Th 1

Chapter 14

  • Dec 23, 1482

    Treaty of Arras

    The Treaty of Arras declared that French Burgundy was a kingdom of France. This demonstrates that European states were becoming more centralized.
  • Mar 3, 1496

    Philip of Burgundy, the heir of Maximilian and Mary, and Joanna of Castile, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, marry.

    The event is significant because the marriage would produce Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He would attempt to stop the Protestant Reformation.
  • Feb 24, 1500

    Charles V is Born

    Charles V, the son of Philip and Joanna, is born. He inherits Italy, Sicily, Habsburg lands in Austria, Southern Germany, the Low Countries and the Franche-Comte. This would give him control over a massive empire.
  • Period: Mar 3, 1512 to Mar 3, 1517

    The ecumenical council meets in Rome to discuss efforts to reform the church.

    The council demonstrates that the church was earnestly attempting to reform. It recomended higher educational standards for priests and ordered the papacy to prevent bureaucratic corruption.
  • Mar 3, 1517

    Luther's 95 Theses

    Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door to the church at Wittenberg Castle to attack the sale of indulgences.The event marked the start of the Protestant Reformation and would result in Northern Germany becoming Lutheran.
  • Mar 3, 1519

    Luther denies the authority of the pope in a debate with John Eck.

    This demonstrates the radical nature of Lutheranism.
  • Mar 3, 1519

    Protestantism Spreads to Switzerland

    Ulrich Zwingli mounts the pulpit in Zurich, Switzerland. He announces that he would not preach the church’s prescribed readings but would instead preach right through the New Testament.
  • Mar 3, 1520

    Gustavus Vasa leads a successful revolt against Denmark and Sweden becomes an independent nation.

    This demonstrates that Protestantism would led to many uprising throughout Europe.
  • Mar 3, 1520

    Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation

    Luther appeals to the princes of Germany in Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. He argued that princes should confiscate church land and abolish indulgences. Many of the princes wanted an excuse to confiscate church land for financial purposes, so they obeyed Luther’s appeals. This shows the politcal implications of Luther's teachings in Germany.
  • Jan 28, 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire summoned Luther to appear before the Diet of Worms. Luther refused to recant his teachings and he was declared an outlaw by Charles V. Luther is then placed under protection by the Germna princes. This demonstrates the power schism in Germany.
  • Mar 3, 1525

    Peasant Uprisings

    Peasant revolts spread throughout Europe. The peasants, angered that nobles had taken their common land after a year of crop failure, killed many nobles. Luther originally supported the peasants, but sided with the nobles because he did not believe that the peasants’ violence was justified. The uprising was eventually crushed by the nobility. This shows some of the secular impacts of Luther's teachings.
  • Mar 3, 1526

    Ottoman Invasion of Hungary

    The Ottoman Empire kills King Louis II and over 16,000 soldiers on the plain of Mohacs. As a result, The Ottoman Empire divided Hungary and allows each community freedom to chose its own religion. As a result, Lutheranism became a common religion in Hungary.
  • Mar 3, 1527

    End of the Renaissance

    The High Renaissance ends when the Holy Roman Empire invades Rome and capture pope Clement VII.
  • Mar 3, 1527

    Henry VII Aattempts to Annul His Marriage

    Henry VII of England attempts to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn. He argued that it was not a valid marriage because Catherine was his brother’s widow. Pope Clement VII refused to allow the annulment because his predecessor, Julius II, had allowed it. He knew that such a contradiction would fuel the belief that popes substituted their own evil judgment for the law of God.
  • Mar 3, 1530

    Lutheran Protestant thought was officially formulated at the Confession of Augsburg.

    This demonstrates that Lutherans were becoming increasingly organized throughout Europe.
  • Nov 3, 1534

    The Supremacy Act

    The Supremacy Act was passed. The act declared the king the head of the Church of England. It also broke all ties with the Vatican. The seperated church would eventually become the Anglican Church.
  • Mar 3, 1535

    The Ursuline Order of Nuns

    The Ursuline Order of Nuns was founded to further the education of young girls and to combat heresy. This demonstrates actions taken by the Catholic Church during the counter-Reformation.
  • Period: Mar 3, 1535 to Mar 3, 1539

    England's Monastaries are Dissolved

    Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries of England. His decision resulted in the sale of land that had previously housed the monasteries. New bureaucracies were created so the crown could control the property and money gained from this act.
  • Mar 3, 1536

    Institutes of the Christian Religion

    In the Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin argued for the absolute sovereignty of God. He believed that humans were insignificant and that God had chosen who would be saved at the beginning of time (predestination).
  • Mar 3, 1536

    The Irish Parliament approves the English law and separates their church from Rome.

    This demonstrates that Ireland was following England's example by ending ties with the Catholic CHurch.
  • Oct 3, 1536

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    The Pilgrimage of Grace occurred. Popular opposition to Henry VIII’s attack on the church resulted in a large multiclass rebellion. It ended with a truce and the execution of the pilgrimage’s leaders. This demonstrates that the decision to cut ties with the Catholic Church was controversial.
  • Mar 3, 1540


    The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was founded by Ignatius Loyola to help resist the spread of Protestantism. Jesuits were very mobile and helped to spread Catholicism to the New World and India. This is an example of Catholic actions during the Counter-Reformation
  • Mar 3, 1541

    Calvinist Takeover of Geneva

    John Calvin starts to work to turn the city of Geneva into a Christian community. He published the Genevan Catechism, which was a set of questions and answers about the Calvinist faith that was memorized by children and adults. This demonstrates that the Catholic Church was losing control to multiple factions of Christianity.
  • Mar 3, 1542

    The Holy Office

    Pope Paul III establishes the Holy Office to run the Roman Inquisition. The Inquisition was effectively eliminating heresy within the papal states. However, it did not elimenate heresy without this area.
  • Period: Mar 3, 1545 to Mar 3, 1563

    Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent meets to reform the church and reconcile with Protestants. As a result of the council, equal validity was given to the scriptures and tradition. It also ended indulgences, required Bishops to reside in their own dioceses, and enforced celibacy. In addition, it required that people had to give their marriage vows before a priest for the marriage to be valid. This demonstrated at earnest attempt at reform by the Catholic Church.
  • Mar 3, 1549

    Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer is published by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. It simplified the liturgy of the Church of England.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    In the Peace of Augsburg, Charles V allowed the German princes to choose the religion of their kingdom. Most Northern princes converted to Lutheranism while most Southern princes remained Catholic. This politically divided Germany and gave the German princes increased power.
  • Mar 3, 1558

    Elizabethan Settlement

    The Elizabethan Settlement was passed by Elizabeth I of England. It required outright obedience to the Church of England and uniformity of church ceremonies. Anyone who disobeyed the settlement was fined. This required increased loyalty to the Church of England.
  • Mar 3, 1560

    Protestantism in Scotland

    In Scotland, John Knox convinced the Scottish Parliament to dissolve the Mass. Knox then founded the Presbyterian Church. This is an example of the spread of Protestantism.