Roman Empire Timeline

  • 43 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate

    Augustus, Lepidus, and Mark Antony join forces to create the 2nd Triumvirate
  • 43 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate

    Augustus, Mark Antony, and Lepidus join forces to create the 2nd Triumvirate.
  • 32 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate ends

  • 31 BCE

    Augustus comes to power

    Augustus wages war against Cleopatra and Antony after the 2nd Triumvirate ends and Lepidus falls from power
  • 31 BCE

    Battle of Actium

    Augustus wins the Battle of Actium against Cleopatra and Antony, who then flee to Egypt but commit suicide when Augustus (then Octavian) captures the country
  • 31 BCE

    Emperor Augustus

    Augustus wages war against Cleopatra and Antony after the 2nd Triumvirate ends and Lepidus falls from power.
  • 31 BCE

    Battle of Actium

    Battle of Actium
    Augustus wins the Battle of Actium against Cleopatra and Antony who then flee to Egypt but commit suicide when Augustus (then Octavian) captures the country.
  • Period: 31 BCE to 68

    Julio Claudian Dynasty

    Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
  • 27 BCE

    Pax Romana starts

    Augustus starts the Pax Romana
  • 27 BCE

    Pax Romana begins

    Augustus starts the Pax Romana.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 180

    Pax Romana

    A period of peace in the Roman Empire
  • Period: 27 BCE to 180

    Pax Romana

    A period of peace in Rome.
  • 19 BCE

    The Aeneid is published

    The Aeneid is published
  • 6 BCE

    Jesus is born in Bethlehem

    Jesus is born in Bethlehem
  • 14

    Augustus' death

    Augustus dies of natural causes at the age of 75
  • 14

    Tiberius comes to power

    He is the adopted son of Augustus who takes over the role of emperor after Augustus’ death
  • 14

    Augustus' death

    Emperor Augustus dies of natural causes at the age of 75.
  • 14

    Emperor Tiberius

    He is the adopted son of Augustus who takes over the role of emperor after Augustus' death.
  • 27

    Tiberius leaves Rome

    Tiberius left Rome to stay on the island of Capri. He built villas, prisons, underground dungeons, torture chambers, and places of execution
  • 27

    Tiberius leaves Rome

    Tiberius left Rome to stay on the island of Capri. He built villas, prisons, underground dungeons, torture chambers, and places of execution.
  • 30

    Jesus is crucified in Jerusalem

    Jesus is crucified in Jerusalem
  • 31

    Tiberius consulship with Senjanus

    Tiberius was elected consul of Rome for a fifth time with Sejanus being his co-consul, who takes a lot of power from Tiberius after he marries Livilla, the widow of Tiberius’ son.
  • 31

    Tiberius and Sejanus

    Tiberius is elected consul of Rome for a fifth time with Sejanus being his co-consul, who takes a lot of power from Tiberius after he marries Livilla, the widow of Tiberius’ son.
  • 37

    Tiberius' end

    Tiberius took part in a ceremonial javelin throwing game. He wrenched his school, which he, in return, lapses into a coma. Caligula, his successor was sent for by his physicians, thinking Tiberius would die. Caligula was named emperor before Tiberius became fully conscious.
  • 37

    Tiberius is succeeded

    Tiberius took part in a ceremonial javelin throwing game. He wrenched his school, which he, in return, lapses into a coma. Caligula, his successor was sent for by his physicians, thinking Tiberius would die. Caligula was named emperor before Tiberius became fully conscious.
  • 37

    Emperor Caligula

    Caligula is named emperor after Tiberius is assumed dead.
  • 38

    Naevius Macro is executed

    Tiberius executes a prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Naevius Sutorius Macro.
  • 40

    Caligula and Gaul

    Caligula marches with an army into Gaul and plunders thoroughly.
  • 41

    Caligula's death

    Caligula is murdered at the Palatine Games by Cassius Chaerea, Cornelius Sabinus, and others.
  • 41

    Emperor Claudius

    Claudius is unexpectedly appointed emperor following Caligula’s murder, he was discovered trembling in the palace by a soldier.
  • 42

