Bible Quotes - Old Testament"Thus the priest shall make atonement for the sin the man committed, and it will be forgiven.” (Leviticus 5:10) “Tell the Israelites: If a man [or woman] commits a a fault against his fellow man and wrongs him, thus breaking faith with the Lord, he shall confess the wrong he has done." (Numbers 5:5-7) Reference:
"Holy Bible" (photograph), 1999, The Holy Bible: King James Version, http://prince213.blogspot.com.au/2010/02/holy-bible-king-james-version.html [13.8.2012]
Bible Quotes - New Testament" The angel told Joseph ‘’he shall save his people from their sins. " (Matthew 1:21) "Anyone who sees his brother sinning, if the sins is not deadly, should petition to God, and thus life will be given to the sinner ."(1 John 5:16). "The angel told Joseph ‘’he shall save his people from their sins.’’ (Matthew 1:21) "His first words were ‘Repent and believe in the Good News’’ (Mark 1:15) Reference:
"Jesus", (photograph), Life of Jesus, http://www.theworkofgod.org/Images/Jesus.jpg, [12.8.2012]
Cyrille Vogel - 12 Major SinsHe gathered a list of twelve major sins named in the New Testament of the Bible and the Apostolic Father's writings. The twelve major sins were: impurity, murder, idolatry, magic, greed, theft, jealousy, lies, spite, pride, insanity and fickleness, intemperance.
Calonical PenanceOccured between the 3rd and 4th Century where special canons were recruited by local churches and councils to deal with public penance. An example of calonical penance is penitents having no access to Eucharist until the Bishop has reconciled him with the community and the Church. Reference:
"The History of Penance" (photograph) https://medievalchristianityd.wikispaces.com/Penance [14.8.2012]
Hippolytus of RomeHe critisised the Popes for being to accept grave sinners back into the Communion of the Church. Reference:
"Hippolytus" (gif), 2005, Rome - Hippolytus,
The Council of NicaeaPut the forgiveness of grave sins under the authority of bishops. Reference:
"The Council of Nicaea", (photograph), http://worldofweirdthings.com/2008/11/17/a-tale-of-two-religions.jpg, [13.8.2012]
The Middle Ages5th Century - 15th Century. The Collapse of the Western Roman Empire until the beginning of the Renaissance.
AugustineDistinguished three kinds of reconciliation with God through the Church:
1. The remission of all previous in sin through baptism.
2. The daily remission through prayer and fasting of "light and small sins."
3. The formal one-time remissions of deadly and serious sin through public penance. Reference:
"Augustine2", (photograph) http://gavinortlund.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/augustine2.jpg [15.8.2012]
Third Council Of ToledoTried to maintain the old system of reconciliation and remain with once-only reconciliation and rejected the Celtic monastic practice. Reference:
Jan 1, 600
Tariff PenanceFrom the 7th Century until the 12th Century. The Church moved into the Middle Ages and it quickly began to take the European culture, law and practices on board.
Jan 1, 650
Council of Chalon-Sur-SaoneApproved the Celtic monastic practice and tried to establish Episcopal control over it meaning to allow bishops to be in control. Prescribed penance as many times as they would fall into sin.
Jul 1, 800
The Practice of PenanceFrom the 7th Century until the 12th Century, reconciliation consisted of: Confession, Acceptance by the priest and penance. Available at the time were penitential books .
Aug 17, 1095
Crusades1095 - 1291
The main time of the Crusades, mostly against Muslims in the Levant and pagans.
Aug 16, 1100
Individual Confessions from 12th century to present
Jan 1, 1215
Fourth Lateran CouncilAssociation of penance with Eucharist was established. Decreed that every Christian who has the ability to judge well, must receive private - not public communal-confession once a year. Became canon law.
Jan 1, 1439
Council Of FlorenceDefined what the sacrament of penance involved: The acts of the penitent should be:
1. Contrition of heard including sorrow or commiting the sin and resolve and try not to sin again.
2. Oral confession of all sins that are remembered.
3. Satisfaction for sins assigned by the priest ordinarily done by prayer, fasting and almsgiving.
Jan 1, 1500
Council of TrentFurther consecrated the sevenfold sacramental system and decreed this sacrament of penance as the sacrament of forgiveness of sins. It fought for the face that it is what God revealed, otherwise known as Divine Law.
Leo The GreatObjected to Augustin's views publicly and said, "It is enough that the guilt of conscience be revealed to prists alone in secret confesssion." Reference:
"Leo The Great", (photograph), St. Leo The Great, http://www.stleo.com/Patron.htm [14.8.2012]
Irish MissionariesStarted the practice of "private" penances which didn't require public and long-term penances by bringing Celtics to Europe. Since that time, the Sacrament of Confession has been administered in secret between the penitent and the priest. Eventually termed as "confession".
Industrial Revolution1750 - 1850. Where there were drastic changes in areas such as transportation, agriculture, technology and mining.
Lamentabili Sane ExituPope Pius X reaffirmed the extract from the Bible, ""Receive the Holy Spirit; whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained." (John 20:22-23) to be true and put forward by Jesus himself. Reference:
"Pius X" (photograph), 1901, Pope Saint Pius X, http://mundabor.wordpress.com/tag/pope-st-pius-x/
The Vatican IILumen Gentium, The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, emphasised that in addition to receving pardon for their sins, penitents are reconciled with the Church which they have "wounded by their sins." Reference:
"Vatican II" (photograph) http://www.ssjohnpaul.org/pictures/vatican2.jpg [14.8.2012]
Ordo PaenitentiaePope Paul VI publishes this document, also known as Order of Penance, introduced the new name, "Sacrament of Reconciliation". Reference:
"Pope John Paul II" (photograph), 2005, Pope John Paul II, http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-S_yhIOcuOGs/TbW9bd-xrBI/AAAAAAAAApE/WoWAFwb2xH4/s1600/Pope.John.Paul.II.2005.jpg [14.8.2012]
The New Rite Of PenanceThree different types of Rites of Reconciliation:
1. Revise the traditional rite "individual pentinents".
2. Several pentinents with individual confession and absolution.
3. Several pentinents with general confession and absolution. The Church revealed that, "The Church possesses both water and tears: the water of baptism and the tears of penance”.
Pope John Paul IIBegan a fostering and renewal of the Sacrament of Reconciliation. He issued an Apostolic Exhortation, Reconciliatio Et Paenitentia (Reconciliation and Penance) where he stated, "Repent and believe in the Gospel." (Mark 1:15). Reference:
"John Paul II" (photograph), 2003, Understanding the Mysteries of our Genograms: the example of Pope John Paul II, http://www.genopro.com/articles/John-Paul-II [13.8.2012]
The Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Modern WorldProcess of Reconciliation:
The penitent and the priest begin with the sign of the Cross and then urges the penitent to have confidence in God. The penitent then states, "Forgive me, Father, for I have sinned. It has been...since my last confession." The penitent reveals their sins but must be sorry for them for it to be accepted. The Act of Contrition is said by the pentinent and if the priest believes that their intentions are true, he will absolve them from their sins and give them penance.