Xv century

XV and XVI Centuries

  • Period: Oct 9, 1390 to Dec 25, 1406

    Henry III of Castile

    Henry's reign
  • Period: May 19, 1396 to May 31, 1410

    Martin of Aragon

    Martin's reign
  • 1400

    First Golf Ball Invented

  • 1400

    First Piano is Invented

    The first piano was called a spinet.
  • 1401

    Tordesillas biggest boom

    Tordesillas is gaining importance and it is with the Tras-támaras when it achieves its greatest historical boom, being held in 1401 Cortes in Tordesillas, summoned by Enrique III the mourner.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1401 to Dec 31, 1500

    XV Century

    In Europe, the 15th century includes parts of the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades , until the Council of Constance. The conflicts ended with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1401 to

    Witches hunt

    The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 40,000 to 50,000 executions.
  • Oct 17, 1404

    Pope Innocent VII

    He reigned during the Great Schism of the West and partly due to him that the schism continued as long as it did. Before his election, Innocent agreed to abdicate his position on the conmdition that the antipope Benedict XII would also do the same. After his election, Innocent ignored Benedict and went on his own way.
  • Nov 30, 1406

    Pope Gregory XII

    He also reigned during the Great Schism. Pope Gregory, just like Innocent also agreed to abdicate as long as the antipope Benedict agreed to do the same.
  • Period: Dec 25, 1406 to Jul 20, 1454

    John II of Castile

    John's reign
  • 1408

    John Wycliff

    In Britain, John Wyclif's England language bible has been published.
  • Period: Sep 3, 1412 to Apr 2, 1416

    Ferdinan I

    Ferdinan's reign
  • 1415

    John Hus

    John Hus travels to the Council of Constance to propose his reforms for the Church. When he arrived and tried for heresy, he was burned at the stake.
  • Period: Apr 2, 1416 to Jun 27, 1458

    Alfonso IV of Aragon

    Alfonso's reign
  • 1417

    Pope Martin V

    His election served as an end to the Great Schism.There had been three Popes but after the Council of Constance there was only one true poipe and that was Martin V.
  • 1419

    A convent was created

    In 1419 the Convent of the Commanders of San Juan was founded at the wish of John II.
  • 1420

    John I

    The court of King John II of Castile, father of Isabella the Catholic, was in Tordesillas. The palace is taken by the Infante Enrique de Antequera, imprisoning Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, valid of the king and removing him from the government. He manages to enter the king's chambers. thanks to the enmity and ambition of the Infantes of Aragon who aspired to lead the kingdom of Castile in the name of his cousin Juan, very young he was 15, although he already declared himself of legal age at 14.
  • 1423

    Alvaro de Luna

    In 1423 Don Álvaro de Luna was named Constable of Castile and great celebrations were held in his honor.
  • 1428

    John Wycliff

    Pope Martin V orders John Wycliff's bones to be burned.
  • 1429

    Joan of Arc

    The Hundred Years Wars is still going on and in May, Joan of Arc defeats the English at Orleans. Then in August Joan enters Paris to take Paris back form the English.
  • 1430

    Santa Clara

    In 1430 she was the mother of the infants of Aragon and mother-in-law of John II, Eleanor of Aragon, who was imprisoned and imprisoned in Santa Clara.
  • 1431

    Pope Eugene IV

    He was mainly chosen to treat the cardinals less as servant of the papacy and more as partners when it came to making a decision in the Church.
  • 1431

    Joan of Arc

    Some of the Englishmen see Joan of Arc as an agent of the devil and she gets captured and burned at the stake.
  • 1434

    John II

    In 1434 John II returned to Tordesillas, and his palace became his own prison, when the infante Don Fernando kidnapped the king, repeating an episode that had already been done before by his own brother Don Enrique. That same year the Convent of the Dominicans was founded.
  • 1439

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    In 1439 the Cortes of John II and the Infantes of Aragon met, in an attempt to establish peace between the two sides, that of the high nobility coaligada, captained by the infantes of Aragon and the monarchical side captained by Juan II himself and the constable of Castile Álvaro de Luna; this fact is known as the signing of the "Insurance of Tordesillas", under the arbitration of the Count of Haro.
  • 1446


    During the reign of John II, shortly after marrying his second wife, Isabella of Portugal, a woman of a jealous and angry nature, she ordered the confinement of Beatriz de Silva, his first lady, in a chest for three days, appearing the Virgin, who ordered him to found an order in his honor, the Order of the Immaculate Conception. She was canonized in 1976 by Pope Paul VI.
  • 1447

