REL184: Christian Traditions (Beginning Globally and Shifting to the US Context)

Timeline created by lhuber05
In History
  • 4 BCE

    Death of Herod the Great

    Death of Herod the Great
  • 36

    Pilate, Prefect of Judea

    Pilate, Prefect of Judea
    Pilate was Prefect from 26-36. He is likely responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus and other political prisoners. The inscription at Caeserea Maratime is one of the only records of his reign.
  • 49

    Paul's first letter to the Jesus Followers in Thessalonica

    Paul's first letter to the Jesus Followers in Thessalonica
  • 54

    Apostle Thomas Travels to India

    Apostle Thomas Travels to India
    According to tradition Thomas travels to India where he spreads the Xian tradition. The Mar Toma/ Syrian Orthodox Church in India traces itself to the 2nd century CE.
  • 58

    Paul's Letter to the Romans

  • 64

    Fire in Rome

    Fire in Rome
    The Emperor Nero likely had something to do with this fire, which conveniently allowed him to move forward with a building project, but he blames Xians. According to later accounts he crucifies and burns them.
  • 64

    Death of Peter

    According to Christian tradition Peter, one of Jesus' inner circle of disciples, is crucified by Nero in Rome.
  • Period: 66 to 73

    First Jewish Revolt against Rome.

  • 68

    Gospel of Mark

  • 70

    Destruction of the Temple

    Destruction of the Temple
    The Jerusalem Temple is destroyed by the Romans.
  • 112

    Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan

  • 135

    Martyrdom of Ignatius from Antioch (Syria)

    Martyrdom of Ignatius from Antioch (Syria)
    The early Christian writer Eusebius dates this event to 108, but scholars think it was much later, perhaps 135.
  • 175

    Appearance of the Montanists

    This Christian religious movement, which is eventually deemed a heresy, includes two women prophets, Priscilla and Maximilla. Montanists apparently believe that Christ was returning in their lifetimes.
  • 180

    Muratorian Canon List

    Muratorian Canon List
    This textual fragment is the earliest known list of books to be considered "canonical." It differs from later Xian canons, including texts like Apocalypse of Peter and Wisdom of Solomon and excluding Hebrews, James, and others.
  • 203

    Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity in Carthage

    Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity in Carthage
  • 207

    Tertullian writes Contra Marcion

  • 248

    Cyprian Ordained Bishop of Carthage

    Cyprian Ordained Bishop of Carthage
    His appointment as bishop was controversial and shortly thereafter Christians began to experience persecution under Decius.
  • 250

    Edict of Decius

    Edict of Decius
    Roman Emperor Decius (249-251) issues an edict requiring citizens demonstrate their loyalty to the Empire by sacrificing to the gods. Upon doing so, citizens would be issued a libellus (pictured, from Oxyrhynchus, Egypt) .
  • 303

    Edict of Diocletian

    Under the Emperor Diocletian Xians are required to participate in Roman religious sacrifices or face punishment.
  • 306

    Constantine's Reigns Begins

    Constantine's Reigns Begins
    Constantine reigns until 327.
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    An edict under Constantine allowing Christians the right to worship.
  • 325

    Council of Nicea

    Council of Nicea
    Called by Constantine, this council deliberated on the relationship between God and Jesus.
  • 330

    Constantinople becomes Center of the Roman Empire

    Constantinople becomes Center of the Roman Empire
  • 410

    Melania the Younger

    Melania is a wealthy woman from Spain who moves to the desert near Alexandria, Egypt to live a monastic life. This is her death date,
  • 420

    Jerome dies.

    Jerome dies.
    Jerome is a priest and author who translates scripture into Latin, which is called the Vulgate.
  • 431

    Council of Ephesus

    Council of Ephesus
    Confronts the views of Nestorius. Mary is proclaimed "Theotokos" or "God-bearer," and not just "Christ-bearer." This is an affirmation of Christ's divinity.
  • 516

    Benedictine Rule

    Benedictine Rule
    Benedict of Nursia (now Norcia, Italy) writes a "rule" outlining behavior within a Christian religious community.
  • 533

    Second Council of Orleans

    Among other things, this council forbade married women from being deacons.
  • 563

    Columba founds monastery on Iona

    Columba founds monastery on Iona
    Located on an island off the coast of what is now Scotland, this is one of the earliest Christian religious communities.
  • 726

    Debate over Icons

    An ongoing debate over the proper use of icons emerges.
  • 780

    Nestorian Christians in Xi’an, China

  • 1054

    Great Schism

    Beginning of the separation between Byzantine (Greek-speaking) and Roman (Latin-speaking) traditions in Christianity. This break occurs over political and theological disagreements, including the authority of the Bishop of Rome (aka the Pope) over Christian churches overall.
  • 1055

    Pope Urban II Preaches about the Crusades

    Pope Urban II Preaches about the Crusades
  • 1099

    Sack of Jerusalem by Crusaders

    This event was brutal, as the lives of many Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in the city were lost.
  • 1125

    Pope Honorius III Allows Dominicans to Establish a Mission in Morroco

  • 1139

    Second Lateren Council

    Among the rulings at this council was the banning of married priests.
  • 1179

    Death of Hildegard of Bingen

    Death of Hildegard of Bingen
    Hildegard, who lived in what is now Germany, was an extremely influential and prolific Benedictine nun and visionary. Not only did she author numerous religious/ devotional texts and letters, she was an herbalist, scientist, artist, and composer.
  • 1204

    Fourth Crusade and the Sacking of Constantinople

    Fourth Crusade and the Sacking of Constantinople
  • 1266

    Death of St. Francis of Assisi

    Death of St. Francis of Assisi
  • Period: 1294 to 1368

    Franciscan Mission to China

  • 1473

    Spanish Inquisition Begins

  • 1492

    Columbus' "Discovery" of the Americas

    Columbus' travels were motivated by his hope in retaking Jerusalem for Christians and bringing about Jesus' Second Coming.
  • 1501

    Pope Alexander VI Grants Americas to Spain

    Pope Alexander VI Grants Americas to Spain
    This is done on the condition that efforts are made to convert indigenous populations to Christianity.
  • 1506

    Pope Julius Orders "Old" St. Peter's Basilica Torn Down

  • 1517

    Martin Luther's 97 Theses Begins the Reformation

    Martin Luther's 97 Theses Begins the Reformation
  • 1527

    Emergence of the Anabaptist Movement

    Anabaptists believed that baptism must be chosen freely, thereby rejecting infant baptism. This movement is often associated with the Protestant Reformation, even though it is unique and leads to movements such as the Mennonites.
  • 1531

    The Virgin of Guadalupe Appears to Juan Diego

    The Virgin of Guadalupe Appears to Juan Diego
  • 1534

    Luther Bible Published

    Luther Bible Published
    The Luther Bible is translated by Martin Luther from Hebrew and Greek into German and becomes widespread thanks to the invention of the printing press.
  • 1540

    Founding of the Jesuits by Ignatius of Loyola.

    The Jesuits are typically associated with education and evangelism. They were especially involved in the missionizing of the Americas, although they sometimes came into conflict with political leaders because they were accountable only to the Pope.
  • 1548

    Jesuits Begin Missions to Africa

  • First Catholic Mission to North America in St. Augustine, FL

  • Founding of the Baptist Church

    Founding of the Baptist Church
    Founded by a former Anglican (English) priest, John Smyth, the Baptists accepted "believers' baptism."
  • King James Version of the Bible Published

  • Founding of Plymouth Colony by the Puritans

    The Puritans hoped to "purify" the Church of England by embracing a more radical form of Protestantism, emphasizing the singular importance of the Bible. The were various types of Puritans and the Pilgrims who founded Plymouth were a kind of separatist movement who thought the Church of England could not be reformed.
  • "Jesuit Relations" Describe Mission to Native Americans

    First published in 1632, the Jesuit Relations are yearly reports written by French Catholic missionaries who ministered to the Native American population in what is today the Northeast United States. The Relations detail efforts to Christianize the Native population, who are believed to be "pagan savages." The reports, printed until 1673, offer a rare portrait of Native culture and daily life. (https://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/timeline/)
  • Christianity Banned in Japan

  • Founding of the Quaker Movement by George Fox

  • Pueblo Revolt

    By the early 1600s, Franciscan friars report that hundreds of Pueblos are converting to Catholicism, but they notice that many of the "converted" Pueblos continue to practice their own religion. They ban Native ceremonies, burn religious icons, destroy sacred places and demand the colony's soldiers enforce the one true faith..Tensions mount and on Aug. 10, 1680, 2,000 Pueblos rise up in what becomes known as the Pueblo Revolt. Hundreds from both sides die in the fighting...
  • Society of the Propagation of the Gospel

    Society of the Propagation of the Gospel
    Anglican missionaries begin to actively promote the Gospel to slaves. Over time, enslaved Africans meld African worship with Christianity, creating new religious forms that eventually give rise to the black church. (https://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/timeline/)
  • Period: to

    First Great Awakening (England and North America)

    A religious revival movement, especially among Protestants, focused on piety, conversion, and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. The movement leads to the emergence of denominations like the Methodists.
  • Beginning of the Methodist Movement

    Beginning of the Methodist Movement
    This movement was begun by brothers John and Charles Wesley.
  • Ann Lee Comes to the US

    Ann Lee Comes to the US
    Ann Lee was an early leader of the Shaker Movement. Her followers believed her to be an incarnation of Christ. The Shakers practiced celibacy and radical egalitarianism.
  • Period: to

    Second Great Awakening in North America

  • Presbyterians on Slavery

    The Presbyterian Church pronounces slavery "inconsistent with the Gospel."
  • Jefferson Bible

    Jefferson Bible
    Thomas Jefferson creates his own version of the Bible by cutting out verses and texts that are more supernatural in nature.
  • Founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Church

    Founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Church
    Methodist minister Richard Allen, -- himself a former slave -- founds St. Bethel's African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, which formally severs ties to white Methodist congregations in 1816. During the early 19th century, the AME Church becomes one of the largest black churches in the United States, finding adherents among free blacks living in major cities across the Northeast. (https://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/timeline/)
  • Jarena Lee Becomes First Woman AME Preacher/ Minister

    Jarena Lee Becomes First Woman AME Preacher/ Minister
    Born in New Jersey, Lee begins preaching in 1816 and eventually is authorized by the AME Church and Rev. Allen. She is also active in the abolitionist movement.
  • Founding of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

    Founding of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
    Founded by Joseph Smith based upon revelations he received that were aimed at restoring the primitive Church in anticipation of the Second Coming.
  • Angelina Grimke Writes "Appeal to Christian Women of the South"

    Angelina Grimke Writes "Appeal to Christian Women of the South"
    Angelina Grimké publishes a tract laying out biblical reasoning to support the need for Christian women, especially in the South, to join the abolitionist cause. Grimké and other reformers aim their appeals at mothers -- slave mothers, poor mothers or mothers of alcohol abusers -- who are seen as responsible for maintaining the nation's moral foundations. (https://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/timeline/)
  • Death of Rebecca Cox Jackson

    Death of Rebecca Cox Jackson
    Rebecca Cox Jackson was a spiritual leader raised in the AME Church but who later became part of the Shaker movement, along with her companion/ partner (also named Rebecca). The two led a multi-racial group of Shaker women and Jackson experienced visions of the two being crowned as king and queen by Christ. While some feminist writers have identified them as a lesbian couple, Alice Walker associates the "Two Rebeccas" with Womanism. After Jackson's death, her partner took her name.
  • Zitkala-Sa Criticizes Christian Oppression of Native Americans

    Zitkala-Sa Criticizes Christian Oppression of Native Americans
    Zitkala-Sa was a Dakota Sioux who attended first a Quaker Missionary school and then Earlham College. She was a violinist, teacher, and author. In 1926, she founded the National Council of American Indians.