St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) founded Franciscans
Franciscans supported an individualistic style of worship and relationship with God.
Apr 17, 1215
The Fourth Lateran Council
Concidered the greatest council proir to Trent. The purpose was reformation of the church and to recover Holy Land. The pope was Pope Innocent III. Some of the decisions were annual confession, communion during Easter season, use of church property, and others but Jews and Muslims were to wear a badge on their clothing (usually yellow).
Apr 18, 1276
1st Papal Conclave
Pope Innocent V was first pope elected by the 1st Papal Conclave. Cardinals do not leave conclave until pope is elected. This was to keep the period of no pope from being too long. This was decided upon at the Second Council of Lyons.
Mar 7, 1305
In 1294 there was a conflict btween Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France. The Pope wanted to be known as "The Supreme Wordly Power". Philip IV disagreed even imprisoning the Pope for awhile. Pope Boniface VIII died after being released from prison. Pope Clement V relocated the Holy See to Avignon and worked closely with the French crown. There were 7 french Popes that lived in Avignon.
Apr 1, 1345
John Wycliffe (1325-1384) challenges the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
John Wycliff taught against the belief in the Eucharist (that the bread and wine turned into Christ's body and blood during mass). Said Christ, not the Pope was the head of the church. Claimed the Bible to be the authoority for believers, not the church. Translated New Testament into English so everyone could read it.
Feb 28, 1347
The Bubonic Plague Begins
The plague took away half of Europe's population. This negatively effected this society in many ways. People turned to the christian faith to pray for freedom from the plague. When their prayers were not answered, it led them to question their faith.
Jan 1, 1370
St. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380)
St. Catherine had several visions of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven in her lifetme. She worked with sick people, especially those afflicted with the plague. St. Catherine was a mediator and a peacemaker. She pressed for peace between the principalities and republics of Italy. St. Catherine worked for the return of the Papacy from Avignon ro Rome. She worked closely with Pope Gregory.
Apr 4, 1378
The Great Schism
Roman Catholic church split because the King of France did not like the Italian pope and elected his own. For 68 years there were two popes claiming to rule the Catholic church.
Apr 4, 1417
Council of Constance
It was to unify the church by ending the schism. Martin V was elected the sole pope of the church.
Jan 1, 1430
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
England and France were battling for France. Joan of Arc came from a village that was between the two armies. Because of divine guidance, she led the French army to victory over England. She was wounded twice in battle. Charles was crowned the king of France. Joan was the reason that France broke through the English stronghold in Paris. Joan was burned at the stake in 1531. She was a martyr and a saint. She was canonized on May 16, 1920.
May 5, 1451
The Pope at this time was Nicholas V. The library started with a collection of 1160 books. From 1470 to 1525 (height of Renaissance) the library grew to 3500 volumes.
Sep 30, 1452
Johannes Guttenberg's Bible published
The printing press was first created in 1440. This brought down the price of printed material and them available to more people. In 1450, Guttenberg built a large press with money lent to him by Johannes Fust. The first book to be published in volume was Guttenberg's Bible.
Apr 3, 1478
The Spanish Inquisition (1478-1834)
It was approved by Pope Sixtus IV, King Ferdinand II, and Queen Isabella to get rid of heretics in Spain and its colonies. The Jews and Muslims were big targets as well as those who spoke out against the Catholic church. Torture was used to get confessions from the "guilty." It was abolished in 1834.
Oct 12, 1492
Christopher Columbus Reaches the Americas
The rulers of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, sponsored Columbus to discover a way to Asia. With three ships (Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria), Columbus sailed for 2 months before reaching the Americas.
May 4, 1493
Papal bull Inter Caetera
After Columbus reached America, Pope Alexander VI, being friends of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella gives Spain the sole authority to all lands discovered after Christmas day 1492. This gave Spain the right to colonize lands, trade riches and convert the people to Catholicism.
Jan 1, 1512
Michelangelo (1475-1564) paints the Sistine Chapel
Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to produce many works, one of which was the Sistine Chapel. It took 4 years to complete. He had to create the scaffolding, so he could paint the ceiling. It was scenes from the Old Testament that were frescoed. The ceiling was 130 feet by 43 feet. The ceiling was also arched.
Jul 1, 1517
Pope Leo X (1475-1521) Sells Indulgences
Pope Leo X was from the de' Medici family, a wealthy family in Florence. He enjoyed expensive pleasures. In order to support this, he sold indulgences. An indulgence was a release from sin. People began to view this as corruption and resented it.
Oct 1, 1517
Martin Luther posts 95 theses
Martin Luther in response to the selling of indulgences to fund the renovation of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, wrote the 95 theses. He posted the 95 opinions to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany. He was agaist the corruption of the Roman Catholic church. This led to the Protestant Reformation
Apr 4, 1524
An organized protest of the Catholic Church that led to a division of the Christian religion into different protestant sects- Lutheranism, Calvinism, Puritinism, and Anglican. People were not happy with the Catholic church and their rule, which started with the 95 Theses.
May 1, 1533
Henry VIII (1491-1547), Church of England
Henry wants to divorce his wife, which the pope will not allow. Henry leaves the Catholic church and he is made the supreme head of the church of England. The pope has no more power in England.
Sep 27, 1540
St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
Founded the Society of the Jesuits in Spain during the Counter-Reformation (Revival of Catholicism during the Reformation). Were formed to discontinue many medieval practices, to follow more closely Jesus Christ and be obedient to the Pope. Force of good during the Inquisition. Important role in reviving Catholicism through mission work in New World and Far East.
Apr 4, 1563
Council of Trent
3 sessions that met betwen 1545 to 1563. It examined and disagreed with the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant Reformers. It redefined Roman Catholic doctrine and got rid of some of the church abuses. It strengthened the role of the pope.
Thirty Years War
The thirty years war was a fight to see which areas would be Catholic or Protestant. The Peace of Westphalia ended the war in 1648.