Ancient Rome (753 BCE to 476 CE)

Timeline created by jaythornton20
In History
  • -753 BCE

    The Start of Rome

    The Start of Rome
    Legend says that Rome was founded by twin brothers named Romulus and Remus. They were said to be found by a she-wolf who took care of the infants until they were found by a shepard who adopted them. When they became adults they went on to develop the area where they were found. Then in a fight over location Romulus killed his brother and became the ruler of the settlement named after him "Rome."
  • -715 BCE

    Numa Pompilius

    Numa Pompilius
    Died in: 672 BCE

    The second king of Rome is responsible for creating the religious calendar, and for founding early roman religious institutions. His personality is described to be tranquil and peaceful.
  • -672 BCE

    Tullus Hostilius

    Tullus Hostilius
    Died in: 641 BCE
    The third king of Rome was similar to Romulus, he to war with neighboring cities like Fidenae and Veii. These wars increased the Roman population and militia. Tullus incorporated Alba Longa in Rome with the famous battle between Roman and Alban brothers. He also founded the first Senate chambers, named the Curia Hostilia after him, and founded the Comitium, a meeting place for the popular assembly.
  • -642 BCE

    Ancus Marcius

    Ancus Marcius
    Died in: 617 BCE
    The fourth king of Rome had some legendary accomplishments. For example, he was responsible for the first expansion of Rome from the Tiber river to Janiculum Hill, for the settlement of Aventine Hill, and he also founded Ostia a port at the mouth of the Tiber.
  • -616 BCE

    Tarquinius Priscus

    Tarquinius Priscus
    Died in: 578 BCE
    The fifth king of Rome was originally from Etruria, from which he moved to Rome due to his wife a prophet named Tanaquil. In Rome he was assigned to be the guardian of the sons of King Ancus Marcius. When Ancus died Tarquin took his place. He helped start the construction of a wall around the city, he even built Rome's first sewer, the Cloaca Maxima. He was eventually killed by Ancus's sons. Ancus's son Servius Tullius became the new king shortly after.
  • -578 BCE

    Servius Tullius

    Servius Tullius
    Died in: 534 BCE
    The sixth king of Rome was the husband of the fifth king of Rome's daughter. He was responsible for the Servian Constitution which divided citizens into five classes by wealth. He was also responsible for founding the earliest and most important shrine of Diana, the goddess of nature. A treaty between Rome and the Latin League took place during his reign as well. Eventually he was killed by his daughter and her husband, who would soon be the seventh king.
  • -534 BCE

    Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

    Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
    Died in: 495 BCE
    The seventh king of Rome was the husband of Servius's daughter. Lucius killed his wife's father so he could be king. This was just the start of his cruel reign. Later many of the senators were killed, and the king's son Sextus raped a noblewoman Lucretia. As a result a revolt was organized by a group of senators, led by Lucius Brutus (who would later become the founder of the republic), to kick the Tarquins out of Rome. The revolt ended this king's reign and the monarchy.
  • -509 BCE

    The End of the Monarchy

    The End of the Monarchy
    The end of the monarchy was with the seventh king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who allowed the worst to happen while he was in power. During his reign many senators were executed, and a noblewoman (Lucretia) was raped, which pushed the people to their limit. The soon to be leader of the Republic (Lucius Brutus) would lead a revolt against the king, which would force the Tarquins out of Rome, and end the monarchy.
  • -509 BCE

    The Beginning of the Republic

    The Beginning of the Republic
    After Lucius Tarquinius Superbus is overthrown Lucius Brutus decides to establish a republic or government of elected officials, this was a representative government. The power from the monarch passed from a king to two magistrates or consuls who also acted as chiefs of the militia. Lucius was one of these consuls until he died in battle, killed by the seventh king's son.
  • -450 BCE

    The Twelve Tables

    The Twelve Tables
    The first Roman law code was written on twelve bronze tablets by 10 commissioners before the plebeians(citizens of Rome). . These commissioners felt their rights as people weren't fair. Judgements were made by a group of patricians(citizens of more wealthy families that made up most of the senate) with unwritten rules. These tables included legal procedure issues, civil rights, and property rights.
  • -312 BCE

    Via Appia

    Via Appia
    Rome's first highway is built, extending from southeast Rome to Tarentum, and then to the Adriatic Coast at Brundism. This highway united Rome with all its new land from expansion.
  • -264 BCE

    Punic Wars

    Punic Wars
    Ended: 146 BCE By the time the Punic Wars started, Rome already controlled the entire Italian Peninsula. In these wars Rome fought with Carthage three times. Rome defeated Carthage and sold prisoners of war into slavery. At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome controlled all of Sicily, the western Mediterranean, much of Spain, and part of Northern Africa.
  • -215 BCE

