Period: 936 to 973
Otto The GreatLinked control of German and northern Italy to title of Emperor of the Romans, which
would change into Holy Roman Emperor.
Period: 1073 to 1088
Pope Gregory VIIPapal primacy – Pope head of church, above all other clergy
Period: 1084 to 1105
Henry IVKing of England and Lord of Ireland
Normans take Sicily from Muslims
Pope Urban II, at the Council of ClermontCalled for war against turks
Period: 1096 to 1099
First CrusadeConquest of Jerusalem. In response, Muslim leaders called for a jihad.
Concordat of WormsRecognized that bishops are not only church leaders but temporal leaders as well.
First Lateran Council
Period: 1147 to 1149
Second Crusadea complete failure
Period: 1152 to 1190
Frederick Barbarossafailed to conquer Italy and was forced to
recognize Italian city-states as independent of the empire
Period: 1175 to 1253
Robert GrossetesteChancellor of Oxford University.
Roundness of the earth could be demonstrated by reason.
Mathematics is necessary to understand the physical world.
Experiments on the refraction of light
Period: 1189 to 1192
Third CrusadeFailed to reconquer Jerusalem.
The Kings’ Crusade
Period: 1198 to 1216
Pope Innocent IIIAsserted papal primacy over all monarchs
Period: 1202 to 1204
Fourth CrusadeSack of Constantinople.
Latin Empire in the East, 1204 – 1261.
Deep mistrust between East and West
Period: 1209 to 1229
Albigensian Crusade10,000 – 30,000 put to death
Fourth Lateran CouncilChristians must confess their sins at least once a year.
Pronouncement of Marriage Banns.
Physical presence of Jesus in the Eucharist – Transubstantiation.
Period: 1225 to 1274
Saint Thomas Aquinasrejected the conservative belief that
philosophy and reason would contaminate faith.
Upheld the value of human reason and natural knowledge.
Set about to reconcile Aristotle and Christianity.
Summa Theologica, a systematic exposition of Christian thought
Period: 1271 to 1295
Marco PoloMerchant from Venice
Brought Asian commodities
back to Europe along the
Wrote a book about his
experiences in China
Period: 1320 to 1384
John WycliffeArgued that the church did not control eternal destiny nor
access of the soul to divine grace.
Salvation came through faith by divine
Church rituals, sacraments, and clergy
Translated the Bible into English
Period: 1337 to 1453
The Hundred Years’ War
Period: 1350 to
The Renaissance: Transition to the Modern AgeThe beginning of the Modern Era.
Individuals showed increasing concern with worldly life and self-consciously aspired
to shape their destinies.
Significant links to medieval world while also laying foundation to the modern world –
an Age of Transition
Period: 1369 to 1415
Jan HusInfluenced by the writings of Wycliffe.
Native of Prague, Bohemia.
Opposed the church’s reliance and emphasis on
Politically, he opposed the Hapsburgs and sought
Bohemia’s independence within the Holy Roman Empire.
Hus was summoned by authorities, promised his personal
Burned at the stake.
Period: 1394 to 1460
Prince Henry"The Navigator"
Period: 1398 to 1468
Johann GutenbergGutenberg Bible
Period: 1407 to 1457
Lorenzo VallaDeclamation Concerning the False Decretals of Constantine.
A critical examination of the Donation of Constantine.
Valla proved the document was a eighth-century forgery
Period: 1431 to 1503
Pope Alexander VI
Period: 1451 to 1506
Treaty of LodiTreaty of Lodi
Brokered by Cosimo de Medici
Peace until 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded
Period: 1463 to 1494
Giovanni Pico della MirandolaOration on the Dignity of Man (1486)
God says to man:
“We have made you a creature [such that] you may, as the free and proud
shaper of your own being, fashion yourself in the form you may prefer.”
Period: 1469 to 1527
Niccolo MachiavelliMachiavelli is regarded as the first modern political thinker.
Politics requires the rational deployment of force as well as the exercise of virtue.
Machiavelli is practical, rather than purely theoretical.
Period: 1483 to 1546
Martin LutherAugustinian Monk
Salvation from God,
not good deeds or
Treaty of TordesillasDetermined what land was given to which country
The PrinceIndictment of the humanist ideal of princely rule.
Fundamental contributions to political theory.
Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
Period: 1520 to 1566
Suleiman I, the MagnificentSultan of the Ottoman empire
The Turks captured
Expanded into the Balkans
Laid siege to Vienna 1531-1532
Charles V sacks Rome – Pope under house arrest
Diet of Speyer – Lutheranism outlawedLutheran Princes protest =Protestants
Period: 1534 to 1549
Pope Paul IIIReinstitute's the inquisition
Pope Paul III recognizes the Jesuit Order The Society of Jesus
Period: 1545 to 1563
Council of Trent
Period: 1547 to
Miguel de Cervantes SaavedraDon Quixote
Satire of the ideals of knighthood and chivalry
The fact that knighthood and chivalry were still subjects worth satirizing in Spain indicates how
much Spain lagged behind Italy, France, and England.
Period: 1564 to
William ShakespeareGreatest playwright – ever.
Heroic but always human characters.
Weak, flawed, but great and noble as well.