    Annexation of Mauretania

    Claudius annexes Mauretania in North Africa and made two provinces: Caesariensis in the east and Tingitana in the west.
  • 47

    Claudius makes himself a censor

  • 49

    Annexation of Iturea

    Claudius annexes Iturea, also known as northeastern Palestine, to the province of Syria.
  • 54

    Claudius' death

    Claudius is poisoned by Julia Agrippina, using mushrooms.
  • 54

    Emperor Nero

    Emperor Nero
    Nero, the stepson of Claudius comes to power at the age of 17 after Claudius is poisoned and Agrippina insists to the Senate and Praetorian Guard on Nero being proclaimed emperor. Agrippina, he mother, had always wanted Nero to come to power and paved the way for him after taking out enemies among the palace advisors and Claudius himself.
  • 58

    Otho is sent from Rome to govern Lusitania

  • 59

    Agrippina's fall

    Nero orders Agrippina, his mother, be put to death after she had gone mentally insane
  • 64

    Reconstruction of Rome

    Nero has the city reconstructed in the Greek style after the great fire destroys 3 of the 12 districts in Rome. Only 4 districts went untouched by the fire.
  • 64

    The Great Fire rages in Rome

    The Great Fire rages in Rome
    Began in the slums of district south of Palatine Hill. It raged for 3 days and was fueled by high winds. Many believe that Nero is the cause for the fire so he could rebuild Rome the way he wanted.
  • 68

    Nero's death

    Nero hears about the revolts growing throughout the empire but he only laughs and does not take any action against them. The Senate condemned Nero to die a slave’s death, but he fled and stabbed himself in the throat.
  • 68

    Emperor Galba

    Vindex invites Galba to be emperor and to head a rebellion against Nero. Before then, Galba was the governor of Nearer Spain for 8 years.
  • 68

    Praetorians are angry at Galba

    Galba refuses to pay the praetorians a sum of money that was promised to them. In return, they assassinated Galba’s ally, Nymphidius.
  • 68

    Otho and Galba against Nero

    Otho joins the rebellion against Nero led by Galba.
  • 69

    Galba's death

    Galba and Piso Licianus, his heir, are murdered by the praetorians who were in favor of Otho, Galba’s ally that was not chosen as Galba’s predecessor. (January 15, 69 AD)
  • 69

    Emperor Otho

    Otho organizes a conspiracy against Galba and prepares to seize power after Piso was chosen as Galba’s successor over him. (January 15, 69 AD)
  • 69

    Germany doesn't align with Galba

    Legions of Upper Germany joined the legions of Lower Germany and proclaimed Vitellius emperor, after they refuse to vote allegiance to Galba. (January 2, 69 AD)
  • 69

    Otho's death

    Otho commits suicide after his army was defeated at Bedriacum.
  • 69

    Aulus Vitellius gains support

    Aulus Vitellius is proclaimed emperor by his men. He is supported by most governors of Spain, Gaul, and Britain, along with the armies of Upper Germany. But he isn't officially emperor of Rome (January 2, 69 AD)
  • 69

    Emperor Aulus Vitellius

    Vitellius’ armies fight the forces of Otho at Bedriacum and win. Otho commits suicide and Vitellius becomes emperor. (April 69 AD)
  • 69

    Vitellius is defeated

    Vitellius’ troops are defeated in a second battle of Bedriacum and Vespasian’s brother, Flavius Sabinus wants Vitellius to renounce his throne. (October 69)
  • 69

    Vitellius' death

    Vespasian’s army attacks Rome and Vitellius is murdered.
  • 69

    Emperor Vespasian

    Vespasian’s position as emperor is officially confirmed after his army attacks Rome and murders Vitellius (December 69).
  • Period: 69 to 69

    Year of Four Emperors

    Galba, Otho, Aulus Vitellius, and Vespasian
  • Period: 69 to 96

    Flavian Dynasty

    Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian
  • 70

    Vespasian returns to Rome

    Vespasian returns to Rome from Alexandria. Announces that he is increasing taxes in multiple Greek-speaking provinces and cities.
  • 70