    Macedonian Wars

    Macedonian Wars
    The first war was during the second Punic War. King Phillip of Macedonia wanted Rome so bad that he used Hannibal to help him, so he won and he could keep his conquest in Illyria. War #2 was won by Rome and Greece an ally. For peace Phillip had to give up his navy, money, and his territories outside of Macedonia. War #3 was won by Rome again, this caused Macedonia to have to pay tribute to Rome. War #4 was won by Rome making Macedonia a Roman province.
  • -107 BCE

    Gaius Marius

    Gaius Marius
    Was a Roman general and consul seven times; First to show that political support could come from old army veterans for votes. Gaius was a brave, strong, and skillful general.
  • -73 BCE

    Spartacus Rebellion (Third Servile War/ Slave Rebellion)

    Spartacus Rebellion (Third Servile War/ Slave Rebellion)
    With the increase of land, Rome gained more slaves which meant harsher conditions, that got worst after this rebellion. Spartacus was a slave that led the rebellion, but it resulted in thousands of slaves being captured and killed before it was over.
  • -60 BCE

    1st Triumvirate Formed

    1st Triumvirate Formed
    Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed the power of three in Rome. Pompey and Crassus already had conflict between each other so Julius Caesar decided to form a friendship/alliance between the three. They would split the Roman provinces up for each of their abilities.
  • -47 BCE

    Julius Caesar (elected dictator)

    Julius Caesar (elected dictator)
    Died in: 44 BCE The son of Gaius Caesar, was one of the world's greatest military leaders. As consul, Julius conquers Gaul, defeats Crassus and Pompey becomes the sole dictator of Rome, invades Egypt makes Cleopatra queen, then he is killed by his senators at a meeting due to a conspiracy.
  • -44 BCE

    Julius Ceasar's Death

    Julius Ceasar's Death
    The new dictator and 1st of Rome was killed in 44 BCE sixty senators came together to kill Julius due to a conspiracy. When he entered the hall for the meeting he was stabbed by all of them. His own brother in law helped.
  • -43 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate Formed

    2nd Triumvirate Formed
    After Caesar's death, Lepidus, Marc Anthony, and Octavian agree to rule together. Just like the first triumvirate, the provinces were split between each ruler. Octavian had control over Africa, Sicily, Sardinia, and Italy. Lepidus had Gaul, and parts near Spain. And Anthony controls the eastern parts of Greece, including Egypt.
  • -42 BCE

    Octavian and Marc Anthony defeat Caesar's Assassins

    Octavian and Marc Anthony defeat Caesar's Assassins
    After Caesar's death, Octavious vowed to revenge his father's death, him, Anthony, and Lepidus the second triumvirate would defeat his assassins (Brutus and Cassius) at The Battle of Phillipi.
  • -30 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate Destroyed

    2nd Triumvirate Destroyed
    The members were jealous of each other so they went to war with their armies. In 36 BCE Lepidus is defeated in battle, which leaves Octavian and Anthony to fight. In 32-31 BCE Octavian defeats Anthony with his new wife Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. They fled. Then by 30 BCE Octavian would be the sole ruler, Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
  • 27

    Octavian/Augustus

    Octavian/Augustus
    Died in: 14 CE Founder of the Roman Empire, 1st emperor of the Empire, adopted son of Julius Caesar who killed the killers of his father and the other two members of the trio. He was also responsible for Pax Romana (a period of peace in Rome).
  • 41

    Claudius

    Claudius
    Died in: 54 CE Claudius bribed guards to become emperor. During his reign Rome conquers Britannia, he built two famous aqueducts, Romans perfected the Arch, which was major in architecture. Then Claudius married his niece, who convinced him to give her other son (Nero) that was not by him the emperor title. He was soon killed by his niece so she could reap the benefits from her son.
  • 54

    Nero

    Nero
    Died in: 68 CE Nero burned the city so he could build his "pleasure palace". He then blamed the Christians for the crime, which is why most of them were killed. He then built his palace over most of the public land, and using public money.
  • 59

    Nero kills his Mother

    Nero kills his Mother
    Claudius's niece Agrippina, was Nero's mother who convinced Cladius to adopt Nero and make him heir. Then she killed her husband for Nero. But as Nero grew up as emperor his mother became overbearing, and she dint agree with his affair with Poppaea Sabina so he murdered her.
  • 68

