Sacrament of Penance

By Naz
  • 100

    Jesus Birth

    Divine pardon: (Lk 7: 47-‐50) So I tell you, her many sins have been forgiven; hence, she has shown great love. 13 But the one to whom little is forgiven, loves little. He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven." The others at table said to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives sins?" But he said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you; go in peace."
  • 100

    Forgiveness of sins:

    Forgiveness of sins: (Jn 20:22-‐23) And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, "Receive the holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained." (Acts 2:38-‐39) Peter (said) to them, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the holy Spirit. For the promise is made to you and to your children and to all those far off.
  • 200

    Early church

    In this century, the sacrament of penance as reconciliation first emerged in a recognizable form.␣ It involved the whole community ␣ Penitents:o Confessed their sins to the whole community. o Were temporarily ex-‐communicated from the communityworship for the length of their penance.
  • 206

    Third century: Decius

    Christians were persecuted by Decius. They were ordered to offer sacrifice to the gods of Rome. Christians generally responded in three ways:1. They denied their faith by publicly worshipping the Roman gods.
    2. They produced false certification that they had offered sacrifice toRoman gods.
    3. They surrendered their sacred books to government agents.
  • 325

    Council on Nicaea

    The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) put the forgiveness of grave sins under the authority of the bishops.␣ The Council of Nicaea also spelled out a penance for those who had fallen without compulsion.
  • 325

    The council of Nicaea

    Canon XI.Concerning those who have fallen without compulsion, without the spoiling of their property, without danger or the like, as happened during the tyranny of Licinius, the Synod declares that, though they have deserved no clemency, they shall be dealt with mercifully. Many as were communicants, if they heartily repent, shall pass three years among the hearers; seven years they shall be prostrators; and for two years they shall communicate with the people in prayers, but without oblation.
  • 415


    In summary, the sacrament in the fourth century was a public, communal action of reconciliation that led to a lasting change of heart, involved the whole community, and was presided over by the bishop.
  • 546

    Irish and Anglo

    Irish and Anglo-‐Saxon monks (who had not known the older system of public penance) spread what came to be known as the monastic practice of penance through their missionary work. It involved:␣ Private confession to a spiritual father (or mother.) ␣ Reception of an appropriate penance with the goal of restoring the balance of the moral universe instead of reconciliation with the communityPrivate prayer of pardon or blessing after the penance wascompleted.
  • Jan 1, 650

    Council of Chalons-‐sur-‐Saône (650 AD)

    This council approved the Celtic monastic practice and tried to establish Episcopal control over it.The severity of penances led to fewer Christians practicing sacramental penance. Some found other persons who would take on the penance and prayers for them.
  • Aug 16, 700

    7th century - Confession

    7th cuntury - Confession 16 Aug 700During the 7th century Irish missionaries brought Celtic penance to Europe, and it eventually became “Confession.” In this expression of the sacrament, confession was to a priest who had the power to give absolution. Penance for the sinner was reduced.
  • Nov 6, 765

    encouragment of confession

    More encouragement of devotional conf. of minor faults
    a. Now seen by parish priests as well as non-ordained spir. directors
    b. Confessions could also be made to holy women, nuns
    Brigit and Ita of Cluain Credill
    2. Bishops seem to be implicitly or explicitly approving the new system
    a. Continuing practice of Holy Thursday reconciliations
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Peter Lombard

    Peter Lombard defined the sacraments as seven and listed the 4th sacrament as the sacrament of penance which is the private repeatable sacrament he knew.
  • Jan 1, 1215


    This form of confession was so successful that the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 decreed that every Christian who reached the age of discern must receive private confession at least once a year.
  • Jan 1, 1215

    private confession

    Private confession - Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 it was decreed that every Christian who reached the age of  discernment must receive private- not public communal-confession once a year.
  • Aug 15, 1216

    Fourth Lateran Council (1215 AD)

    Sanctions were imposed for breaking the secrecy (seal) of confession. A priest who revealed a sin was deposed from his priestly office and consigned to a closed monastery for perpetual penance.␣ Repeated absolution of sins was officially accepted and deemed necessary for proper Christian life.
  • Aug 1, 1300


    Reconciliation: A sacrament in which repentant sinners are absolved and gain reconciliation with God and the Church, on condition of confession of their sins to a priest and of performing a penance. Example of Reconciliation is The angel told Joseph ‘’he shall save his people from their sins’’ (Matthew 1.21)
  • Jan 24, 1439

    Council of Florence (1439)

    Defined what the sacrament of penance involved: ␣ The acts of the penitent should be:1. Contrition of heart including sorrow for committing the sin and resolve not to sin again.2. Oral confession of all sins that are remembered. 3. Satisfaction for sins assigned by the priest ordinarilydoneby prayer, fasting and almsgiving.
  • Aug 16, 1439

    - Council of Florence

    Defined what the sacrament of penance involved: 1- Contrition of heart including sorrow for committing the sin and resolve not to sin again. 2 - Oral confession for sins that are remembered. 3 - Satisfaction for sins assigned by the priest ordinarily done by prayer, fasting and almsgiving. The form of the sacrament are the words of absolution “I absolve you”. The minister of the sacrament is a priest with the authority to absolve.
  • Apr 25, 1458

    John Paul II: advantages to confession

    John Paul II who went to confession weekly and who stressed the universal call to holiness as a characteristic mark of Vatican II, enumerated these advantages of frequent confession:we are renewed in fervor,strengthened in our resolutions, andsupported by divine encouragement
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Council of trent decreed

    In the 16th century, the Council of Trent decreed the sacrament of penance as the sacrament of forgiveness of sins and specified demands concerning this sacrament.e.g there must be integral confession (people must confess all mortal sins)It was necessary to have a form of absolution but this was not accurate. confession must be made to an authorized priest
  • Nov 3, 1551

    Council of Trent (1551)

    In response to the Reformers claim that sinners should renew baptismal justification by interior conversion, they pushed an extreme non-‐communal, individualistic approach to the sacramental rite of penance to effect reconciliation with God.
  • Dialogue between penitent and pastor

    causing breakdown of small parish in modern time. Changed by being shorter meeting anonymously with unknown priest in dark box to get absolution.
  • Vatican 2

    The Vatican II (1964) document Lumen Gentium emphasized that in addition to receiving pardon for their sins, penitents are reconciled with the church which they have been wounded by their sins. There became a renewed sense that sacramental penance reconciles sinners with God and with the Church community
  • Ordo Paenitentiae

    In 1973, Pope Paul VI in his document Ordo Paenitentiae (Order of Penance), introduced the sacrament of Penance.
  • Three rites

    Offers three rites for celebrating the sacrament: 1. Reconciliation of individual penitents. 2. Reconciliation of many penitents who are absolved individually. 3. Reconciliation of many penitents who make a public confession ofsins and together receive a general absolution. (grave sins still need to be confessed individually.)
  • today: sacrament!

    Today, the sacrament involves encountering Christ who is present in:Two or more gathered in my name.

    in the proclamation of the Word ␣
    in the imposition of hands ␣ and in the person of the minister.
  • Third Council of Toledo (589 AD)

    This council tried to maintain the old system of reconciliation and remain with once-‐only reconciliation and rejected the Celtic monastic practice.
  • Augustine

    Augustine (around 408 AD) distinguished three kinds of reconciliation with God through the Church:1. The remission of all previous sin through baptism.
    2. The daily remission through prayers and fasting.
    3. The formal one-‐time remission of deadly and serious sin through public penancepublic penance.