Against infidels

Cedillo_Timeline 3

  • Period: 936 to 973

    Otto The Great

    Linked control of German and northern Italy to title of Emperor of the Romans, which
    would change into Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Period: 1073 to 1088

    Pope Gregory VII

    Papal primacy – Pope head of church, above all other clergy
  • Period: 1084 to 1105

    Henry IV

    King of England and Lord of Ireland
  • 1091

    Normans take Sicily from Muslims

    Normans take Sicily from Muslims
  • 1095

    Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont

    Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont
    Called for war against turks
  • Period: 1096 to 1099

    First Crusade

    Conquest of Jerusalem. In response, Muslim leaders called for a jihad.
  • 1122

    Concordat of Worms

    Concordat of Worms
    Recognized that bishops are not only church leaders but temporal leaders as well.
  • 1123

    First Lateran Council

    First Lateran Council
  • Period: 1147 to 1149

    Second Crusade

    a complete failure
  • Period: 1152 to 1190

    Frederick Barbarossa

    failed to conquer Italy and was forced to
    recognize Italian city-states as independent of the empire
  • Period: 1175 to 1253

    Robert Grosseteste

    Chancellor of Oxford University.
    Roundness of the earth could be demonstrated by reason.
    Mathematics is necessary to understand the physical world.
    Experiments on the refraction of light
  • Period: 1189 to 1192

    Third Crusade

    Failed to reconquer Jerusalem.
    The Kings’ Crusade
  • Period: 1198 to 1216

    Pope Innocent III

    Asserted papal primacy over all monarchs
  • Period: 1202 to 1204

    Fourth Crusade

    Sack of Constantinople.
    Latin Empire in the East, 1204 – 1261.
    Deep mistrust between East and West
  • Period: 1209 to 1229

    Albigensian Crusade

    10,000 – 30,000 put to death
  • 1215

    Fourth Lateran Council

    Fourth Lateran Council
    Christians must confess their sins at least once a year.
    Pronouncement of Marriage Banns.
    Physical presence of Jesus in the Eucharist – Transubstantiation.
  • Period: 1225 to 1274

    Saint Thomas Aquinas

    rejected the conservative belief that
    philosophy and reason would contaminate faith.
    Upheld the value of human reason and natural knowledge.
    Set about to reconcile Aristotle and Christianity.
    Summa Theologica, a systematic exposition of Christian thought
  • Period: 1271 to 1295

    Marco Polo

    Merchant from Venice
    Brought Asian commodities
    back to Europe along the
    Silk Roads
    Wrote a book about his
    experiences in China
    Influenced Columbus
  • Period: 1320 to 1384

    John Wycliffe

    Argued that the church did not control eternal destiny nor
    access of the soul to divine grace.
    Salvation came through faith by divine
    Church rituals, sacraments, and clergy
    were unnecessary.
    Translated the Bible into English
  • Period: 1337 to 1453

    The Hundred Years’ War

  • Period: 1350 to

    The Renaissance: Transition to the Modern Age

    The beginning of the Modern Era.
    Individuals showed increasing concern with worldly life and self-consciously aspired
    to shape their destinies.
    Significant links to medieval world while also laying foundation to the modern world –
    an Age of Transition
  • Period: 1369 to 1415

    Jan Hus

    Influenced by the writings of Wycliffe.
    Native of Prague, Bohemia.
    Opposed the church’s reliance and emphasis on
    Politically, he opposed the Hapsburgs and sought
    Bohemia’s independence within the Holy Roman Empire.
    Hus was summoned by authorities, promised his personal
    Burned at the stake.
  • Period: 1394 to 1460

    Prince Henry

    "The Navigator"
  • Period: 1398 to 1468

    Johann Gutenberg

    Gutenberg Bible
    Other books
    Prayer books
    Secular books
  • Period: 1407 to 1457

    Lorenzo Valla

    Declamation Concerning the False Decretals of Constantine.
    A critical examination of the Donation of Constantine.
    Valla proved the document was a eighth-century forgery
  • Period: 1431 to 1503

    Pope Alexander VI

  • Period: 1451 to 1506

    Christopher Columbus

  • 1454

    Treaty of Lodi

    Treaty of Lodi
    Treaty of Lodi
    Brokered by Cosimo de Medici
    Peace until 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded
  • Period: 1463 to 1494

    Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

    Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486)
    God says to man:
    “We have made you a creature [such that] you may, as the free and proud
    shaper of your own being, fashion yourself in the form you may prefer.”
  • Period: 1469 to 1527

    Niccolo Machiavelli

    Machiavelli is regarded as the first modern political thinker.
    Politics requires the rational deployment of force as well as the exercise of virtue.
    Machiavelli is practical, rather than purely theoretical.
  • Period: 1483 to 1546

    Martin Luther

    Augustinian Monk
    “Tower Experience”
    Solá fide
    Solá scriptura
    Solá gratia
    Salvation from God,
    not good deeds or
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Determined what land was given to which country
  • 1513

    The Prince

    The Prince
    Indictment of the humanist ideal of princely rule.
    Fundamental contributions to political theory.
  • 1520

    Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther

    Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
  • Period: 1520 to 1566

    Suleiman I, the Magnificent

    Sultan of the Ottoman empire
    The Turks captured
    Constantinople 1453
    Expanded into the Balkans
    Laid siege to Vienna 1531-1532
  • 1525

    Peasants Revolt

    Peasants Revolt
  • 1527

    Charles V sacks Rome – Pope under house arrest

    Charles V sacks Rome – Pope under house arrest
  • 1529

    Diet of Speyer – Lutheranism outlawed

    Diet of Speyer – Lutheranism outlawed
    Lutheran Princes protest =Protestants
  • Period: 1534 to 1549

    Pope Paul III

    Reinstitute's the inquisition
  • 1540

    Pope Paul III recognizes the Jesuit Order The Society of Jesus

    Pope Paul III recognizes the Jesuit Order The Society of Jesus
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    Council of Trent

    1. Theology of St. Thomas Aquinas
    2. Church tradition, Papal decrees and decisions of Church Councils
    3. Good works necessary for salvation
    4. Reaffirmed all Seven Sacraments
    5. Reaffirmed transubstantiation
    6. Reaffirmed special power of priests
  • Period: 1547 to

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

    Don Quixote
    Satire of the ideals of knighthood and chivalry
    The fact that knighthood and chivalry were still subjects worth satirizing in Spain indicates how
    much Spain lagged behind Italy, France, and England.
  • Period: 1564 to

    William Shakespeare

    Greatest playwright – ever.
    Heroic but always human characters.
    Weak, flawed, but great and noble as well.