roman emperors

  • 31 BCE

    Augustus and Battle of Actium

    Augustus and Battle of Actium
    Augustus beats Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium, which added Egypt to the Roman Empire.
  • 27 BCE

    Founding of the Principate

    In 27 BC, Augustus founds the Principate which was a monarchy system where an emperor holds power for life.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 14

    Augustus Rule

    Augustus ruled from 27 BC to 14 AD. The Battle of Actium helped him enact the Principate, which allowed him to become emperor.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 68

    Julio-Claudian Dynasty

    The Julio-Claudian Dynasty lasted from 27 BC - 68 AD. It included Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. The throne was not handed down by blood. The rulers ranged from enforcing justice to spending excessive money.
  • 19 BCE

    The Aeneid is Published

    The Aeneid is Published
    Virgil wrote the Aeneid as a founding story for Rome. He wrote it from 29 - 19 BC and died before he could finish it. He told those around him that they could never publish it but they did anyways after his death in 19 BC.
  • 4 BCE

    Jesus' Birth

    Jesus' Birth
    Jesus was born in Bethlehem in 4 BC. His birth was initially thought to be in 1 AD, but with new research is has been revised to be somewhere from 4 - 6 BC.
  • Period: 14 to 37

    Tiberius Rule

    Tiberius' mother married Augustus in order to guarantee that Tiberius would become emperor. Tiberius did not want to be emperor.
  • 23

    Tiberius' Son Dies

    Tiberius' Son Dies
    Tiberius' son Drusus dies, which saddens Tiberius. He starts to delegate more of his powers to others and he really only was emperor in name.
  • 27

    Tiberius Goes to Capri

    Tiberius Goes to Capri
    Tiberius went on what people thought was going to be a short trip to Capri. He never returned to Rome.
  • 30

    Jesus' Death

    Jesus' Death
    Jesus was crucified somewhere in the years 30 - 33 AD. The majority believes he was killed in the year 30 AD.
  • Period: 37 to 41

    Caligula Rule

    Caligula ruled from 37 AD to 41 AD. His whole family was exiled by TIberius and Sejanus, but after Sejanus died Tiberius took him in and prepared him to become emperor. He was assassinated by his praetorian guard.
  • Period: 39 to 40

    Caligula Leads Campaigns to Rhine and English Channel

    Caligula led campaigns to the Rhine and the English Channel and created battles for display.
  • 41

    Caligula Stabbed to Death

    Caligula Stabbed to Death
    Caligula was stabbed to death in 41 AD because he was spending too much money on lavish things. Although he initially started with smart spending on temples and infrastructures, he ended by spending and living lavishly.
  • Period: 41 to 54

    Claudius Rule

    Claudius was not the first choice of the Senate but ended up being a very good leader who brought some peace to Rome
  • 43

    Claudius Annexes Britain

    Claudius Annexes Britain
    In 43 AD, Claudius officially added Britain to the Roman Empire.
  • 50

    Claudius Adopts Nero

    Claudius adopts Nero as his son in 50 AD. Nero became emperor after Claudius died.
  • Period: 54 to 68

    Nero Rule

    He was adopted by Claudius at age 13 and became emperor when he was only 17. He was known to be politically generous at the beginning of his rule but soon became destructive.
  • 64

    Great Fire

    Great Fire
    On June 19, 64 AD the Great Fire broke out near the Circus Maximus and brought destruction to the city of Rome.
  • 64

    Nero and The Great Fire of Rome

    Nero and The Great Fire of Rome
    In 64 AD, a great fire spread through the city of Rome. It began in a few shops near the Circus Maximus and destroyed many parts of Rome. Many believe that Nero was the one who started the fire so that he could rebuild Rome how he wanted.
  • 65

    Conspiracy About Nero's Death

    Conspiracy About Nero's Death
    In 65 AD a conspiracy emerged about Nero's death. Nero had many senators and officers to be killed.
  • 68

    Galba Claims Throne

    Galba Claims Throne
    Nero did not have a successor to his throne. Galba knew this and the Senate appointed him. Galba was able to secure his position by killing many high elected officials to show his power.
  • Period: 68 to 69

    Galba Rule

    Nero did not have a successor so Galba marched on Rome and the Senate named his as emperor.
  • Period: 68 to 69

    The Year of the Four Emperors

    From 68 - 69 AD, Rome saw four different emperors. These men included Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. Galba was first and then Otho became emperor after he had Galbal killed. Vitellius came to power and then Vespasian after he marched on Rome.
  • 69

    Galba is Assassinated

    Galba is Assassinated
    Galba made many enemies very quickly during his short reign. He ignored his supporter, Marcus Otho. Otho became very mad and had his praetorian guard kill Galba.
  • 69

    Otho Sends Forces to Gaul

    Otho Sends Forces to Gaul
    In 69 AD Otho sent troops into southern Gaul. The German troops that he met there were much stronger than his own and his troops were defeated badly in April of that year.
  • 69

    Otho Kills Himself

    Otho killed himself after his military campaign in southern Gaul failed miserably. He was the second emperor to die in one year.
  • 69

    Vitellius Kills Off Opponents

    Vitellius Kills Off Opponents
    Vitellius needed to bring some order to Rome in the year of Four Emperors. He killed off some of his powerful opponents in order to secure his power.
  • 69

    Vitellius Loses Battle In Rome

    Vitellius Loses Battle In Rome
    Vitellius lost a brutal battle in Rome and considered resigning the throne. His troops would not let him but they ended up murdering him a little later.
  • Period: 69 to 69

    Otho Rule

    Otho became emperor after he had Galba assassinated. When he came to power, some people and events were already turned against him.
  • Period: 69 to 69

