Martin luther by lucas cranach 1529 200

Christianity from Jesus to Reformation

  • Period: 160 to 220

    Life of Tertullian

    Major theologian, and first to write in Latin.
  • Period: 185 to 254

    Life of Origen

    Origen, was a great biblical scholar, writing many commentaries and papers, thereby shaping biblical understanding through the ages.
  • 189

    Victor I elected bishop of Rome.

    Victor I elected bishop of Rome.
    Under Victor, the Bishop of Rome begins to have more authority over the other bishops.
  • 190

    Date of Easter

    Pope Victor I, attempts to solve the dating of Easter, should it be on the 14 Nissan or the following Sunday (the view which is finally adopted)
  • 198

    Death of Pope Victor

    Pope Victor I dies to be replaced by Zephyrinus
  • 200

    Ignatius Dies

    Bishop of Antioch is executed in Rome
  • 200

    Full Baptism practises explained

    Tertullian writes down a full description of the baptism practises of North Africa. "On Baptism"
  • 207

    Tertullian breaks from Church

    Tertullian becomes a Montanist, which was called the 'New Prophecy' Movement. The would be compared with the pentecostal and Charistmatic movements of today, where people were said to recieve Prophecies and Revelations from God in ways which were contrary to accepted practise of the day, people were said to rave and convulse under the movement of the spirit, being out of control.
  • 231

    Origen Old Testament

    Origen begiuns work on a polyglot version of the Old Testament, taking the original Hebrew, a Hebrew Transliteration and four versions of the greek, and combining them in 6 columns.
  • 250

    Decius Decree

    Decius decrees a universal sacrifice to the gods of the empire, anyone who refused was punished, which was mainly Christians.
  • 251

    Synod of Carthage

    This synod met to discuss what should be done about those who backslide due to the Decius Decree, which involved much penances.
  • 251

    Antipope Novatian

    Novantian electes himself the antipope in protest against the penacnes owed for those who have back slide. This causes a great schism, which lasts until the 5th Century.
  • Period: 260 to 324

    Life of Eusebius

    Becomes the pope of Caesarea, and writes the first church history
  • 284

    Diocletian made Emperor

  • 293

    Caesar Appointed

    Constantius I is made Caesar of West and Galerius is made Caesar in the East.
  • 301

    Armenia becomes the first Christian State.

    Gregory the Illuminator becomes a Christian and coverts King Tiridates III of Armenia
  • Period: 303 to 311

    Great Persecution

    Emperor Diocletian and Caesar Galerius issue 2 edicts. The first ordering the destruction of Scripture, Christian Literature, Church buidlings and property. The Second orders the imprisonment of Christian leaders, many of whom had to sacrifice to other gods before release. The great Persecution ends in 311, when Galerius issues an edict of toleration.
  • 305

    Dioclentian Abdicates

    He forces Maximian to do there same, thereby making Constantius I and Galerius Emperors.
  • 306

    Constantine declared Emperor

    Constantius dies in battle, and his son takes over as emperor
  • 306

    Severus made Emperor

    Galerius promotes Severus to Emperor in place of Constantius I
  • 306

    Maxentius makes himself Emperor

    Maxentius pronounces himself emperor in Rome.
  • 308

    Maxentius kills Severus

    Galerius makes Licinius emperor in his place.
  • 310

    Maximian dies

    Constantine kills Maximian after he declares himself emperor a second time.
  • 312

    Constantine defeats Maxentius

    He attributes this to seeing a vision of the cross, and thus makes Christianity his main religion
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    Signed by Licinius and his co-emperor Constantine, which tolerates all religious practises.
  • 318

    Constantine allows church to appoint bishops.

  • 319

    Work begins of the basilica of St Peter's

  • 324

    Constantine defeats Licinius to become sole emperor

  • Period: 325 to 325

    Council of Nicaea

    Called to resolve heresy's and schisms.
  • 335

    Construction of the Holy Sepulchre

    Work begun in 326
  • Period: 345 to 420

    Life of Jerome

    Noted biblical scholar who translated bible into Latin
  • Period: 354 to 430

    Life of Augustine of Hippo

    Augustine, is a major theologian on sin and grace, and his concepts still inform western theology to this day.
  • 381

    Council of Constantinople

    Finally resolves issues of Arianism, and produces the nicene creed. It also declaires that the Bishop of Constantinople should hold the rank after Bishop of Rome.
  • 404

    Jerome completes the Vulgate

    A Latin translation of the bible
  • 431

    Council of Ephesus

    Seen as the third Ecumenical Council, it excommunicated Nestorius, and proclaimed Mary, the 'Birth-giver of God'.
  • 451

    Fourth Ecumenical Council

    Held in Chalcedon, it finally defined the nature of Jesus, as truely man and truely divine, in two natures, unconfusing, unchanging, undivisible and inseperable.
  • 525

    AD dating system

    Dionysius Exiguus creates a new calander based around his calculations of easter
  • 553

    Second council of Constantinople

    This is the fifth ecumenical council.
  • Dec 31, 680

    Third council of Constantinople

    This was convined to discuss heresys surrounding the will and nature of Jesus.
  • Aug 17, 786

    Second Council of Nicaea

    Regarded as the 7th Ecumenical council and the last to be recognised in the east.
  • Period: Jan 1, 849 to Jan 1, 899

    Life of Alfred the Great

    Whilst ruling the Kingdom of Wessex, he defeats the Danes, and then begins to gather groups of scholars round him in order to translate, Christian literature from Latin into Old English, some of which he did himself
  • Period: Jan 1, 900 to Jan 1, 1500

    Era of the Organ

    Becoming the exclusive instrument of the church, for nearly 6 Centuries
  • Jul 16, 1054

    Great Schism

    Pope Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius heightened the conflict by suppressing Greek and Latin in their respective domains. In 1054, Roman legates traveled to Cerularius to deny him the title Ecumenical Patriarch and to insist that he recognize the Church of Rome's claim to be the head and mother of the churches. Cerularius refused. The leader of the Latin contingent, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicated Cerularius, while Cerularius in return excommunicated Cardinal Humbert
  • Period: Nov 27, 1095 to Jul 15, 1099

    The first crusade

    Started by Pope Urban II in order to go and support christians in the East and to take back the Holy Land.
  • Period: Feb 6, 1147 to Nov 28, 1148

    Second Crusade

    The second crusade fails due to the defeat at Demascus.
  • Jan 1, 1149

    Holy Sepuchre Rebuilt

  • Period: Oct 1, 1181 to Oct 3, 1226

    Life of Francis of Assis

  • Period: Jan 1, 1187 to Jan 1, 1192

    Third Crusade

    Richard the Lion Heart tried to capture Jeruselum and the Holy Land, however, they were united and undefeatable under Saladine
  • Period: Jan 1, 1202 to Mar 1, 1204

    Fourth Crusade

    Initiated by Pope Innocent III, with the plan of entering through Egypt, however after a series of unfortunate events, the pope excommunicated the soldiers and they went off to destroy constantinople instead.
  • Mar 1, 1204

    Crusaders take over Constantinople

  • Period: Jan 1, 1217 to Jan 1, 1221

    The Fifth Crusade

  • Period: Oct 20, 1225 to Mar 7, 1274

    Life of Thomas Aquinus

    Major Church theologian
  • Period: Jan 1, 1228 to Jan 1, 1229

    6th Crusade

  • Period: Jan 1, 1248 to Jan 1, 1254

    7th Crusade

  • Period: Jan 1, 1270 to Dec 31, 1270

    8th Crusade

  • Period: Jan 1, 1271 to Dec 31, 1272

    Ninth Crusade

  • May 29, 1453

    Turks Capture Constantinople

    Thus marking the end of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1473

    Sistine Chapel is built

    Vatican city, and the location of the election of pope's as well as the hand of God by Michelangelo.
  • Period: Nov 10, 1483 to Feb 18, 1546

    Life of Martin Luther

    The Father of the Reformation, Martin Luther was respoinsible for the birth of the prodestant church, because he disagreed with key doctrine and practises of the Roman Catholic Church, and believed that God was calling for justice and reformation from within the Catholic Church.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1494 to Jan 1, 1536

    Life of William Tyndale

    Translates the Bible into English
  • Period: Jul 10, 1509 to May 27, 1564

    Life of John Calvin

    John Calvin, was a key theoligian in the reformation movement of the church and taught specifically on the doctirne of predestination.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    95 Thesis

    Martin Luther pins his 95 thesis to the door of Church Castle, Wittenberg, Saxong
  • Jan 1, 1519

    Catechisms

    Martin Luther writes his small and large Catechisms as basic instructions in christian faith.
  • Mar 26, 1521

    Luther vs Carlos V

    Luther defends his doctirne before Holy Roman Emperor Carlos V
  • Jan 1, 1525

    Tyndale's NT Translation

  • Jan 1, 1530

    Tyndale's Bible burnt in London

  • Jan 1, 1534

    Luther's German Bible

  • Jun 20, 1536

    Reformed Doctrine Established

    John Calvin, after settling in Geneva publuishes the first edition of the Institutes of the Christian Religion, which is one of the most systematic reform doctrine books to date.
  • Jan 1, 1537

    Matthew's Bible released

    Under a psydoname this book is a revision of other versions which was licenced for general reading
  • Feb 9, 1537

    Schmalkaldic Articles

    Luther issues the articles of Lutheran Doctrine, which are later incorperated into the Book of Concord (1580)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1564 to

    Bibliography

    Bowden, John. with Lydamore, M; Bowden, H
    2007 A Chronology of World Christianity, Continuum, London Dowley, T (ed.)
    2002 Introduction to The History of Christianity (Rev.), Fortress Press, Minneapolis. Johnson, Paul.
    1976 A History of Christianity, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London