Martin luther

The Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Religious Wars

By kimison
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Johann Tetzel

    Johann Tetzel
    Johann Tetzel was a wandering friar, was authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences (which guaranteed the remission of sins), the proceeds of which would be used to rebuild St. Peter's Church in Rome and to provide funds to local dioceses.
  • Jan 2, 1517

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    Martin Luther (1483-1546), a Roman Catholic priest, Augustinian monk, and theologian, condemned these sales as impious expediencies. Tormented by obsessions of his own damnation, despite a life dedicated to holy service, he came to believe that the traditional means of attaining salvation (through good works like sacrament, prayer, and fasting), were in fact inadequate. He nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Church, inviting debate.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1519 to Jan 1, 1520

    Luther Formulates 6 Tenets of His Beliefs

    1.Salvation by faith alone
    2.The Bible is the ultimate authority
    3.The grace of God brings absolution
    4.Baptism and communion are the only valid sacraments
    5.The clergy is not superior to the laity
    6.The church should be subordinate to the state
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Burning the Papal Bull

    Burning the Papal Bull
    Luther burned a papal bull, an official proclamation that demanded his recantation and he was excommunicated by Pope Leo X. Charles V, honored a political debt to Frederick the Wise by refusing to outlaw Luther without a hearing.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1520 to

    Lutherism Spreads

    Preoccupied with wars against the Ottoman Turks and the French, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was unable to suppress the growth of Protestantism in Northern Europe. In addition to Northern Germany, Denmark and its province of Norway, Sweden and its holdings in Finland, and the Eastern Baltic all embraced Lutheranism.
  • Jan 1, 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    Luther was called to the Rhineland in Germany to appear before the Diet of Worms, a tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire with the power to outlaw--to condemn to be burned at the stake. Luther stated, "I neither can nor will I recant anything since it is neither right nor safe to act against conscience." The empire outlawed him. Frederick the Wise protected him and allowed him a safe place to reform the church and translate the Bible into German.
  • Jan 1, 1522

    Franz von Sickengen Converts to Lutheranism

    Franz von Sickengen Converts to Lutheranism
    A league of Lutheran knights, under the leadership of Franz von Sickengen, converted to Lutheranism, attacked the Catholic princes of the Rhineland, was suppressed, but encouraged most of the Northern German princes to convert. One motive was the financial gain brought by confiscating Roman Catholic lands.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1524 to Jan 1, 1526

    Peasant's War

    Luther's theological dissent inspired a variety of radical religious sects to form and to demand social reform based on the early Christian model. Demanding abolition of manorialism--the economic and social order of medieval feudalism--German peasants used force against the landownders, and Germany was wracked by the Peasant's War. Luther was appalled by these extremeists and others he believed took his ideas too far. He condemned the revolutionaries as "filthy swine".
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Diet of Speyer

    Diet of Speyer
    The Diet of Speyer refused to recognize the right of the German princes to determine the religion of their subjects.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1530 to Jan 1, 1539

    The Reformation Spreads

    The Reformation spreads beyond Germany
  • Jan 1, 1531

    League of Schmalkalden

    League of Schmalkalden
    The League of Schmalkalden was formed by newly Protestant princes to defend themselves against the emperor. Charles appealed to the Pope to call a church council that could compromise with the Lutherans and regain their allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope, fearing the papacy's loss of power, refused and lost all opportunity to reunite Western Christiandom.
  • Jan 1, 1531

    Huldreich Zwingli

    Huldreich Zwingli
    In Switzerland, Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531), who established Protestantism in Switzerland, was killed in a nationwide religious civil war. Although his followers accepted most of Luther's reforms, they argued that God's presence during communion is only symbolic. The Peace of Cappel allowed each Swiss canton to determine its own religion.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    The First of the Reform Popes

    The First of the Reform Popes
    Pope Paul III (1534-1549) assumed office as the first of the "reform popes."
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
  • Period: Jan 1, 1534 to Jan 1, 1539

    English Parliament Abolishes Roman Catholic Monasteries

    The English Parliament abolished Roman Catholic monasteries, confiscated their lands, and redistributed them to nobles and gentry who supported the newly formed Anglican church.
  • Jan 1, 1536

    John Calvin

    John Calvin
  • Jan 1, 1539

    Statute of the Six Articles

    Statute of the Six Articles
    In England, Parliament approved the Statute of the Six Articles.
    1. The seven sacraments were upheld
    2. Catholic theology was maintained against the tenents of both Lutheranism and Calvinism
    3. The authority of the monarch replaced the authority of the Pope.
    These helped define the Anglican Church despite the efforts of Mary Tudor
  • Jan 1, 1540

    Jesuits

    Jesuits
    Ignatious Loyola (1491-1556) established the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), a holy order that was organized in a military fashion, requiring of its members blind, obedience and absolute faith. They swore to suppress Protestantism by serving as advisors to Catholic kings, suppressed heresy through the Inquisition, established schools in Catholic nations, and sent missionaries to convert the "heathens." The Jesuits became the militant arm of the Catholic and Counter Reformations.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1540 to Jan 1, 1549

    Calvinism Spreads

  • Period: Jan 1, 1540 to Jan 1, 1549

    The Catholic and Counter Reformations Begin

    The Catholic and Counter Reformations Begin
  • Jan 1, 1541

    A Model Theocracy Formed

    A Model Theocracy Formed
    Calvin set-up a model theocracy in the Swiss city of Geneva. The Scottish Calvinists (Presbyterians) established a national church. The French Calvinists (Huguenots) made dramatic gains but were brutally supressed by the Catholic majority. The English Calvinists (Puritans and Pilgrims) failed in their revolution in the 1600's but established a colony in New England.
  • Jan 1, 1542

    The Inquisition

    The Inquisition
    The Jesuits were given control of the Spanish and Italian Inquisition. Perhaps tens of thousands were executed on even the suspicion of heresy. The Index of Prohibited Books was instituted in Catholic countries to keep heretical reading material out of the hands of the faithful.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1545 to Jan 1, 1563

    Council of Trent

  • Jan 1, 1555

    "Cuius regio, eius religio"

    "Cuius regio, eius religio"
    The Peace of Augsburg, after over two decades of religious strife, allowed the German princes to choose the religion of their subjects, although the choice was limited to either Lutheranism or Catholicism. "Cuius regio, eius religio" means "whose the region, his religion."