Period: 476 to 1050
Early Middle Ages
Period: 527 to 600
Byzantine EmpireGreek influence was especially strong,medical,philosophical and historical texts were kept in byzantine libraries were unknown in the west.A schism or split in 1054 AD.Marked the separation between orthodox and Roman Christianity.It had it owns rituals and priest were allowed to Matty.They own traditions of the Byzantine Empíreo which were different in the West.
Period: 527 to 1453
Fall of ConstantinopleShock un western,they think in the end of Christianity.
Ottomans blocked trade routes whith Asia,consequences:Portuguese and Spaniard trade through Atlantic ocean
Green thinkers flight yo Italy(influencer in the Rennaisance)
Istanbul capital of Turkish Enpire until World War 1.
Period: 529 to 565
The Code of JustinianThe peak of the Byzantine Empire in the 6th century the rule of Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora.He reconquered many territories like:Adriatic sea,North Africa,Italy,etc.
Hagia SophiaIt was buildit on Constantinople,which was used for important religious ceremonies of the court.It was an opulence for the city.
The MosqueThe mosque is the place of prayer for Muslims. Its name means "place to kneel". ·Haram: is a large prayer hall.
·Alquibla: is the haram wall that contains the Holy Book (Quran).
·Mihrab: is a niche on the quibla.
·Minbar: is the pulpit from wich the imam or religious authority
follower in prayer.
·Maqsura: is the area in the haram that is reserved for authorities.
·Sahn: or a patio is an open space surrounded by a portico.
·Minaret: is from the muezzins call followers to prayer.
Syrians and Berbers.
Jews and Christians(Mozarabs).
Slaves. Patriarchal Society Urban Society
The men, the head of family, Islamic world was its
the role of woman very limited outside, urban culture.
always subject to male authority.
Islamic Art·The muslims adopted artisitc elements from different cultures:
·Architecture: They incorporated their most important structural elements into their different buildings.
·Mosques: These were places of prayer.
·Civic and Military Buildings: Included buildings: madrasas, palaces, fortrsses.
·Funeral Buildings: Included decorative tombs.
·Decoration: Religious imagery, decorative shapes, naturalistic art, geometric arabesques and calligraphy.
·Gardens: Is one of the most characteristic elements.
The Birth of Islam·Arabia before Islam: polytheistic religion, trade route. ·Origins: ·Where? Arabian Penisula.
·When? In the early 7th century.622 AD.
·Who? Muhammad, last prophet.
·Muhammad fled from Mecca to La Medina. 622 AD. Beginnings of Islam. ·Jihad:
The Doctrine of Islam·Features: Monotheistic, "submission to God"
·The five basic precepts: 1º. Declaration of faith.
2º. Obligatory prayer.
3º. Pilgrimage to Mecca.
4º. Fasting during Ramadan.
5º. Compulsory charity. ·The Quran:
· Is the book that contains the teachings of Muhammad. The Quran contains only the literal unchanged words of Allah. ·Sharia Law:
· Code of conduct: like avoiding alcohol or certain kind of food, establishing marriage laws or punishing sins that are considered crimes.
Period: 632 to 945
The Islamic Empire·First Caliphs 632-661.
· Capital Medina.
·Umayyad caliphates. 661-750.
Period: 715 to 843
Charlemagne and the Carolingian EmpireMany different Germanic tribes settled inside the former Roman Empire: ·Gallia: Franks, Visigoths.
·Italy: Lombards, Ostrogoths.
·Britannia: Angles, Saxons.
·Hispania: Visigoths, Suevi.
·Northern Africa: Vandals. ·Origin: Franks. ·Charles Martel: 715 - 741 AD Battle of Poitiers. ·Pepin the Short: 751 - 768 AD Alliance with Roman Church. ·Charlemagne: 768 - 814 AD
800: Holy Roman Empire. ·End: Division of the Empire 843 Treaty of Verdun.
The Islamic. The First Caliphs·Sunni Islam
Supporters of the Umayyad family.Largest branch.Sunna. ·Shia Islam
Supporters of Ali.
Period: 901 to 1000
Urban Society·New centres of population, grew up which were surrounded by hamlets. They grew up over time and walls were built to surrounded them. These were unknown as burgs.
· As a result, the term"bourgeoisie" began to be used to refer to the richest citizens.
