Period: Jan 1, 1500 to
Culture and Current Thoughts
Nov 3, 1500
Spirituality-The amerindians had many different ways of expressing their beliefs and spirituality.
1: They believed their dreams were visions of the future
2:Shamans were a priest/medecine man who was able to heal anyone
3:Circle of life, the immortality of the soul after death
4:Sweat lodges, to purify the body and have contact with nature
6:myths and legends varried though oral tradition
Aug 6, 1503
Animism-The belief that every living and non-living thing has a soul
-Based on the circle of life
Influences of ideas: Divine right of Kings-The King had total power
-King Louis XIV had control in Europe but his colony of New France was still suffereing. It's economy and population wasn't developing.
-The King ended the monoply on the independant companies and implemented the Royal Government in 1663.
-He also removed mercantilism
-The Kings oversaw cultural events and controled the Church
Influences of ideas: Catholicism-The King and Church worked together
-The Church managed:education, social services and healthcare
-Members of the church could be found anywhere. (parishes, missionaries, hospitals, schools...etc.)
-The Church used its influences to suppress multiple forms of artistic expression that didn't confrom from religious beliefs.
-If members of the community didn't follow the churches "rules", they would be excommunicated.
-Excommunicated:shunned by the church, this would ruin your life
Influences of ideas: independant spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens-The settlers of New France lived a happy life and were self dependant which differed from the life in France
-A new society, "Canadians", were formed with aspects of French traditions and Aboriginal culture
-Examples of aspects: Religion, language, clothes, travel, education and independance
-This new society was formed because of its distance from the King in France.
Liberalism-A political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of an individual and businesses
-Liberal ideas: equal rights, freedom of speech and a popular representation in the government
-Liberal ideas were diffused mainly through newspapers
Influence of Church-Bishops became more and more powerful, the cures became the most important person in the parish.
-Registering births, marriages, deaths.
-Controlling education (Laval University 1852)
-Orphanages, Shelters, Charities, Religious festivals
-Protestant Universities: McGill(1821), Bi
Imperialism-The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies
-Had an architectual influence
-Helped with parlimentary political organization
Agriculturalism-Push to support farmers/farming
-Valorisation of rural, community et parish life in novels (Un homme et son péché, Maria Chapdeleine, Le Survenant, Menaud, Maître Draveur, etc.)
-Creation of community groups such as Le Cercle des fermières and spread of their ideas in a magazine.
Laicism-the nonclerical, or secular, control of political and social institutions in a society
Ultramontanism-The policy of the party in Roman Catholic Church that favors increasing and enhancing the power and authority of the pope
-Advocating of absolute obedience to the Catholic religion.
-Church seeks to increase and extend its influence in all spheres of life. Social, political, cultural, etc
Anticlericalism-Opposed to the influence and activities of the clergy or the church in secular of public affairs
-They want the church separated from the government
-The opposite from ultramonatism
Capitilism-An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, andexchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially ascontrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
-Construction of buildings by capitalists who form part of our architectural heritage.
-Diffusion of capitalist ideas through the mainstream press owned by businessmen.
Americanism-Emergence of American cultural trends: dance, music and spread of American culture through films, radio and télévision.
-To counter American influences, the church spreads ideas of traditional Catholic culture through music, media and education.
-Influence of American culture through the media.
Socialism-A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control ofthe means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole
Role of women-Women had a hard life, married young, produced many children
-Long days of work
-Women often did the worst jobs
-They had few rights(no vote), little education.
-WWI opened things up for women
Cooperatism-Also known as a co-op
-Birth of different groups who favoured equality and collaboration
-Examples include:American Unions like the Knights of Labor, the Caisses populaires, and Catholic Union of Cultivators
Nationalism-In its broadest sense, is a devotion to one's own nation and its interests over those of all other nations
1)Fre.Cdn. Nationalism: Did not want to support Britian, wanted to protect French interests (language, education, rights) views spread via newspapers
2)Eng.Cdn. Nationalism: Liked the English way, (language, politics) wanted to support Britain but wanted Canada to operate independently
Fascism-The idea that a dictator should control the entire country. They normally rule threw the use of propaganda/force.
-The idea of fascism was adopted in Spain and Italy, but brought to an extreme in Germany by the Nazi’s lead by Adolf Hitler.
Aboriginalism-Claims for ancestral rights and recognition of aboriginal identity through tradition culture (writings, language, music, éducation, etc).
Neoliberalism-New wave of liberalism
-Advocating the removal of the state in various parts of society.
-Opposite to socialist groups wanting to maintain intervention of the state.
Native issues-Oka Crisis lasted for 78 days in the summer of 1990
-A golf course wanted to expand its course onto the native land
-The Mohawk warriors establish road blocks to protect their reserve
-The natives militarily organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation