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Middle Ages

By lrp9954
  • Period: 1033 to 1109

    Theology - Saint Amselm

    Saint Amselm believed that faith was precondition for understanding and developed a philosophical proof for the existence of God.
  • Period: 1079 to 1142

    MISC - Peter Abelard

    Fell in love with Heloise and fathered a child resulting in eventual castration. Alelard and Heloise are a metaphorical symbol of tragic love. Abelard wrote the Trinity and was accused of endangering faith and was confined in monastery for the rest of his life. He also developed the concept of Limbo and where unbaptized infants go.
  • Period: 1154 to 1189

    Ruler - Henry II

    Henry II was the King of England, He was son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. Henry II was the driving force in extending and strengthening the institutions of English government.
  • Period: 1175 to 1253

    Science/Math - Robert Grosseteste

    Robert Grosseteste was a Chancellor of Oxford University. He experiment on the refraction of light and demonstrated by reason the roundness of the earth.
  • 1204

    Battle - Fall of Constantinople

    Battle - Fall of Constantinople
    The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred April 1204 during the fourth crusade. Crusaders had captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople.
  • Period: 1206 to 1280

    Science/Math - Albertus Magnus

    Albertus Magnus sought rational explanations for natural phenomena by exploring natural science.
  • Period: 1214 to 1294

    Science/Math - Roger Bacon

    Roger Bacon valued the study of mathematics, studied the reflection and refraction of light finding that light travels faster then sound and understood the anatomy of the eye.
  • 1215

    Politics - Magna Carta

    Politics - Magna Carta
    A charter of baronial liberties that defines the customary obligations and right of the nobility and forbidding the king to break from these customs without consulting his barons.
  • Period: 1225 to 1274

    Theology - Saint Thomas Aquinas

    Saint Thomas Aquinas rejected conservative belief that philosophy and reason would contaminate faith. He wrote the Summa Theologica - a systematic exposition of Christian thought and paid homage to human intelligence and proclaimed the value of rational activity.
  • Period: 1245 to 1316

    Theology - Giles of Rome

    Giles of Rome argued that spiritual matters were higher than secular matters and that therefore the pope was always above any secular authority.
  • Period: 1265 to 1308

    Theology - Duns Scotus

    Duns Scotus held that reason was unable to prove several Christian truths. This was not an suggestion that the Christian truths were rejected, merely that they must be accepted on faith alone and were not subject to rational proof. Christian philosophy responded by becoming more analytical and critical.
  • 1277

    Politics - The Condemnation of Propositions

    Politics - The Condemnation of Propositions
    Bishop of Paris condemned 219 propositions, taught at the University of Paris, some were taught by Thomas Aquinas.
  • Period: 1285 to 1314

    Rulers - Philip IV of France

    Taxed the church to raise revenue for war, in violation of church rules. Pope Boniface VIII stated that rules who imposed taxes on the clergy and the clergy who paid such taxes would be excommunicated. The Pope, unable to enforce his decree, backed down and stated that the French king could tax the clergy in times of national emergency.
  • Period: 1285 to 1349

    Science/Math - William of Ockham

    William of Ockham believed that all all things being equal the simplest solution tends to be the best one would become Ockham's Razor.
  • Period: 1290 to 1343

    MISC - Marsiglio of Padua

    Marsiglio of Padua was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine, who practiced a variety of professions. He argued that temporal affairs should not and could not concern the church as a spiritual entity. Politics are not a matter of faith and do not derive from God.
  • Period: 1294 to 1303

    Theology - Pope Boniface

    Upheld papal supremacy over secular rulers.
  • Period: 1301 to 1317

    MISC - Famine

    People scavenged for food where many died of starvation or was malnutrition and disease were rampant.
  • Period: 1305 to 1314

    Theology - Pope Clement V

    Pope Clement V was the first of the Avignon Popes, and moved the Papacy from Rome to France.
  • Period: 1309 to 1377

    MISC - The Babylonian Captivity

    During the Babylonian Captivity the Avignon pope was the seat of the papacy. The Papacy became a tool for French royal policy as they became dependent to France after losing Italian income. Anti-papal sentiments on the rise.
  • Period: 1320 to 1384

    Theology - John Wycliffe

    Stressed personal relationship between individual and God and believed the bible should be in a language that the common person could read. denounced clergy wealth and the process of transubstantiation. Had followers known as Lollard many were burned after Wycliffe was forced to recant his position.
  • Period: 1331 to 1351

    MISC - Black Death/Plague

    Originated in Mongolia through black rats and fleas. Many died quickly due to being malnourished and the dense population. About 25% of the population was wiped out and the people believe that God was punishing them for the sins of wicked humanity.
  • Period: 1337 to 1453

    Battle - The Hundred Years' War

    The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged by the Kingdom of England, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Fighting took place mostly in France not England.
  • 1346

    Battle - Battle of Crecy

    Battle - Battle of Crecy
    First of English victories during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
  • 1347

    MISC - Sicily

    MISC - Sicily
    The black Death/plague reached Sicily.
  • 1356

    Battle - Battle of Poitiers

    Battle - Battle of Poitiers
    The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
  • Period: 1369 to 1415

    Theology - Jan Hus

    Agreed with all of Wycliffe’s teachings Hus followers were known as Hussites. Hus was promised safe conduct to appear before the church, but was arrested, condemned, and burned. In spite of silencing Hus and Wycliffe, the seeds of dissatisfaction were sown and would continue to grow.
  • 1377

    Theology - Returns to Rome

    Theology - Returns to Rome
    Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome.
  • 1378

    Theology - Pope Urban VI Elected

    Theology - Pope Urban VI Elected
    Upon death of Gregory XI, Urban VI was elected as Pope in Rome.
  • 1409

    Politics - Council of Pisa

    Politics - Council of Pisa
    Roman Catholic church convened a council with the intention of ending the Great Schism. Rival popes had his own Curia (bureaucracy) and were set up in Rome and Avignon.
  • Period: 1412 to 1431

    MISC - Joan of Arc

    Inspired by God and her martyrdom would inspire and reinvigorate the French.
  • Period: 1414 to 1418

    Politics - Council of Constance

    Council of Constance was a council recognized by the Catholic Church which resulted in the abdication of rival claimants and an end to the Great schism.
  • Oct 25, 1415

    Battle - Battle of Agincourt

    Battle - Battle of Agincourt
    The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It appeared that England would conquer.
  • May 8, 1429

    Battle - Liberation of Orleans

    Battle - Liberation of Orleans
    The city of Orleans, France, overrun by English forces. Was liberated by Joan of Arc a French peasant who successfully led a French force to break the siege.
  • 1431

    MISC - Execution of Joan of Arc

    MISC - Execution of Joan of Arc
    Joan of Arc was captured, condemned as a heretic, and was burned as a witch.
  • 1453

    Battle - English evicted from France

    Happened during the Hundred Year War - The English were driven out of France except for Calais.
  • 1460

    Politics - Concilliar Movement

    Politics - Concilliar Movement
    Concilliar movement was a Christian reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church which was to determine who held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church. Pope Pius II, condemned the conciliar movement as heretical.