·Poorer population: servants, labourers, craftsmen. beggars and fugitive serfs. They did the harder work. These people included maids, unskilled labourers and apprentices in craft workshops.
· Many towns had a Jewish population, as Jewish quarters.
Parts of the Medieval CityFarmland, Warehouse, Romanesque church, Gatehouse, Lighthouse, Granary, Monastery, Vegetable gardens, City wall, City gates, City hall, River port, City gate, Crafts workshop, Gothic cathedral under costruction, A noble´s mansion, Convent, Royal palace, Peasant houses, Hospital, Houses outside the city, Aqueduct, Quarry and Forest.
The Economy of a Medieval City·Bartering: Trueque. ·Bill of Exchange: Letra de Cambio. ·Fair: Feria (mercado). ·Mint: Acuñar. ·Guild: Gremio. ·Trade: Comercio.New type of economy, increasing the commercial activity. It happened in burgs during the fairs. ·Currency: Early Middle Ages: Bartering.
11th century: mint of coins: kings collecct taxes. ·Banking: Money changers to convert the currency in each city. ·Moneylending: giving money with interests, usually done by Jewish. ·Bills of Exchange: Pay a loan in a time.
Period: 1001 to 1100
West-East schismThe patriarch of Constantinople was the highest authority, of the Byzantine Church.Differences between the Western(Roman Catholic)and Eastern(Byzantine).Churches grew whith a schism and then the Eastern Church has been called orthodox.
Period: 1001 to 1401
The Islamic Empire, the decline of the empire (XI-XV centuries)·Internal conflicts:
·Three differents. Caliphates ( Bagdad,Cordoba,Egypt). Foreign attacks:
·Western cruzaders (XI century).
·Mongols (XIII century).
·Ottoman Empire ( XIV century).
Wents on spreading into other religions:
Central Asia, China, India, eastern Africa, Indian ocean (following trade routes).
Period: 1050 to 1250
High Middle Ages
An Advanced Civilisation·Preserve knowledge from the Antiquity.
·Nature: Astronomy and Geography.
Politics during the Middle AgesThe Rise of the Monarchies:
·Levy taxes because of Economy prosperity.
·Increased domains thanks to war and marriage. The Emergence of Parliament:
·New political institution, Cortes.
· Origin of current parliaments.
·Developed in England (XVII century) and France (XVIII century).
·To swear loyalty to the king.
· To approve new taxes.
· Finance the Monarchy.
· Support the king in foreign policy measure. Conflicts between Pope and Emperor. Investiture Controversy
Period: 1201 to 1401
·Europe between 13th and 15th century.
·Emerged in France.
·Linked with the growth of the cities and promience of burgeoisie. Gothic Cathedrals:
·Simbol of prosperity.
·Located in the main area of the cities.
·The building have taken many years, including different architectural styles.
·Slender and vertical buildings, try to touch the sky, get closer to God.
·Floor plan, three naves.
·Façade with three portals.
Period: 1250 to 1492
Late Middle Ages
The Crisis of the 14th centuryPolitical evolution: 11th A: Population: 48 million Urban reinassance. New areas ploughed. 12-13th B: Population: 73 million Growing of network cities. Production slowed. 14th C: Population: 45 million Bad harvest (production decrease). Living conditions worse. Consequences of the Crisis: ·Political tensions
Hundred years war
Scorched Earth ·Famine and epidemics
Black Death ·Social unrest
Climate insecurity and violence
Period: 1309 to 1417
The Western Schism·Affected: The church or religion from the begining of the 14th century until the papacy.
·There was one pope in Rome, another in Avignon and a third was appointed in Pisa.
Period: 1337 to 1453
Wars and schismsHundred Year´s War ·From 1337 to 1453 ·Longest war between France and England. ·Causes:
·Rivalry between two monarchies for territories.
·Competition for trade. ·Consequences:
·1429: Joan of Arc, City of Orleans.
·England did not occupy French territories except Calais.
·1453: End of the conflict.
The Economy of the Islamic World·Agricuture and livestock.
·Based on agriculture, new products: orange, cotton, rice.
·Craftmanship(an art or trade requiring special skill).
·Leather, textiles, pottery.
Muslim Cities· Suburbs. · Public bathrooms.
· Alcazar. · Tanneries.
· Alcazaba. · Souks.
· Medina. · Alhondigas.
· Mosque. · Madrasa.