    Nero is Overthrown

    Nero is Overthrown
    Nero is overthrown due to his selfishness and greediness. His own guards killed him. He built his palace over thousands of homes that were burned, thousands of lives were lost and people were tired. He even persecuted innocent Christians for the fire.
  • 69

    Vespasian

    Vespasian
    Without a new emperor, this caused the armies to fight over power, and whoever won would be titled emperor. Vespasian won this war and was emperor. During his reign, he started the building of the Collesium.
  • 72

    Construction of the Collesium begins

    Construction of the Collesium begins
    Vespasian uses Rome's most skilled architects to fill Nero's lake and use the land to build the Collesium. To help build the structure Jewish slaves used.
  • 80

    The Collesium is built

    The Collesium is built
    The 160 feet tall structure was finishd, but after Vespasian died. His son Titus continued construction and it was finished. At the Collesium animals were killed, prisoners were executed, gladiators fought, and there were even naval battles. Water from Nero's old lake pipes would fill the middle of the Collesium.
  • 98

    Trajan

    Trajan
    Died in: 117 CE The son of Nerva and first emperorto comefrom outside Italy made Rome better. He made repairs to roads, harbours, and made the last great aqueduct. He also built a new forum and expanded Rome by conquering Dacia
  • 104

    Nero's Palace Destroyed

    Nero's Palace Destroyed
    Nero's golden home was filed and cover to diminish any memory of Nero.
  • 107

    Trajan conquers Dacia

    Trajan conquers Dacia
    The Dacian's surrendured to Trajan in Rome's Dacian Wars. Trajan brought back more wealth to Rome with the victory of this war. Rome gained Dacia's gold mines which would help Rome expand and trade.
  • 112

    Trajan's Forum

    Trajan's Forum
    Trajan's forum was built by Apolladorus and his builders had to blow and dig through a huge stone hillside to have enough land to build this forum. His forum had a library with Greek and Latin text, and in the center was his column that told the story of his conquest of Dacia, and acted as propaganda for the people of Rome. His forum also included a market that was six levels and almost as big as a mall with 150 storefronts, with merchants that sold shoes, clothing and other things.
  • 117

    Hadrian

    Hadrian
    Died in: 138 CE Hadrian was a generous Emperor. He helpd the military by building forts and reforming it, he protected the people by building his wall with ditches that kept the barbarians out. He gave mony to many communities and individuals, he would let children inherit land from their parents and he even repaired buildings.
  • 122

    Hadrian's Wall

    Hadrian's Wall
    Hadrian rarely spent time in one place. So he traveled to Britain where he would build a wall to keep out invaders. He let his Roman solider and guards build the wall very high, and if that wasn't enough to deter them he added twenty feet ditches to make sure no one could cross.
  • 285

    Rome Splits

    Rome Splits
    Diocletian split the Roman Empire to help the Emperors rule more efficiently. There would be one emperor for the east and one for the west.
  • 306

    Constantine

    Constantine
    Died in: 337 CE Constantine was the first Christian Emperor of Rome. He even helped the spread of Christianity throughout Rome. He defeated Maxentius at Milvian due to a vision sent by God, he grants legal rights to Christians, and makes them citizens, declares religious freedom for everyone, and allows Jews to be on Council. He also made Christianity the sole religion of Rome. Then in 324 CE he reunited Rome and moved the capital to Byzantium (Constantinople).
  • 476

    Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

    Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
    30 years after Constantine's death Rome split again. The eastern Roman empire was at war with Persia, but would continue to thrive. On the other hand, the western Roman Empire was losing money due to having to constantly go to war, and there was a lot of internal conflict. Mostly Germanic tribes took over Rome one by one. First Britain, then Spain, Northern Africa, Gaul and Italy, and lastly in 476 CE a Germanic prince (Odovacar) gained control of the Roman militia.
  • Period:
    -753 BCE
    to
    -509 BCE

    Rome as a Monarchy

    Time period when Rome had a king and queen; The next leader would be in the bloodline.
  • Period:
    -509 BCE
    to
    -27 BCE

    Rome as a Republic

    Time period when Rome was represented by a Senate and two assemblies
  • Period:
    -27 BCE
    to
    476

    Rome as an Empire

    Time period when Rome was ruled by different emperors or imperialism. The emperor title was sometimes passed on through blood line.
  • Period:
    -27 BCE
    to
    180

    Pax Romana

    Pax Romana or Roman Peace was a period of tranquillity and in the Mediterranean from 27 BCE to 180 CE. The empire allowed each province to make its own laws and enforce them, but they still had to pay taxes. Every province was still protected by the Roman Militia.