    Pope Nicholas V

    He was the first of the Renaissance popes and is known as a Humanist Pope because of the resources he devotedto learning. He founded the Vatican Library.
  • 1448

    Russian Orothodox Church

    The Russian Orothodox Church becomes independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • 1450

    Leon Battista Alberti Creates the First Anemometer

    This Italian architect developed the anemometer to measure wind speed.
  • 1450

    Nicholas of Cusa's Spectacle

    Nicholas of Cusa was a Cardinal for the Holy Roman Empire. He is considered one of the great geniuses of the 1400's. He is recognized for spiritual, scientific, and political achievements in European history. He creates the spectacle for nearsighted people.
  • 1451

    Santa Clara

    In 1451 John II and his son Infante Henry, future Henry IV the Impotent, met in Santa Clara to try to achieve a broken understanding as each was in opposing factions.
  • 1453

    Hundred Years' War ends

    This war between England and France lasted 116 years on and off. Advances such as the longbow, and later rifles helped shift the momentum of the war back and forth between France and England.
  • 1453


    In 1453 the Infante Alfonso was born in Tordesillas, son of John II and Isabella of Portugal, who would later be named heir to the Castilian throne by his half-brother Henry IV.
  • Period: Jul 22, 1454 to Dec 11, 1474

    Henry IV

    Henry's reign
  • 1455


    Gutenberg creates the first movable type printing press. Gutenberg uses his new printing press to create the first printed version of the Bible.
  • 1455

    Pope Callistus III

    He was one of the nephewsto Pope Alexander VI. He was really elected because he was old and the cardinals saw him as a safe pope.
  • 1458

    Pope Pius II

    He was a supporter of the crusades against the Turks. He called for a new crusade in 1458. This call ended any hopes for new military aid to the Holy Land.
  • Period: Jun 27, 1458 to Jan 20, 1479

    John II of Aragon

    John's reign
  • 1464

    Pope Paul II

    He promised to end the practice of nepotism during his reigh. Also tried to end other reforms that were desighned to improve the Vatican.
  • 1465

    Privileges to Tordesillas

    In 1465 Henry IV granted privileges to Tordesillas, such as the free market, pointing to Tuesday as the day that this market has to be celebrated, a custom that is still maintained.
  • 1466

    Prussian War ends

    Beginning in 1454, this war involved Poland and Lithuania and included an attempt to convert pagan Lithuanians to Catholicism.
  • 1467

    Mater Dei

    In 1467 the hospital of Mater Dei was founded, thanks to the donation made by Doña Beatriz, daughter of D. Dionís of Portugal.
    In 1468 the Concordia de los Toros de Guisando takes place, by which Isabella the Catholic is recognized as heir to the throne by her brother the king, pressured by the nobility who ensures that Juana, the only daughter of Enrique IV, is the bastard daughter of Beltrán de la Cueva, a man of confidence of the king.
  • 1468

    Swiss-Habsburg War

    This war is not especially famous, but it included one of the biggest ruling houses in Europe: the Hapsburgs.
  • 1469

    Catholic Monarchs get married

    Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile.
  • 1470

    Gonzalo Guerrero

    Gonzalo Guerrero
    Gonzalo Guerrero (also known as Gonzalo Marinero, Gonzalo de Aroca and Gonzalo de Aroza) was a sailor from Palos, in Spain who was shipwrecked along the Yucatán Peninsula and was taken as a slave by the local Maya. Earning his freedom, Guerrero became a respected warrior under a Maya lord and raised three of the first mestizo children in Mexico and presumably the first mixed children of the mainland Americas. Little is known of his early life.
  • 1471

    Bohemian-Hungarian War

    Beginning in 1464, this war involved an excommunication of Bohemia's King by Pope Pius II.
  • 1471

    Pope Sixtus IV

    His first act was to encourage Fance,Spain,Germany,Hungary and Poland to pursue a new crusade against the Turks. The new crusade accomplished very little.
  • 1474

    Henry IV death

    Henry IV dies, causing then a civil war between the supporters of Juana, and the supporters of Isabel, is called by the people of Tordesillas, because the warden of Castronuño who supported Juana, had taken over the town dedicating himself to pillage. She becomes strong in the hospital of Mater Dei, for being its Portuguese founder and they seize her income and her grain. Later Tordesillas is liberated, and taken as headquarters of the troops of the Catholic Kings.
  • Period: Dec 11, 1474 to Nov 26, 1504

    Isabella I

    Isabella's reign
  • 1475

    First Muzzle-Loaded Rifles are Created

    This was invented in Italy and Germany as most European countries were trying to gain a miltary edge in case they needed it.
  • Period: Jan 15, 1475 to Nov 26, 1504

    Ferdinand V & II

    Ferdinand's reign in Castile
  • 1477

    Burgundy War

    The Burgundy War broke out, a war that between 1474 and 1477 confronted the Valois Dynasty with the Duchy of Burgundy.
  • 1479

    Treaty of Alcáçovas

    In 1479 the Treaty of Alcaçovas was signed, a peace treaty between the Castellan and Portuguese crowns by which Juana was imprisoned in a convent in Coimbra, and the marriage between the firstborn of the Catholic monarchs and the Infante Alfonso of Portugal was agreed. In this treaty both crowns are divided the Atlantic Ocean, it would therefore be the precedent of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
  • Period: Jan 20, 1479 to Jan 23, 1516

    Ferdinand V & II

    Ferdinand's reign in Aragon
  • 1483

    Ferrarese War

    Duke Ercole II of Este-Ferrara fought an alliance of the Republic of Venice and Pope Sixtus IV.
  • 1484

    Pope Innocent VIII

    His papcy was one of the most wordly and corrupt on record. Bad things started because his election was due to the planning of Cardinal named Giuliano Della Rovere.
  • 1485

    Leonardo da Vinci creates parachute

    Leonardo da Vinci was a great Italian thinker, and he was one of the first people to make theories on flight.
  • 1485

    Bishop of Segovia

    In 1485 the Bishop of Segovia, Juan Arias Dávila ordered to open a public square according to the rank of the Villa, and build a Town Hall, giving rise to the layout of the current Plaza Mayor.
  • 1486

    First Copyright is granted in Venice

    This was the start of inventors being able to protect their own ingenuity.
  • 1488

    Franco-Breton War

    This war was a dispute over the area of France called the Bretagne. French troops prevailed over Ducal troops.
  • 1492

    Martin Behaim invents the first map globe

    Thanks to Martin, students worldwide can study geography of the world on a 3-demensional object.
  • 1492

    Pope Alexander VI

    He had many mistresses and was a capable administrator. His unvle was Pope Calixtus III.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    America is discovered

    Ferdinand and Isabella are paying for Christopher Columbus voyage to set sail for China heading westward. He ends up finding the Americas.
  • 1493

    Christopher Columbus

    He returns from the Americas and one year later he sails to the Caribbean.
  • 1494

    Whiskey is invented in Scotland

  • 1494

    Treaty on June 7

    In 1494 one of the most important events in the history of Tordesillas takes place, the signing of the Treaty on June 7, 1494, by which the Castilian and Portuguese crowns are divided the rights of navigation and conquest of the Atlantic.
  • 1495

    Neapolitan War

    This was lasted two years and began in 1494 when King Charles VIII of France began to invade Italy. In the end, France gained Naples, but later were forced to retreat back to France and lose all land they had gained from the war.
  • 1497

    Danish-Swedish War

    This was over control of Sweden, which Sweden claimed to be independent while Norway-Denmark still claimed control of Sweden under the Kalmar Union. Norway won this short war.
  • 1497


    In Scotland, children are required by law to attend school.
  • 1498

    Vasco da Gama

    Vasco da Gama reaches India.
  • 1498


    Toothbrushes first appear in China
  • 1499

    Swabian War

    This war took place in modern day Switzerland and was a dispute between the Swiss people and Emperor Maximilian I.
  • 1499

    Hospital de Peregrinos

    In 1499 the Hospital de Peregrinos was founded, thanks to the cession made in his will by D. Juan González, archpriest of the town.
  • 1501


    Mercantilism is a set of political ideas or economic ideas of great pragmatism that developed during the sixteenth, seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth century in Europe. It was characterized by a strong intervention of the State in the economy, coinciding with the development of monarchical absolutism.
  • 1501

    Textile industry expansion

    The sector to which the greatest prominence within modern European industry corresponded was, without a doubt, textiles. This did not represent any novelty, since the medieval industry developed precisely in function of the manufacture of fabrics. The dress, while
    an immediate need, it is a visual expression of social distinction, even more than the decoration of the house. That is why the textile industry grew at the expense of both necessity and luxury.
  • 1501


    -The European population increased its troops between 1500 and 1600 from 80 to 100 million inhabitants.
    The population increase created an abundance of labor, which benefited in the clearing of new land and an increase in agricultural production.
    -The European economy is benefiting from new commercial activities.
    -The evolution of the industry benefited from a set of derived stimuli. Although these benefits affected the structural order of society.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    XVI Century