    Titus conquers Jerusalem

  • 71

    Nerva is consul

  • 76

    Helvidius Priscus is executed

    Vespasian argues with a few doctrinaire senators over his sons succeeding him. He executes Helvidius Priscus.
  • 79

    Vespasian's death

    Vespasian contracts undulant fever, avoids proper care, and dies after catching a chill during a late night swim.
  • 79

    Emperor Titus

    Titus succeeds Vespasian peacefully after his death.
  • 79

    Mt. Vesuvius erupts

  • 80

    Completion of Colosseum

    Completion of Colosseum
    Titus completes the Flavian Amphitheatre, known as the Colosseum.
  • 81

    Titus' death

    Titus dies unexpectedly at 41 years old and it is believed to be caused by his brother, Domitian.
  • 81

    Emperor Domitian

    Domitian gains power after the unexpected death of his brother, Titus.
  • 85

    Domitian, censor for life

    Domitian becomes censor for life and gains control over senatorial membership and behavior.
  • 90

    Nerva is consul for 2nd term

  • Period: 93 to 96

    Time of Terror

    Regarded as a time of terror under Domitian’s rule.
  • 95

    Domitian executes an associate

    Domitian executed his cousin Flavius Clemens which brought fear to even his closest associates.
  • 96

    Domitian's death

    A conspiracy caused Domitian’s murder which was led by two praetorian prefects, palace officials, and Domitia Longina (his own wife).
  • 96

    Emperor Nerva

    Nerva becomes emperor after the assassination of Domitian.
  • Period: 96 to 180

    The Five Good Emperors

    Nerva, Trajan. Hadrian. Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
  • 97

    Nerva adopts Trajan

    Nerva insures succession by adopting his colleague Marcus Trajanus, governor of a German province.
  • 98

    Nerva's death

    Nerva dies and is laid to rest in the Mausoleum of Augustus.
  • 98

    Emperor Trajan

    Emperor Nerva dies and Trajan is accepted as emperor by both armies and the Senate.
  • 99

    Trajan returns to Rome

    Trajan returns to Rome after making preparations for a campaign into Dacia.
  • 101

    Trajan creates a new province

    Trajan creates a new province of Dacia, north of the Danube River, which provided land for Roman settlers, opened mines of gold and salt, and established a defensive zone against nomads from southern Russia.
  • 117

    Trajan's death

    Emperor Trajan dies as he is weak, discouraged, and ill.
  • 117

    Emperor Hadrian

    Emperor Hadrian
    Trajan adopts Hadrian and 3 days later dies. Hadrian is appointed emperor
  • 120

    Antoninus is the Emperor's advisor

    Antoninus is assigned to assist with judicial administration in Italy. He then becomes an advisor to Emperor Hadrian
  • 121

    Hadrian goes on a tour of Rome

    Hadrian goes on a tour of the empire to inspect troops and examine frontier defenses.
  • 134

    Hadrian goes to Judaea

    Hadrian leaves Rome to resolve revolts and conflicts arising in Judaea.
  • 138

    Hadrian is succeeded

    Hadrian arranges for Verus to succeed him. Verus is adopted by Antoninus, who is older and was also adopted by Hadrian.
  • 138

    Emperor Antoninus

    Antoninus is adopted by Hadrian and designated as his successor.
  • 142

    Antonine Wall

    The Antonine Wall is built 100 miles north of Hadrian’s Wall.
  • 147

    Junior Emperor Marcus Aurelius

    The main formal emperorship powers were conferred upon Marcus Aurelius (imperium and tribunicia potestas). He was basically a junior co-emperor.
  • 161

    Antonine's death

    Antonine dies of a fever after eating Alpine cheese.
  • 161

    Emperor Marcus Aurelius

    Marcus Aurelius became emperor following Antoninus’ death, and it was an easy transition.
  • 167

    Marcus leaves Rome

    Marcus set out on an expedition across the Danube with Verus his brother. While gone, German tribes invaded Italy and besieged Aquileia.
  • 180

    Marcus' death

    Marcus Aurelius dies at his military headquarters.