The Treaty of Arras declared that French Burgundy was a kingdom of France. This demonstrates that European states were becoming more centralized.
Mar 3, 1496
Philip of Burgundy, the heir of Maximilian and Mary, and Joanna of Castile, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, marry.
The event is significant because the marriage would produce Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He would attempt to stop the Protestant Reformation.
Feb 24, 1500
Charles V is Born
Charles V, the son of Philip and Joanna, is born. He inherits Italy, Sicily, Habsburg lands in Austria, Southern Germany, the Low Countries and the Franche-Comte. This would give him control over a massive empire.
Period: Mar 3, 1512 to Mar 3, 1517
The ecumenical council meets in Rome to discuss efforts to reform the church.
The council demonstrates that the church was earnestly attempting to reform. It recomended higher educational standards for priests and ordered the papacy to prevent bureaucratic corruption.
Mar 3, 1517
Luther's 95 Theses
Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door to the church at Wittenberg Castle to attack the sale of indulgences.The event marked the start of the Protestant Reformation and would result in Northern Germany becoming Lutheran.
Mar 3, 1519
Luther denies the authority of the pope in a debate with John Eck.
This demonstrates the radical nature of Lutheranism.
Mar 3, 1519
Protestantism Spreads to Switzerland
Ulrich Zwingli mounts the pulpit in Zurich, Switzerland. He announces that he would not preach the church’s prescribed readings but would instead preach right through the New Testament.
Mar 3, 1520
Gustavus Vasa leads a successful revolt against Denmark and Sweden becomes an independent nation.
This demonstrates that Protestantism would led to many uprising throughout Europe.
Mar 3, 1520
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Luther appeals to the princes of Germany in Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. He argued that princes should confiscate church land and abolish indulgences. Many of the princes wanted an excuse to confiscate church land for financial purposes, so they obeyed Luther’s appeals. This shows the politcal implications of Luther's teachings in Germany.
Jan 28, 1521
Diet of Worms
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire summoned Luther to appear before the Diet of Worms. Luther refused to recant his teachings and he was declared an outlaw by Charles V. Luther is then placed under protection by the Germna princes. This demonstrates the power schism in Germany.
Mar 3, 1525
Peasant revolts spread throughout Europe. The peasants, angered that nobles had taken their common land after a year of crop failure, killed many nobles. Luther originally supported the peasants, but sided with the nobles because he did not believe that the peasants’ violence was justified. The uprising was eventually crushed by the nobility. This shows some of the secular impacts of Luther's teachings.
Mar 3, 1526
Ottoman Invasion of Hungary
The Ottoman Empire kills King Louis II and over 16,000 soldiers on the plain of Mohacs. As a result, The Ottoman Empire divided Hungary and allows each community freedom to chose its own religion. As a result, Lutheranism became a common religion in Hungary.
Mar 3, 1527
End of the Renaissance
The High Renaissance ends when the Holy Roman Empire invades Rome and capture pope Clement VII.
Mar 3, 1527
Henry VII Aattempts to Annul His Marriage
Henry VII of England attempts to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn. He argued that it was not a valid marriage because Catherine was his brother’s widow. Pope Clement VII refused to allow the annulment because his predecessor, Julius II, had allowed it. He knew that such a contradiction would fuel the belief that popes substituted their own evil judgment for the law of God.
Mar 3, 1530
Lutheran Protestant thought was officially formulated at the Confession of Augsburg.
This demonstrates that Lutherans were becoming increasingly organized throughout Europe.
Nov 3, 1534
The Supremacy Act
The Supremacy Act was passed. The act declared the king the head of the Church of England. It also broke all ties with the Vatican. The seperated church would eventually become the Anglican Church.
Mar 3, 1535
The Ursuline Order of Nuns
The Ursuline Order of Nuns was founded to further the education of young girls and to combat heresy. This demonstrates actions taken by the Catholic Church during the counter-Reformation.
Period: Mar 3, 1535 to Mar 3, 1539
England's Monastaries are Dissolved
Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries of England. His decision resulted in the sale of land that had previously housed the monasteries. New bureaucracies were created so the crown could control the property and money gained from this act.
Mar 3, 1536
Institutes of the Christian Religion
In the Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin argued for the absolute sovereignty of God. He believed that humans were insignificant and that God had chosen who would be saved at the beginning of time (predestination).
Mar 3, 1536
The Irish Parliament approves the English law and separates their church from Rome.
This demonstrates that Ireland was following England's example by ending ties with the Catholic CHurch.
Oct 3, 1536
Pilgrimage of Grace
The Pilgrimage of Grace occurred. Popular opposition to Henry VIII’s attack on the church resulted in a large multiclass rebellion. It ended with a truce and the execution of the pilgrimage’s leaders. This demonstrates that the decision to cut ties with the Catholic Church was controversial.
Mar 3, 1540
The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was founded by Ignatius Loyola to help resist the spread of Protestantism. Jesuits were very mobile and helped to spread Catholicism to the New World and India. This is an example of Catholic actions during the Counter-Reformation
Mar 3, 1541
Calvinist Takeover of Geneva
John Calvin starts to work to turn the city of Geneva into a Christian community. He published the Genevan Catechism, which was a set of questions and answers about the Calvinist faith that was memorized by children and adults. This demonstrates that the Catholic Church was losing control to multiple factions of Christianity.
Mar 3, 1542
The Holy Office
Pope Paul III establishes the Holy Office to run the Roman Inquisition. The Inquisition was effectively eliminating heresy within the papal states. However, it did not elimenate heresy without this area.
Period: Mar 3, 1545 to Mar 3, 1563
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent meets to reform the church and reconcile with Protestants. As a result of the council, equal validity was given to the scriptures and tradition. It also ended indulgences, required Bishops to reside in their own dioceses, and enforced celibacy. In addition, it required that people had to give their marriage vows before a priest for the marriage to be valid. This demonstrated at earnest attempt at reform by the Catholic Church.
Mar 3, 1549
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is published by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. It simplified the liturgy of the Church of England.
Sep 25, 1555
Peace of Augsburg
In the Peace of Augsburg, Charles V allowed the German princes to choose the religion of their kingdom. Most Northern princes converted to Lutheranism while most Southern princes remained Catholic. This politically divided Germany and gave the German princes increased power.
Mar 3, 1558
The Elizabethan Settlement was passed by Elizabeth I of England. It required outright obedience to the Church of England and uniformity of church ceremonies. Anyone who disobeyed the settlement was fined. This required increased loyalty to the Church of England.
Mar 3, 1560
Protestantism in Scotland
In Scotland, John Knox convinced the Scottish Parliament to dissolve the Mass. Knox then founded the Presbyterian Church. This is an example of the spread of Protestantism.