    This century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of Western civilization and the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders occurred. Galileo Galilei became a champion of the new sciences, invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the fields of physics and astronomy, becoming a major figure in the Scientific Revolution. The Protestant Reformation in central and northern Europe gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Catholic Church.
  • 1502

    First African slaves in America

  • Period: Nov 26, 1504 to Apr 12, 1555


    Joanna's reign in Castile
  • 1505


    Michelangelo starts painting the Sistine Chapel ceiling
  • 1506

    Christopher Columbus death

    He died without knowing he discovered a new continent
  • Period: Jun 27, 1506 to Sep 25, 1506

    Philip I (Joanna's husband)

    Philip's reign
  • 1512


    Michelangelo finishes painting the Sistine Chapel ceiling
  • 1513

    Niccolò Machiavelli

    Niccolò Machiavelli writes "The Prince"
  • 1515

    Francis I of France coronation

    His reign allowed the French nation to play an important role in European affairs and position itself as an economic power of the first order. Son of Charles of Angoulême and Louise of Savoy, he belonged to the Valois-Angoulême branch of the Capetian dynasty. Francis I is considered to be the emblematic monarch of the French Renaissance period. His reign allowed an important development of arts and letters in France.
  • Period: Jan 23, 1516 to Apr 12, 1555


    Joanna's reign in Aragon
  • Period: Mar 14, 1516 to Jan 16, 1556

    Charles I

    Charles' reign. He abdicated.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther

    Luther wrote his 95 theses as a support for a theoretical debate, a theological "dispute", a common practice at the time. Conceived to be spread in a restricted circle of theologians, their success would have surprised Luther himself. After being printed in large quantities and widely disseminated, the theses had great resonance, but the religious authorities hesitated.
  • 1519

    Hernán Cortés conquers the Mexican Empire

  • 1521

    Start of the Diet of Worms

    The Diet of Worms (German: Wormser Reichstag) was an assembly of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany from 28 January to 25 May 1521. It was presided over by the newly appointed Emperor Charles V. This Diet or council should not be confused with the Concordat of Worms (1122), which put an end to the quarrel of the investitures.
  • 1521

    Ending of the Diet of Worms

  • 1529

    Second Diet of Spire

    The Diet of Spire of 1529 was a diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in 1529 in the Free Imperial City of Spire. At this meeting, the results of the 1526 diet of Spier were condemned and future reforms were forbidden. It resulted in the protest of Espira.
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    It was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church developed in discontinuous periods during twenty-five sessions between the year 1545 and 1563. It took place in Trent, a city in northern Italy that at the time was a free imperial city ruled by a prince-bishop.
  • 1547

    Francis I of France death

    Known as the Father and Restorer of Letters, the Knight King and the Warrior King, he was consecrated as King of France on 25 January 1515 in the cathedral of Reims, and reigned until his death in 1547. After his death, the French monarchy was weakened.
  • 1553

    Henry Bourbon coronation

    With the coronation Henry Bourbon, who had to change from Protestantism and convert to Catholicism to be consecrated king of France with the name of Henry IV.
    His phrase was: "Paris, a Mass is well worth it"
  • 1554

    Lazarillo de Tormes

    Lazarillo de Tormes is an ironic and ruthless sketch of the society of the moment, of which its vices and hypocritical attitudes are shown, especially those of the clergy and religious. There are different hypotheses about its authorship. Probably the author was sympathetic to erasmist ideas. This motivated the Inquisition to ban it and, later, to allow its publication, once it was purged. The work was not published in its entirety until the nineteenth century.
  • Period: Jan 16, 1556 to

    Philip II

    Philip's reign
  • 1562

    Massacre of Vassy

    The massacre of Vassy, which precipitated the first War of Religion in France (1562-1563) is one of the events that have marked the history of our neighboring country and, in a certain sense, also the European.
  • 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Massacre is the mass murder of Huguenots (French Protestant Christians of Calvinist doctrine) during the French Wars of Religion of the sixteenth century. The events began on the night of August 23-24, 1572 in Paris, and spread over the following months throughout France.
  • Spanish Armada disaster

  • Romeo and Juliet

    It is one of the most popular works by the English author and, along with Hamlet and Macbeth, the one that has been represented the most times. Although the story is part of a long tradition of tragic romances dating back to ancient times, the plot is based on the English translation.
  • Period: to

    Philip III

    Philip's reign