Religions

Religion in Middle Ages Europe

  • 100

    New Testament Complete

    New Testament Complete
    It is estimated taht John wrote the book of Revelation, the last book of the New Testament, in the year 95 CE. By this time, Christianity had begun to spread throughout the Roman Empire.
    The Roman government tolerated many religious beliefs within its empire, but not Chrstianity. Romans did not tolerate Christianity because Christians placed a higher priority on their faith than on loyalty to Rome.
  • 312

    Constantine Converts to Christianity

    Constantine Converts to Christianity
    Western Roman Emperor Constantine adopted Christianity after winning the Battle of Milvian Bridge. Before the battle began, Constantine reportedly looked at the sky and saw a cross above the sun and the words, "By this, win!" (in Greek) He ordered his soldiers to paint crosses on their shields and they won the battle.
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    Edict of Milan
    Emperor Constantine legalized all religions, which ended state persecution of Christians throughout the Roman Empire. In this letter, Constantine also ordered the return of confiscated Church property.
    Christians moved into positions of power in the government and army; Christianity soon became the official faith of the Roman Empire.
  • 325

    Council of Nicea

    Council of Nicea
    Leaders of the Christian Church met in Nicea to resolve disagreements on Church doctrine. A common, universal statement of belief was written - the Nicean Creed.
  • 330

    Monasteries in Egypt

    Monasteries in Egypt
    Monasteries are founded in the Egyptian desert
  • 410

    Visigoths Sack Rome

    Visigoths Sack Rome
    This attack is generally viewed as the end of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe.
  • 450

    Monasteries in Britian

    Monasteries in Britian
    The first British monasteries are establish in Wales
  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

    Birth of Muhammad
    Religious, political and military leader Abu al-Qasim Muhammad was born in Mecca.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Muhammad Conquers Mecca

    Muhammad Conquers Mecca
    Muhammad returned to Mecca with an army, took power and established Islam as the official religion.
  • Period: Jan 1, 632 to Jan 1, 650

    Period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs

    Successors of Muhammad ruled the Arab Empire and the official text of the Koran is established in Arabic.
  • Jun 8, 632

    Death of Muhammad

    Death of Muhammad
  • Jan 1, 636

    Omar (the second caliph) Conquers Syria

    Omar (the second caliph) Conquers Syria
  • Jan 1, 637

    Omar Conquers Persia and Jerusalem

    Omar Conquers Persia and Jerusalem
  • Jan 1, 641

    Omar Conquers Alexandria (Egypt)

    Omar Conquers Alexandria (Egypt)
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    Omayyad caliphs rule the Muslim Empire

  • Jan 1, 711

    Muslims Conquer Spain

    Muslims Conquer Spain
    Tolerant Muslim leaders allowed Jews social mobility, marking the beginning of the Golden Age for Jews in the Middle Ages in Spain and North Africa.
  • Jan 1, 717

    Pact of Umar

    Pact of Umar
    A document outlining the restrictions on non-muslims in Syria (an Islamic state).
  • Period: Jan 1, 717 to Jan 1, 718

    Seige of Constantinople

  • Period: Jan 1, 750 to Jan 1, 1258

    Golden Age of Islam

    From the time the Abbasids rose to power and moved the capital of the Empire to Baghdad, until the Mongols conquered Baghdad, the Arab world experienced a Renaissance in science, philosophy, medicine and education. Freedom of religion was a part of the Abbasid rule.
  • Jan 1, 800

    Charlemagne Crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    Charlemagne Crowned Holy Roman Emperor
    Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne head of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Period: Jan 1, 800 to Jan 1, 1100

    Arab Trade Routes Expand Across Northern Africa

  • Period: Jan 1, 800 to Jan 1, 875

    Carolingian Empire

    Charlemagne's rule as Holy Roman Emperor was a cultural high point of the early middle ages.
  • Jan 1, 1054

    The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    For centuries, the Western and Eastern Church grew apart in traditions and beliefs. In 1054, they officially became two separate entities: the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Jan 1, 1055

    Muslim-Chrisitan Conflicts Erupt in the Byzantine Empire

    Muslim-Chrisitan Conflicts Erupt in the Byzantine Empire
  • Jan 1, 1066

    End of Jewish Social Prominence in Muslim States

    End of Jewish Social Prominence in Muslim States
    Political turmoil in Grenada turned opinions against non-muslims and many were killed.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1096 to Jan 1, 1099

    The First Crusade

    Pope Urban II of Rome calls for the expulsion of Muslims from Jerusalem. One intent was to reclaim the Byzantine Empire for Christianity in order to heal the breach between the eastern and western churches.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1147 to Jan 1, 1148

    The Second Crusade

    Bernard of Clairvaux called for volunteers to recapture Jerusalem. It was a disastrous failure.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1189 to Jan 1, 1192

    The Third Crusade

    This attempt to recover Jerusalem also failed.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1200 to Jan 1, 1204

    The Fourth Crusade

    Instead of Jerusalem, they reclaimed and sacked Constantinople.
  • Jan 1, 1212

    The Children's Crusade

    The Children's Crusade
    Children attempted to re-take the Holy Land but were killed or enslaved before they made it to Jerusalem.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1219 to Jan 1, 1221

    The Fifth Crusade

    St. Francis of Assissi accompanied crusaders where they found victory in Egypt. He continued on his own to preach to the Sultan at a Muslim army camp.
  • Jan 1, 1229

    The Sixth Crusdade

    The Sixth Crusdade
    Frederick II made a treaty with the sultan.
  • Jan 1, 1248

    Christians Re-conquer Spain

    Christians Re-conquer Spain
  • Jan 1, 1248

    The Seventh Crusade

    The Seventh Crusade
    The final crusade
  • Jan 1, 1258

    Mongols Sack Baghdad

    Mongols Sack Baghdad
    End of Abbasid caliphs.
  • Jan 1, 1299

    Ottoman Empire is Established

    Ottoman Empire is Established
  • Period: Jan 1, 1300 to Jan 1, 1500

    Forced Jewish Migration

    During this time, European Jews were forced by local governments to leave. They headed eastward and ended up in areas such as modern-day Poland.
  • Jan 1, 1391

    The Great Conversion

    The Great Conversion
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople - End of Byzantine Empire

    Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople - End of Byzantine Empire
    Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople under the rule of Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The city is renamed Istanbul, and becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1481

    The Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition

    The Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition