THE FOUNDING OF THE CITY.The story of the origin of the city of Rom,e is a combination of lengend and reality.
* Rome was founding by the brothers Romulus and Remus, who were born of the union between Mars, god of wars, and the daughter of an Etruscan king. They were raised by wolves, and as adults, the two brothers had an argument wich ended in Romulus' defeat of Remus and the founding of Rome.
*The Etruscans and Latins founded the city in a strategic location near the sea.
THE BARBARIAN INVASIONS.Up to the 800... The instability of the Empire made it easier for the barbarians to get past the limes. Several peoples crossed the border formed by the Rhine and Danube rivers to occupy Roman land.
The emperors were forced to sign pacts with Certain Germanic people, granting them territory in exchange for their cooperation . The barbarians increased their presence in the Empire.
THE ORIGINS OF ROME.The city of rome is located in the middle of the Italian Peninsula.
The romans conquered the territories surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.Their influence entended from the African deserts to the Northern Europe and the British Isles.
Period: 8 BCE to 6 BCE
PERIOD: MONARCHYRome was governed by kings of latin and Etruscan origin. It became the most powerful city in its regions, known as Latium.
THE REPUBLICIt was a political system wich lasted five centuries.To prevent power from being concentrated in the hands of a single person, the Romans divided it among various institutions:
* the magistracies were the main bodies of government, were elected each day, with some exceptions.
Two consuls, the quaestors, the aediles, the praetors and the censors.
*the senate was the most important institution, it was made up of 300 former magistrates.
*the comitia were made up of free citizens.
Period: 6 BCE to 1 BCE
PERIOD: REPUBLICRome expanded around the Mediterranean , from the Iberian Peninsula to the Near East provinces.
THE MONARCHY.Was the first system of government in Rome. During this period, Rome took the form of a city-state.
Rome had seven kings.After the reign of Romulus, there were three Sabine kings.There were followed by three Etruscan kings, The kings were the highest authority in political, military and religious matters. Two institutions:
* The Senate, made up of the heads of the city's.
*The comitia, made up of the rest of the citizens.
The last of the kings was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE EXPANSION.Their Mediterranean conquests brought the Romans money, slaves and land. This caused instability in the Republic.The weathly received the most benefits, while the peasants, ruined by their service in the armyt. Social revolts:
*Plebeian revolts. In the 2nd century BC, the Gracchus brothers, attempted to implement reforms to help the most disadvantaged citizens (were assassinated)
* The Slave rebellion: It was led by Spartacus, althought many slaves joined the cause, 71 BC.
SOCIAL EVOLUTION.Roman society was characteried by social inequality. Social groups:
*Patricians were descended from the founding families of Rome. They held political power and owned most of the land.
*Slaves were prisioners of war or the children of slaves and they served the patricians.
* Plebeians were free, had little involvement in politics, they pay taxes and served in the army.
*Clients were semi-free. Freedmen and freedwomen were slaves who had gained their freedom.
MODEL OF THE ROMAN FAMILY.Rome developed its own family model.
*Women did not participate in politics.They were dependents of their father . They were responsible for taking care of the children.
* Girls received the same education as boys until adolescence.
* The pater familias was the family's highest authority,He had the control over the life of his family, slaves and freedmen.
* The sons og¡f weathly families were educated at home by Greek masters, also received military training from a young age.
Period: 5 BCE to 3 BCE
ROMAN DEFEATED ALL THE REMAINING PEOPLES OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA.Once they controlled it, the Romans began their conquest of western Mediterranean. This led to conflict with Carthage, the other great Mediterranean power, in the Punic Wars.
Period: 3 BCE to 2 BCE
THE PUNIC WARS.They ended with Carthage's defeat and the Roman conquest of Sicily, Corsica, North Africa and most of the Iberian Peninsula.
Then Rome expanded into the eastern Mediterranean, defeating the Greeks and Macedonians.
Period: 2 BCE to 1 BCE
SUBSEQUENT ANNEXATION OF SYRIA AND EGYPT.The Mediterranean became the Roman Mare Nostrum.
Finally, the Romans succeeded in occupying other parts of Europe: Gaul, Great Britain and part of Central Europe.
THE ROMAN ARMY.During the expansion the Romans army was made up of free men, from 16-60 years. It became a `professional army, wich means that the soldiers were paid. The army's effectiveness was an essential aspect. Around 350.000 soldiers at its largest, were highly organised during the expansion through the Mediterranean.
It had got a power cavalry, but its true military force was the infantry, wich was organised into regions, they were accompained by auxuliary troops.
THE CRISIS.The republic was weakened, leading to the creation of two triumvirates:
*The first triumvirate: Formed by Pompey the Great, Julius Cesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Differences soon emerged. Julius Cesar was ultimately victorious, being named dictator in perpetuity. He was assessinated in 44 BC.
* The second triumvirate: Formed by the generals octavian, Marcus Antinius and Marcus Aemilius Lepiudus. The victor was Octavian who proclaimed himself emperor.
IMPERIAL PERIOD.The differences between those who had Roman citizenship and those who did not were accentuated.
*The nobilitas ( weathly and noble classes), knights and plebeians (soldiers, peasants and artisans) had Roman citizenship.
* Slaves and freedmen were not citizens, slaves were numerous during the Pax Romana, their numbers increased during the 3rd century causing their value to rise, they became highly- valued possesions.
Period: 1 BCE to 5
PERIOD: EMPIRE.Augustus was the first Roman emperor. Rome reached its greatest territorial extent. The Empire began to decline in the 3rd century AD.
Period: AD 1 to 2
THE PAX ROMANA.The Empire experienced a time of peace and stability, reaching its greatest territorial extent ( The Pax Romana)
*The territory was organised into provinces.These were run by a governor with the help of officials and soldiers. The border (limes) was protected by a system of fortifications to prevent invasion by the peoples who lived beyond these boundaries, the barbarians.
*Roman customs , religion, laws, language and way of life were introduced into the conquered territories. ( Romanisation)
Period: AD 1 to 380
THE BIRTH AND EVOLUTION OF CHRISTIANITY.The Romans were polytheists, as they worshipped many gods. As they conquered territories,They incorporated other deities, especially from Greece.
Christianity emerged in Palestine. This relligion taught the existence of only one God and the coming of his son Jesus Christ, to Earth.
In the year 313, Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, allowing Christians to worship in public. Finally Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Empire.
THE ROMAN DIET.It's varied depending on a person's social class.
* The wealthier classes had a rich diet wich includes met and fish. They held banquets where up to seven dishes might be served and drank a large quantities of wine.
* The poorer classes primarily ate bread, soup and barley or wheat porridge. They were rarely able to get meat or fish.
THE CRISIS OF THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE.A large part of Roman prosperity was the result of territorial expansion. Through its conquests, Rome had appropiated the wealth of annexed territories. Limes made it neccesary to constantly defend it against the barbarians. Many sectors:
* The amount of slave labour decreased , causing a drop in production .
* Rome has to raise taxes to maintain its revenue, worsening the situation.
* Had political effects.
DIVISION OF THE EMPIRE.Facing a crisis at all levels, Emperor Theodosius decided to divide the Empire between his two sons:
*Honorius recived the western half, with Rome as its capital.
*Arcadius received the eastern half, with Constantinople as its capital.
MEDITERRANEAN EXPANSION.... up to 100 BC: With the establishment of the Republic,Rome began a process of territorial expansion through military conquest and alliances with other peoples. After taking control of the Italian Peninsula, the Roman expanded into the rest of the Mediterranean.
ARRIVAL OF THE VISIGOTHS.The division did not improve the situation in the western half of the Empire. The Visigoths were able to cross the limes and ransack Rome.
THE FALL OF ROME.The Heruli overthrew Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor in the West. For many historians, this event marks the end of Antiquity and the start of the Middle Ages.
REPUBLICAN PERIOD.Territorial expansion led to social changes:
* Conquests of new territories increased the number of slaves.
* Knights or equites emerged. They had plebeian origins,but gained great economic power as a result of Roman conquests.
ROME, AN ECONOMIC POWER.Rome enjoyed a very prosperous economy.
* Agriculture was the most important activity, there were some small properties owned by free peasants and large farms worked by slaves.
They conquered areas were exploited economically by Rome.
* Livestock farming raising horses was crucial because they were used by the army.
*Mining brought the greatest prosperity.
*Artisanal activity, with workshops run by free men and slave labour.
* Trade developed during the Pax Romana.