruscan and 8 books of Carthaginian history.
  • Period: 41 to 42

    Claudius changes borders in North Africa

    Claudius annexed Mauretania in North Africa to become part of the Roman empire and then became two provinces, Caesariensis and Tingitana.
  • 43

    Claudius invades Britain successfully

    Claudius invaded Britain for popularity and gold, and he put a colony of veterans and client-kingdoms in the territory to protect it. This then made Britain a province for the Roman empire.
  • 47

    Claudius celebrates 800th anniversary of Rome and makes himself censor of Rome

    Claudius revived old religious ceremonies which celebrated the festival of the Secular Games. The nights of games celebrated the 800th birthday of Rome. Also in the same year, he made himself censor of Rome.
  • Period: 54 to 68

    Nero emperor

    54 to 68 CE. Nero is most notably known for his public persecutions of Christians and his possible involvement in the fires of Rome.
  • 58

    Otho sent to govern Lusitania

    In 58, Otho was sent to govern the province Lusitania for ten years.
  • Period: 58 to 68

    Otho governs Lusitania

    In 58, Otho was sent to govern the province Lusitania for ten years.
  • 64

    Great Fire of Rome

    Great Fire of Rome
    At night a fire broke out by the shops of the Circus Maximus. A fire went on for six days, cooled down, then another three days, ruining ten of Rome’s districts. Nero is said to have caused the fire in order to rebuild Rome and Nero did create many villas and a man-made lake after the incident. However, Nero himself blamed the fire on the Christians, who he was already was crucifying.
  • 64

    Nero rebuilds Rome and makes the Golden House

    Nero rebuilds Rome and makes the Golden House
    In 64, once the fire had burned down most of Rome, Nero took the chance to reconstruct the city with Greek style and built a palace known as the Golden House, covering a third of Rome.
  • 65

    Nero focuses on persecuting Christians

    In 65, Nero focused on persecuting Christians with initiating a Roman policy, as Christians were not easy to distinguish from the Jews. Nero had then earned himself the reputation of the antichrist.
  • 66

    Nero travels to Greece

    In 66, Nero took a trip to Greece for 15 months, contributing more to his artistic side and enthusiasm for Greek culture. Once he came back, people remarked on his delirious state and disbelief among senators.
  • Period: 67 to 68

    Vespasian wins almost all of Judea

    In 67 and 68, Vespasian conducted two successful campaigns and won almost all Judaea except Jerusalem. It was when Nero had died that he stopped fighting.
  • 68

    Death of Nero

    News of revolts by the later emperor, Galba, spread to Nero; who eventually fled the city. It is said that Nero committed suicide by dagger or that he was executed on the island of Cythnos. It signifies the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
  • 68

    Otho joins rebellion against Nero

    In 68, Otho joined a rebellion against the emperor Nero.
  • 69

    Year of the Four Emperors

    The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The suicide of the emperor Nero in 68 was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. 69 AD.
  • 69

    Otho's naval campaign against the Germans

    In March 69, Otho marched a naval campaign against Germans who wanted Vitellius and not him, and sent out Danube legions. The Vitellian forces were stronger and defeated his army at Bedriacum.
  • 69

    Vitellius marches on Otho's troops

    On April 16, 69, Vitellius's troops marched into Italy and defeated the emperor Otho’s forces at Bedriacum.
  • 69

    Vitellius's troops defeated in Second Battle of Bedriacum

    In October 69, Vitellius’ troops were defeated in the second battle of Bedriacum, where his Flavius Sabinus made Vitellius renounce his place as emperor.
  • 69

    Vitellius murdered

    On December 20, 69, Vespasian’s army attacked Rome and murdered Vitellius with great violence.
  • 69

    Vespasian builds his own Forum

    Vespasian builds his own Forum
    Vespasian used the taxes to build his own Forum, the Temple of Peace, and to build the Colosseum right over the foundations of Nero’s “Golden House.”
  • Period: 69 to 96