    Vitellius Rule

    Vitellius became the third emperor in one year after Otho killed himself.
  • Period: 69 to 79

    Vespasian Rule

    He marched on Rome and was fighting against Vitellius, who was also Roman. He defeated Vitellius' army and the Senate accepted him as emperor.
  • Period: 69 to 96

    Flavian Dynasty

    The Flavian Dynasty ruled from 69 - 96 AD and included Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. These positions were handed down by blood, as Titus and Domitian were Vespasian's children.
  • 70

    Vespasian Raises Taxes

    Vespasian Raises Taxes
    Vespasian knew that he had to restore Rome financially to get it back to where it once was. He raises taxes in order to do this and was able to build temples and begin the Colosseum.
  • 72

    Vespasian Begins Building Colosseum

    Vespasian Begins Building Colosseum
    Vespasian was able to raise taxes to restore Rome to some of its glory from pre-Nero. With these taxes, he began early construction on the Colosseum.
  • 79

    Financial Aid after Vesuvius

    Financial Aid after Vesuvius
    Titus was able to provide some financial aid after Vesuvius erupted. This helped his reputation as a relatively good emperor.
  • 79

    Mt. Vesuvius Erupts

    Mt. Vesuvius Erupts
    Mt. Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD. The ash, mud, and rock that was thrown from the mountain killed thousands and buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
  • Period: 79 to 81

    Titus Rule

    Titus was the son of Vespasian. He was already a successful politician and military leader before becoming emperor.
  • 80

    Titus Finishes Colosseum

    Titus Finishes Colosseum
    Titus was able to finish the building of the Colosseum. He opened the Colosseum by hosting one hundred days of games.
  • Period: 81 to 96

    Domitian Rule

    Titus died and his younger brother Domitian took the throne. Before becoming emperor he was already known as someone who lived in excess, which made his rule very different from his brother's.
  • 84

    Domitian Gives Pay Raise to Army

    Domitian Gives Pay Raise to Army
    Domitian gave a pay raise to the Army in 84 AD which allowed him to secure his power. With the army protecting him, he was able to hold treason trials and banished his critics.
  • 89

    Domitian Puts Down Revolt in Germany

    In 89 AD, Domitian put down a revolt in Germany. He used great brutality which helped him do it quickly. After this revolt, he started terrorizing senators and other leaders.
  • 96

    Nerva is Humiliated After Domitian's Death

    Nerva is Humiliated After Domitian's Death
    After Domitian was murdered, the army became enraged because Domitian had just given them pay raises. They asked Nerva to hand over those responsible but Nerva instead offered his own life. The army still killed those responsible which showed that Nerva did not have much control.
  • Period: 96 to 98

    Nerva Rula

    Nerva became emperor right after Domitian died. He promised that he would be a better ruler than Domitian and never execute a senator.
  • Period: 96 to 180

    The Five Good Emperors

    The Five Good Emperors ruled from 96 - 180 AD. The emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. It was a time of relative peace, which is why they were called the Five Good Emperors.
  • 97

    Nerva Adopts Trajan

    Nerva Adopts Trajan
    Nerva adopted Trajan in 97 AD. He prepared him to take his place as emperor after he died.
  • 98

    Trajan's Programs

    Trajan's Programs
    Trajan began many welfare programs and public works during his rule. He lowered taxes and started a welfare program for poor children. He also built bridges, harbors, and aquaducts.
  • Period: 98 to 117

    Trajan Rule

    He was the first emperor to be born outside of Rome. This showed that all wealthy and educated men were welcomed to be emperor, regardless of where they were born.
  • 115

    Trajan Expands Roman Borders

    By 115 AD, Trajan had captured the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon and had gotten all the way to the Persian Gulf. The Roman Empire would never be bigger than during this time.
  • Period: 117 to 138

    Hadrian Rule

    Hadrian ruled as emperor from 117 - 138 AD. He was praised for spending a lot of time away from Rome, unlike earlier emperors including Nero.
  • 122

    Hadrian's Wall

    Hadrian's Wall
    Hadrian began building his wall in north Britain in 122 AD. This wall marked the northern border of the Roman Empire but was also used to show Rome's power.
  • 130

    Hadrian's Turmoil in Jerusalem

    Hadrian's Turmoil in Jerusalem
    Hadrian visited Jerusalem, which was still in ruins from First Roman-Jewish War, and rebuilt it by his own design. Turmoil rose up when he built a temple to Jupiter on the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. The people rose up and revolted against him.
  • 138

    Antoninus' Frugal Ways

    Antoninus raised a lot of money for Rome, but spent very little for himself. He used it for building roads, bridges, and water systems.
  • Period: 138 to 161

    Antoninus Pius Rule

    He came into power after Hadrian died. Antoninus was Hadrian's adopted son. His reign was filled with relative peace.
  • 148

    Antoninus Pius Holds Games

    For the 900th anniversary of Rome, Antoninus held games in the Colosseum.
  • 161

    Marcus Aurelius and the Parthian Wars

    Marcus Aurelius and the Parthian Wars
    In 161 AD, the Parthian Wars began with the invasion of Armenia. These wars lasted until 166, with Rome winning a victory.
  • Period: 161 to 180

    Marcus Aurelius Rule

    Marcus Aurelius co-ruled with Lucius Verus. He is known as a philosophical ruler who sought power for the people's own good, not his own.
  • 180

    Marcus Aurelius Writes Meditations

    Marcus Aurelius Writes Meditations
    Marcus Aurelius was a philosophical ruler. They were a collection of his thoughts and his encouragement to himself to be the best leader he could be. This is what made his legacy last so long.