to further illuminate the nature of the messiah, Christ, and the Orthodox doctrine of the trinity, due to the false doctrine and teachings of Arius (Heretic), who argued that the son of God was of different substance (was not one with God).
The Council of Chalcedon (Part 3)
To clarify these false teachings the council of Chalcedon had established a ‘Chalcedonian Definition’ that disproves and rejects the concept of God being of a single nature, stating that God is fully divine and fully man, consequently the practices and teachings of God being of 2 natures in one person arose.
The Council of Chalcedon (Part 1)
The Council of Chalcedon was a council considered to be one of the four ecumenical councils, held from the 8th of October to the 1st of November, at Chalcedon an ancient maritime town in Anatolia. Emperor Marcian an Eastern Roman Emperor, born in 396 and ruled from 450-457, convoked the council of Chalcedon,
Jan 1, 1054
East-West Schism (Part 1)
The East-West Schism or also commonly known as the Great Schism was the official separation in the Church which eventually formed the Roman (Western) Catholic churches and Eastern Orthodox churches in the 11th Century (1054).
Jan 2, 1054
East-West Schism (Part 2)
There are various causes to the schism such as theology disputes among both church bodies, ecclesiastical differences between both the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, as well as liturgical, political, cultural, economic differences,
Jan 4, 1054
East-West Schism (Part 4)
Pope Leo IX had argued that he had carried the authority over the four Eastern Patriarchs while on the other hand the four eastern patriarchs asserted that he had authority only over Western Christians. Due to the arising disputes the Great schism had occurred creating two separate church bodies.
Dec 3, 1054
East-West Schism (Part 3)
but primarily it was caused by the disputes of conflicting claims of the papal authority and supremacy, which caused Pope Leo IX a German/Roman Pope from 1049 to his death and Patriarch Michael I the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043-59 to excommunicate each other.
Jan 1, 1347
The Plague/The Black Death (Part 1)
The Black Plague was one of the most destructive pandemics in human history which occurred from 1346-53 in Europe, consequently this lead to several severe outcomes such as the deaths of an estimated number of 75 million to 200 million and had caused the major dissatisfaction in the Church which ultimately caused the tension between the people and the church which eventually caused the Protestant Reformation.
Jan 2, 1347
The Plague/The Black Death (Part 2)
The Black Plague had caused the loss of many suitable people in the clergy, thus in turn replaced them with notably less experienced men, who abused their power and authority causing corruption in the church. Due to this occurring the effect of corruption had echoed through the centuries which lead up to the reformation of the church initiated by Martin Luther. To summarise, the notion of the corruption of the church had risen from the events of the Black Plague.
Jan 1, 1517
The Reformation (Part 1)
The Reformation or Protestant Reformation was a schism which occurred from 1517 - 1648, in the Roman Catholic Church, commenced by a movement initiated by Martin Luther, a German monk, priest and professor of Theology and others such as John Calvin, a French Theologian and Martin Luther’s successor of the Protestant Reformation after witnessing the corruption of the church.
Jan 2, 1517
The Reformation (Part 2)
As Luther took notice of this and started taking action, he sparked the reformation of the Church and the beginning of protestantism by challenging the sales of indulgences, which enabled people to reduce their punishments for their sins by paying for them, as well as the current papal authority, when he had published his 95 theses with his theological motives.
Jan 3, 1517
The Reformation (Part 3)
Martin luther had publicly criticised and outlined the corruption of the church in the 95 theses written, which simultaneously started a movement of reform with a group of people named Lutherans. The reformation is significant to the Church’s history as it reformed the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, as a result of the reformation many other smaller christian churches have been created.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther’s Publication of 95 Theses (Part 3)
Thus, Luther’s 95 theses had provided applicable teachings for us such as the teaching of ‘indulgences doesn’t permit salvation, only grace could’ and had halted the corruption of the church through the reformation.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther’s Publication of 95 Theses (Part 1)
Martin Luther’s Publication of the 95 Theses in 1517 was one of the initial events causing the reformation, Luther was one of the most influential figures in the church's history as he had caused the reformation of the church as well as translating the Bible from Latin to German, born in 1483 Luther grew up to become a monk, priest as well as as professor of theology.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther’s Publication of 95 Theses (Part 2)
Luther had published 95 theses for the sole purpose of tackling the corruption of the church which were distributed around Europe in two month time-span. The Theses had publicly challenged common perceptions about purgatory, contradicted the concept that the pope has the power over people placed in purgatory, tackles the notion that repentance is unnecessary after the use of an indulgence and claimed that the benefits provided by christ can be received without indulgences.
Jan 1, 1545
The Council of Trent (Part 1)
The Council of Trent held from 1545-1563 in 3 different sessions placed in the italian regions of Trento, Bologna and Northern Italy, is one of the most significant ecumenical councils which was induced by the Reformation.
Jan 2, 1545
The Council of Trent (Part 2)
The Council of Trent was convoked by Paul III, a Pope from 1534-49, and was the beginning of the Counter-Reformation, the renewal and revival of the corrupted Roman Catholic Church. The Council of Trent had clarified and explained many features of the catholic faith which was challenged and opposed by the Protestants (Questioned by Martin Luther) which was the clarification of Luther’s doctrine of justification of faith alone,
Jan 3, 1545
The Council of Trent (Part 3)
as well as correcting the abuses and corruption in the church by establishing discipline amongst the clergy. Furthermore the Council of Trent had established a system which taught young men about priesthood, thus creating educated and suitable priests. Therefore, the Council of Trent had achieved the clarification of challenged doctrines and the reformation of the clergy.
Jan 1, 1555
Peace of Augsburg (Part 1)
The Peace of Augsburg also referred as the Augsburg Settlement was the treaty and legalisation of Catholicism and Lutheranism in Germany which was publicised on the 15th of September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg, used to end the conflict which arose from the Reformation, though this did not apply for other Christian denominations such as Calvinism.
Jan 2, 1555
Peace of Augsburg (Part 2)
Charles V, a Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-56, had proclaimed of a series of meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, in a certain meeting in the German city Augsburg called the Diet of Augsburg, the Peace of Augsburg was concluded.
Jan 3, 1555
Peace of Augsburg (Part 3)
The legalisation enabled conflict between the two groups to end as well as allowing the state princes to select either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the religion of their domain. Furthermore, the peace allowed internal religious unity within many states and authorised emigration residents who opposed the choice to freely emigrate to another region which accepted their religion.
The First Vatican Council (Part 1)
The First Vatican Council was the twentieth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, which was convoked by Pope Pius IX, the successor of Pope Leo XIII, on the 29th of June 1868.
The First Vatican Council (Part 2)
The First Vatican Council was convoked to examine and deal with various contemporary issues which are related to the apparent impact of rationalism, liberalism and materialism as well as defining the doctrine of the Church of Christ and papal infallibility, which is the doctrine concerning the matters of the pope’s being incorrect while the teachings of faith/morals.
The Second Vatican Council (Part 1)
The 21st ecumenical council is called The Second Vatican Council which occurred on the 11th of October 1962, which was convoked by Pope John XXIII, who reigned as pope from 1958 to his death in 1963, which addressed the relations between the Catholic Church and the contemporary world.
The Second Vatican Council (Part 2)
As a result of the council major changes in the process and the manner of the masses, for instance, the implementation of singing and music in the masses as well as the abolishment of the Latin language for liturgical purposes, prior to this the liturgies were in Latin and the priest had faced the opposite direction of the congregation. Thus, the sole purpose of the council was adapting the Roman Catholic Church which, in turn caused the renewal of the mass procedure.