    Flavian Dynasty

    The reigns of the emperors Vespasian (69–79 A.D.), Titus (79–81 A.D.), and Domitian (81–96 A.D.) comprised the Flavian dynasty. The Flavians, unlike the Julio-Claudians before them, were of Italian gentry.
  • Period: 69 to 79

    Vespasian rules as Emperor

    He was the first to begin the Flavian dynasty and the last emperor from the year of the four emperors.
  • Period: 69 to 69

    Otho rules as Emperor

    After he helped a conspiracy murder Galba, he declared himself emperor. However, Otho’s troops had failed against opposing forces which led Otho to commit suicide.
  • Period: 69 to 69

    Vitellius rules as Emperor

    July 1, 69 -December 20, 69. Vitellius was the imperial governor in Lower Germany and won over the troops generously, who then named him emperor in January 2, 69 CE.
  • Period: 69 to 71

    Titus is involves in the Jewish War

    In 69, Titus was put in charge of the Jewish War and a large scale campaign in 70. The campaign ended up with the destruction of Jerusalem in September. Troops from Palestine also urged Titus to bring them back to Rome with him in 71, when he was made the commander of the Praetorian guard.
  • 70

    Vespasian changes tax policy

    On October 70 AD, Vespasian increased the provincial tax, revoked immunities granted to some Greek-speaking provinces and cities, reclaimed public land in Italy from squatters, and instituted new taxes on Jews.
  • Period: 75 to 79

    Colosseum built in Rome

    The Colosseum was built for public gladiatorial matches, games, and dramas. The structure could hold many spectators. Today, the only remains of the Colosseum are only its skeleton.
  • 79

    Titus finishes construction of Flavian Amphitheater

    Titus finishes construction of Flavian Amphitheater
    In 79, Titus completed the construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, also known as the Colosseum, and celebrated for over 100 days
  • Period: 79 to 81

    Titus rules as emperor

    Titus (79–Sept. 13, 81 A.D.), the son of Vespasian and who also had a rocky relationship with his brother Domitian. It is said that Titus’ death at age 41 was quickened by his brother, who would then become emperor.
  • Period: 81 to 96

    Domitian rules as emperor

    Domitian (Sep 14, 81–96 A.D.) comprised the Flavian dynasty. While his father Vespasian was battling in the eastern provinces, he stayed with his uncle Flavius Sabinus in Rome and was able to escape when his hiding place was set on fire. He is known for being hated by the aristocracy because of his cruelty. Domitian was assassinated by his own staff members, notably Stephanus, and killed at age forty-four.
  • 83

    Domitian goes to Germany

    In 83 CE, he went on a public campaign to Germany to engage the Chatti, with no personal experience himself on how to successful fight in battle. Without explicitly saying if he won, he still awarded himself the title of Germanicus for his so-called success.
  • 87

    Domitian becomes paranoid of senators

    In September 87 CE, Domitian’s increasing paranoia of senators and their power led to him accusing several senators in a conspiracy and executed. Before, many senators were stripped of their power and he assumed much of the power himself. He even forced people to call him master or god.
  • 96

    Nerva granted title of pater patriae

    Pater patriae means "father of the country"
  • Period: 96 to 180

    Five Good Emperors

    Five Good Emperors, the ancient Roman imperial succession of Nerva(reigned 96–98 CE), Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161), and Marcus Aurelius (161–180), who presided over the most majestic days of the Roman Empire.
  • Period: 96 to 98

    Nerva rules as Emperor

    Nerva, also known as Nerva Caesar Augustus, born 30 CE-January 98 CE. He was the Roman emperor from September 18, 96CE to Jan 98. The people granted him the title pater patriae (father of the fatherland). When emperor Domitian was assassinated, he became the emperor after serving consul twice, in 71 and 90 CE.
  • Period: 96 to 98

    Nerva fixed broken infrastructure

    During his reign, he repaired broken infrastructure caused by overuse or environmental damages. For example, he fixed parts of the Colosseum after the Tiber had flooded, built granaries, and fixed up roads and aqueducts.
  • Period: 96 to 98

