Ancient Rome

  • 753 BCE

    Rome is founded

    Rome is founded
    According to legend, Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demi-gods, Romulus and Remus, in 753 BCE. The legend claims that, in an argument over who would rule the city (or, in another version, where the city would be located) Romulus killed Remus and named the city after himself
  • 750 BCE

    Trossuli incorporated into the legion

    Trossuli incorporated into the legion
    The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600.
  • 599 BCE

    Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out.

    Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out.
    The Circus Maximus was a chariot racetrack in Rome first constructed in the 6th century BCE. The Circus was also used for other public events such as the Roman Games and gladiator fights and was last used for chariot races in the 6th century CE.
  • 578 BCE

    Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, increases the number of the cavalry corps (equites) to 1,800.

    Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, increases the number of the cavalry corps (equites) to 1,800.
    Members had to serve in ten campaigns but had voting rights in the assembly, their horse and equipment was provided by the state, and they enjoyed a high status, hence the predominance of aristocrats in their ranks.
  • 534 BCE

    Reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome

    Reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome
    Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('Tarquin the Proud') was traditionally the seventh and last king of ancient Rome before it became a republic. He belonged to the Etruscan Tarquinii clan, reigned from 534 to 510 BCE, and was infamous for his tyrannical rule, although Rome did enlarge its territory in that time.
  • 509 BCE

    Rome becomes a Republic

    Rome becomes a Republic
    It all began when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan conquerors in 509 B.C.E. Centered north of Rome, the Etruscans had ruled over the Romans for hundreds of years. Once free, the Romans established a republic, a government in which citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf.
  • 498 BCE

    Rome defeats the Latins.

    Rome defeats the Latins.
    The Latin War was a war fought between the Roman Republic and the Latin League from 498 BC to 493 BC
  • 497 BCE

    Saturn Temple

    Saturn Temple
    The first temple dedicated to Saturn is constructed in the Roman Forum of Rome.
  • 484 BCE

    Temple Dioscuri

    Temple Dioscuri
    The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
  • 451 BCE

    Roman Law

    Roman Law
    Decemvirate and Publication of Twelve Tables of Roman Law
  • 390 BCE

    Gauls sack Rome

    Gauls sack Rome
    After the Gauls defeated the Romans at the confluence of the Tiber and the Allia rivers, the Gauls marched on to Rome. In late July 390 BCE, the undefended city fell to the invaders to be burnt and sacked. Only on the Capitol Hill, did a small number of Romans put up a valiant defense, holding out until famine forced them to surrender. The Romans were forced to pay the Gauls a hefty ransom of gold to depart.
  • 380 BCE

    Rebuilding of Rome. Strong walls around the seven hills.

    Rebuilding of Rome. Strong walls around the seven hills.
    Roman walls went from dry-stone and sun-dried bricks walls at the beginning of Roman civilization to walls built with a concrete core and brick facing by the beginning of the Empire. These walls also provide many clues to the history of ancient Rome and the different stages of the Roman economy and society.
  • 343 BCE

    First Samnite War

    First Samnite War
    The First Samnite War (343-341 BC) was the first of three clashes between Rome and the Samnite hill tribes, and ended in a Roman victory that saw the Republic begin to expand into Campania.
  • 340 BCE

    Latin War, victory for Rome.

    Latin War, victory for Rome.
    The Latin War of 340-338 was a major step in the road that led to Roman control of the Italian peninsula, and that saw a major change in the relationship between the Roman republic and her former Latin allies.
  • 321 BCE

    The Via Appia, a famous Roman road, is constructed

    The Via Appia, a famous Roman road, is constructed
    At first it ran only 132 miles (212 km) from Rome south-southeastward to ancient Capua, in Campania
  • 312 BCE

    Aqua Appia constructed

    Aqua Appia constructed
    Rome's first aqueduct constructed, the 16 km long Aqua Appia
  • 298 BCE

    Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnite people.

    Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnite people.
  • 295 BCE

    The first temple to Venus is dedicated on Rome's Aventine Hill

    The first temple to Venus is dedicated on Rome's Aventine Hill
  • 295 BCE

    Victory

    Victory
    Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbrians at Sentinum
  • 264 BCE

    First Punic War

    First Punic War
    The First Punic War was fought to establish control over the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily.
  • 260 BCE

    War Ships

    War Ships
    Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War
  • 219 BCE

    Second Punic War

    Second Punic War
    Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War
  • 200 BCE

    Producing coins

    Producing coins
    Roman coins were first produced in the late 4th century BCE in Italy and continued to be minted for another eight centuries across the empire. Denominations and values more or less constantly changed but certain types such as the sestertii and denarii would persist and come to rank amongst the most famous coins in history.
  • 196 BCE

    The earliest known Triumphal Arches are built in Rome by L.Sertinius

    The earliest known Triumphal Arches are built in Rome by L.Sertinius
    The triumphal arch was a type of Roman architectural monument built all over the empire to commemorate military triumphs and other significant events such as the accession of a new emperor.
  • 195 BCE

    Hannibal flees

    Hannibal flees
    Facing the threat of being handed to the Romans as a result of the opposition to the reforms he initiated in Carthage, Hannibal flees to Crete and then to Tyre, in Seleucid territory. He will become one of the military advisors of king Antiochos III Megas in his war against Rome.
  • 191 BCE

    The Achaean League signs a treaty of alliance with Rome.

    The Achaean League signs a treaty of alliance with Rome.
    The Achaean League (or Achaian Confederacy) was a federation of Greek city-states in the north and central parts of the Peloponnese in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. With a combined political representation and land army, the successful early years of the League would eventually bring it into conflict with other regional powers Sparta, Macedon, and then later Rome. Defeat by the latter in 146 BCE brought the confederacy to a dramatic end.
  • 189 BCE

    The treaty of Apamea Kibotos.

    The treaty of Apamea Kibotos.
    Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Kingdom and Rome joined by her allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
  • 172 BCE

    Third Macedonian War:

    Third Macedonian War:
    Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
    Rome defeats Macedon at Battle of Pydna, 168 BCE
  • 166 BCE

    Change in jurisdiciton

    Change in jurisdiciton
    Rome gives dominion over the Cyclades to Athens.
    Rome puts Delos under the jurisdiction of Athens and makes the island a free port
  • 159 BCE

    Clepsydra set up in Rome.

    Clepsydra set up in Rome.
    First water-clock set up in Rome. Clepsydra, also called water clock, ancient device for measuring time by the gradual flow of water.
  • 150 BCE

    Third Punic War

    Third Punic War
    A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War.
  • 149 BCE

    Rome sends an army

    Rome sends an army
    Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage.
  • 146 BCE

    Rome defeats Carthage in Punic Wars.

    Rome defeats Carthage in Punic Wars.
    Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 BCE), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.
  • 146 BCE

    War and new rule

    War and new rule
    Open war breaks out between Rome and the Achaean League.
    Rome sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Greece is ruled by Rome
  • 126 BCE

    Brothers Gracchi

    Brothers Gracchi
    The Gracchi, Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus, were Roman brothers who tried to reform Rome's social and political structure to help the lower classes, in the 2nd century B.C. The brothers were politicians who represented the plebs, or commoners, in the Roman government. They were also members of the Populares, a group of progressive activists interested in land reforms to benefit the poor. Some historians describe the Gracchi is the "founding fathers" of socialism and populism