Middle Ages- Reformation

  • Jan 1, 1096

    The Crusades

    • Holy war against Muslims
    • Christian Church tried to regain Holy Land
    • Not Successful for the Christian Church, deepens split between Muslims and Christians
    • Commoners and Knights fight for their religion
    • Opened up trade
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Model Parliament

    Nobles and Peasnats meet to pass or veto laws/ requests for king
    ( like President going to Congress)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1300 to


    Rebirth of the Classics
    Humanism- intellectual movement focused on human potential and achievement
    Secularism- worldly values
  • Sep 9, 1302

    Estates Genreal

    - nobles and peasants
    - more democratic political institution
    - Like the Model Parliament (decision making)
  • Jan 1, 1337

    Hundred Years' War

    Hundred Years' War
    116 years
    France Vs. England
    French have no king after last Capetian king dies w/o heir
    England want to claim the throne
    1429 the French were losing until Orleans with Joan of Arc
    Joan of Arc helps French win the war, but is tried and convicted of witchcraft and burned at the stake
    - Creates a sense of Nationalism in both countries, king and parliament gain power
  • Jan 1, 1347

    The Bubonic Plague

    Lasted years
    Came from rats on a ship from the Black Sea
    1/3 of Europe dies
    trade declined, prices rose, towns become smaller
    peasants want more wages and freedom, mobles refuse, peasants revolt
  • Jan 1, 1378

    The Great Schism

    Two Popes- France and Italy
    39 years
    Deepens crack between the Pope/ Church and People
  • Sep 1, 1494

    Invasion of Northern Italy

    French King launches an invasion to claim the Naples throne
    Italian writers and artist flee to a safer Northern Europe bringing with them the ideas, styles, and techniques of the Italian Renaissance
  • Sep 9, 1509

    Henry VIII becomes king of England

  • Oct 31, 1517

    95 Theses

    Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to a church door in Wittenberg attacking the pardon merchants (indulgences)
  • Period: Oct 31, 1517 to

    the Reformation

    Church Reformation
  • Sep 1, 1520

    Pope's Threat

    Pope threatens excommunication to Luther if he doesn't stop his heresey.
    L burns threat & is excommunicated from the Cathollic church
  • Sep 9, 1520

    Huldrych Zwingli attacks the Catholic Church

    Wanted the people to have more control over the church
    his "religion" was adopted in Zurich and other cities
  • Sep 9, 1521

    The Emperor's Opposition

    Holy Roman Emperor Chrales V summons L to a trial in Worms Germany in 1521
    L doesn't go
    Charles declares nobody shall shelter or feed L
    Prince Fredrick the Wise of Saxony shelters L in castle
    L returens to Wittenberg in 1522 after translating the New Testament into German
  • Sep 9, 1521

    Henry attacks Luther

    called "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope
    however, Henry needed a son/ heir
    wanetd another wife, but divorce not allowed in Catholic church
    Asked for annulment, but refused b/c Pope didn't want to offend Catherine of Aragon's nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
  • Sep 9, 1522

    Spiritual Exercises

    Ignatius of Loyola is injured at war in 1521, he thinks about his religion and Jesus
    Spiritual Exercises- laid out day to day plan on meditation, prayer, and study
    For next 18 years, gathered followers
  • Sep 9, 1529

    Loyal Princes sign an agreement to stay loyal to the Pope

    protestants- Christians not in the Catholic Church
    Charles V goes to war with the Protestant Princes
  • Sep 9, 1529

    The Reformation Parliament

    Henry asks Parliament to pass laws that end the Pope's power in England
  • Sep 9, 1531


    War breaks out between the Catholics and Protestants in Switzerland
    Zwingli dies
    John Calvin- a young French law student becomes interested in Church doctrine and begins clarifying Protestant ideas
  • Sep 9, 1533

    Henry Secretly Marries Anne Bolyen

    signifies the breaking of the Catholic Church
  • Sep 9, 1534

    Act of Supremecy

    The Act of Supremecy- Pope had to take an oath recognizing the divorce between Catharine of Aragon and Henry VIII & establish Henry VIII as the church head in England
  • Period: Sep 9, 1534 to Sep 9, 1549

    Pope Paul III's Reign

    Used inquisiton to seek out heresey in papal territory
    aprroved the Jesuits order
    directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and church abuses
    caled a council of church leaders to meet in Trent, Italy
  • Sep 9, 1535

    Thomas Moore Executed

    Thomas Moore, who wrote the Utopia, is executed for refusing to take the oath
  • Sep 9, 1536

    Anne Bolyen is beheaded

    Elizabeth I is Anne's young daughter
  • Sep 9, 1536

    Calvin publishes a book

    Calvin publishes the Institutes of the Christian Religion- finalized Protestant ideas
    - men and women sinful by nature

    - God chose a select few to be saved (elects)
    - Believed that God has known who to save since the beginning of time
    - Called Predestination
    - Calvin's teachings = Calvinism
  • Sep 9, 1537

    Jane Seymour

    Jane Seymour delivers a baby boy for Henry VIII but dies three weeks later
  • Sep 9, 1540


    Pope created the formal Society of Jesus for Ignatius' followers (Jesuits)
    - found schools
    - convert non Christians to Catholics
    - Stop spread of Protestantism
    Approved by Pope Paul III
  • Sep 9, 1541

    Geneva Switzerland asks John Calvin to lead their city

    Geneva becomes a theocracy, very strict rules, but high moral values
  • Period: Sep 9, 1545 to Sep 9, 1563

    Council of Trent

    Cardinals and Bishops met to agree on several doctrines
    - the Catholic Church's interpretation of the Bible is final, any other ideas are heresies
    - Christians needed faith and good works for Salvation
    - The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful for guiding a Christian life
    - Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but false selling was banned
  • Sep 9, 1547

    Protestant Princes Lose

    Protestant princes are "defeated" , but refuse to convert back to Catholocism
  • Sep 9, 1547

    Henry VIII Dies

    Son Edward VI becomes king at 9 years old
  • Sep 9, 1553

    Mary I becomes Queen

    Mary I becomes queen after Edward VI dies
    Converts England back to Catholocism, kills many Protestants
  • Sep 9, 1555

    Peace of Augsberg

    Pope calls the preinces to assemble and sign a settlement letting each Prince choose his state's religion
  • Period: Jan 1, 1558 to

    Elizabethan Era

  • Sep 9, 1558

    Elizabeth I takes the Throne

    Elizabeth I becomes Queen and restores Protestantism
  • Sep 9, 1559

    Anglican Church started by Queen Elizabeth I

    Anglican Church- blend of Catholocism and Protestantism
  • Sep 9, 1559

    Pope Paul IV

    Pope Paul IV asks church officials to draw up a list of forbidden books dangerous to the catholic faith
    Index of Forbidden Books
    Books were burnt
    Venice burnt 10,000 books in one day.
  • Sep 9, 1560

    John Knox leads Nobles

    John Knox (preacher) who started Presbyterianism in Scotland led nobles to overthrow Catholic Mary Queen of Scots for her infant son James
    each church group is led by Presbyrs or laymen
    community led church
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Catholics hunt out Protestnats and murder them (starts in Paris)
    Hugueknots- Calvinists in France (12,000 killed)
  • Period: to Dec 31, 1500

    Middle Ages/ Age of Faith

    Church blamed for the Great Schism, Hundred Years' War, Plague
    Age of Faith comes to an end