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Holy Roman Empire 1000-1500

  • Feb 2, 962

    Otto I crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    Otto I crowned Holy Roman Emperor
    Beginning of the Ottoman Dynasty; after nearly forty years without a ruler, Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on February 2, 962. Although Charlemagne was the first to recieve the title in 800, Otto I is considered the first Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Period: Feb 2, 962 to Jul 13, 1024

    Ottonian Dynasty

    Otto I r. Feb 2 962 - 7 May 973
    Otto II r. Dec 25 967 - Dec 7 983
    Otto III r. May 21 996 - Jan 23 1002
    Henry II r. Feb 14 1014 - Jul 13 1024
  • Period: Jan 16, 1000 to Jan 16, 1500

    HIgh Middle Ages

  • Period: Mar 26, 1027 to May 23, 1125

    Frankish Dynasty

  • Period: Jul 17, 1054 to Dec 31, 1105

    Henry IV's rule

    Henry IV ruled as King of the Germans beginning on July 17, 1054. On March 21,1084, he became Holy Roman Emperor, a title he retained until December 31, 1105, a year before his death.
  • Jan 16, 1075

    Dictatus Papae

    Dictatus Papae
    Pope Gregory VII declares that the papacy is the sole universal power, and the only authority which can appoint new bishops and other church officials. The "Dictatus Papae", a collection of laws thought to be written by Pope Gregory VII, also claimed that the church had the power to remove an emperor from power.
  • Period: Jan 16, 1075 to Jan 16, 1103

    Investiture Contest

    In the late 11th century and early 12th centuries, the papacy and the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire entered into a conflict over the appointment of church officials. Up until this point, church officials had always been appointed by ruling authorities. During this time span, Pope Gregory VII attempted to end this policy and give spiritual authorities such as himself the right to appoint church officials.
  • Feb 22, 1076

    Henry IV's excommunication

    Henry IV's excommunication
    Despite the "Dictatus Papae," Emperor Henry VI continued to appoint his own church officials. In 1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated the Emperor, stripping him of his authority over his subjects. Other German Princes took advantage of this situation and continued what they had started in the rebellion of 1075, The outlawed practice of building forts was taken up once again, and lords claimed power over peasents and royal lands.
  • Jan 25, 1077

    Walk to Canossa

    Walk to Canossa
    The Walk to Canossa refers to Henry IV's journey to a fortress at Canossa to beg the pope for forgiveness and release from his excommunication, which had sparked rebellions amongst the german aristocracy. He was refused entrance to the fortress for three days after his arrival on the 25th of January. On January 28th, the Pope released Henry IV from his excommunication, and he returned to power in his empire.
  • Period: Jun 4, 1133 to Dec 4, 1137

    Supplinburger Dynasty

  • Jun 18, 1155

    Coronation of Frederick Barbarossa

    Coronation of Frederick Barbarossa
    On the day of Barbarossa's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor, a riot broke out amongst the Romans. In putting down the revolt, Barbarossa killed over a thousand Romans and injured many more.
  • Period: Jun 18, 1155 to Sep 28, 1197

    Staufen Dynasty

  • Jan 16, 1170

    Barbarossa's attempt to conquer Lombardy

    Barbarossa's attempt to conquer Lombardy
    Sometime during his reign, Frederick Barbarossa attempted to absorb Lombardy in northern Italy into his empire. This integration if the profitable state would have granted Frederick the resources necessary to build a very powerful state that could have potentially spaned much of Europe. Unfortunately, throughout the middle ages, the papacy maintained the balance of power amongst the empires of Western Europe. In doing so, they prevented one from gaining enough power to overthrow the church.
  • Jan 16, 1189

    The Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade
    Frederick Barbarossa joins Richard the Lionheart and Philip Augustus in the Third Crusade to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims.
  • Jun 10, 1190

    Frederick Barbarossa's death

    Frederick never makes it to Jerusalem. On June 10th, 1190, he drowns in the Seleph River whilst bathing.
  • Period: Oct 4, 1209 to Jan 16, 1215

    Welf Dynasty

  • Period: Nov 22, 1220 to Dec 13, 1250

    Staufen Dynasty

  • Period: Jun 29, 1312 to Aug 24, 1313

    House of Luxembourg

  • Period: Jan 17, 1328 to Oct 11, 1347

    House of Wittelsbach

  • Period: Apr 5, 1355 to Dec 9, 1437

    House of Luxembourg

  • Jan 10, 1356

    The Golden Bull of 1356

    The Golden Bull of 1356
    A decree which regulated the election process of electing the King of the Romans. The bull decreed that all elections would take place in Frankfurt, and that they were to last thirty days. The bull also forbade the formation of city alliances.
  • Jan 16, 1414

    Council of Constance

    Council of Constance
    The Council of Constance was held from 1414-1418 in order to end the Western-Schism. When two men were elected as pope, Pope Urban VI first, and Pope Clement VII afterwards, they both claimed the title. In order to resolve the matter, the Council of Constance was called. In the end, both were forced to resign, and a new pope, Martin V, was elected.
  • Period: Mar 19, 1452 to

    House of Habsburg

  • Jan 16, 1495

    Imperial Reform

    Imperial Reform
    By the fifteen century, drastic changes to the way the Holy Roman Empire was governed had been made, such as the Golden Bull and the Council of Constance. The Imperial Reform consisted of acts intended to give the empire some form of structure. It formed the Imperial Chamber Court, where all legal proceedings were managed,Imperial Circle Estates, which grouped territories in order to manage defenses and collect taxes, and the Imperial Diet, which was essentially a court of estates.