    Nerva relaxes Jewish taxes

    Nerva relaxed a Jewish tax that was first enacted by the emperor Vespasian. (unknown date) He also enunciated the ways of terrorist means through which Domitian had ruled by the use of propaganda.
  • 97

    Mutiny against Nerva

    The Praetorian Guard, under the leadership of Casperius Aelianus, captured Nerva and imprisoned him and demanded Nerva to give them custody of Petronius and Parthenius, who killed Domitian. This damaged Nerva's power, since he lost the respect of the military.
  • Period: 98 to 117

    Trajan rules as emperor

    Trajan (98–117)-also known as Marcus Ulpius Traianus, was Roman emperor from 98 to 117 CE.
  • Period: 101 to 105

    Trajan battles Dacians

    Trajan’s passion was war and in 101CE, he left Rome to battle the Dacians and defeated them at Tapae and again in 105 CE. He and his army went all the way to the Dacian capital of Sarmizegethusa where he seized the Dacians entire treasury. The entire Dacian empire was brought into the empire.
  • 112

    Forum of Trajan dedicated

    Forum of Trajan dedicated
    Forum of Trajan, financed by the seized Dacian treasury, was dedicated in 112 CE.
  • 117

    Construction of the Hadrian Wall

    Construction of the Hadrian Wall
    In 117 AD, Hadrian ordered the creation of the Hadrian Wall. The wall defended Rome’s territory in Britain from attack by barbarians. It is located near the border of Scotland and England, and the building process took six years to complete.
  • Period: 117 to 138

    Hadrian rules as emperor

    Hadrian took on many building projects and funded the construction of new buildings and houses. He had rebuilt the Pantheon, which was destroyed in the fire, and Trajan’s Forum.
  • 130

    Antinous dies

    Antinous was Hadrian's lover and his death affected Hadrian greatly.
  • 130

    Hadrian mourns the loss of his lover

    In 130 CE, Hadrian dedicated a variety of sites to his lover Antinous, who had drowned in the Nile and affected Hadrian greatly. He founded the city of Antinoopolis in Egypt in his memory.
  • Period: 138 to 161

    Antoninus Pius rules as emperor

    Antoninus wanted the Roman administration to be fair, so he freed many men that were imprisoned by the previous emperor. Also, his strict rule on finances created a surplus, and trade and commerce flourished.
    Like Hadrian, he completed many construction projects, like repairing the Colosseum, and built the Temple of the Deified Hadrian.
  • 141

    Antonius Pius finishes construction of Hadrian's Wall

    Antonius Pius finished the construction of Hadrian’s wall across Britain and created the Armenian Kingdom in order to increase defenses against Parthia. But he also constructed the Antonine Wall until he abandoned the wall to go back to the Hadrian wall.
  • 142

    Antonine Wall built

    Antonine Wall built
    This wall was built in order to extend Rome's territory. It is located 100 miles north of Hadrian's Wall and is 36 miles long.
  • 147

    Celebration of the 900th Anniversary of the foundation of Rome

    Antonius Pius held an elaborate celebration of the 900th anniversary of the foundation of Rome.
  • 161

    Marcus asks Lucius Verus to co-emperor with him and works on "Meditations"

    Marcus is the author of the philosophical work Meditations, and is known as the “Philosopher.” Marcus asked that Lucius Verus was co-emperor with him. They began creating programs that helped the poor and recognizing the military with more pay and greater honor.
  • Period: 161 to 180

    Marcus Aurelius rules as Emperor

    Marcus encouraged free speech, the arts, and education, rather than oppressing the Roman citizens.
  • Period: 162 to 166

    Aurelius persecutes Christians

    While Verus was attending to military duties, Aurelius was left to run Rome. A group of Christians were refusing to be apart of the imposed religion and were disruptive. At the time, this was necessary in order to keep the peace.
  • 167

    Aurelius joins Verus to fight invaders

    The Marcomanni tribe of Germania was attempting to invade a Roman province. Aurelius and Verus worked together to fight back and were successful and brought back peace. .