INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the Revolutionary Party, seeks leaders of the revolution, builds an army, lands in Cuba. Martí dies in one of the combat actions, the United States does not want to lose the possibility of seizing the largest island of the Antilles and, in 1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, declares war on Spain . American intervention precipitated the Spanish defeat, Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered the American occupation.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and Spain.
After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico
Independence of ChileSan Martín was not discouraged and decided to continue with his plans, only now he had to liberate Chile first. That is why he spent years making weapons, bullets and all kinds of equipment, organized
the Army of the Andes. The journey was epic, but as they had
planned, the six columns met less than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and suffered a serious
defeat at Cancha Rayada (03-19-1818), triumphed in the decisive battle of Maipú (04-05-1818), ensuring the independence of Chile
1838-1840Provinces of the Center of America, being its capital city of Guatemala.
However, local oligarchies promoted separation. This led to a civil war (1838-
1840), in which Guatemala could not prevail. England invaded Nicaragua
but was rejected, although it remained with the enclave of Belize.
1833-1839Frustrated in their desire for autonomy
and free trade, a group of conservative creoles proclaimed independence in
1821, but only when Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was proclaimed
president of the Republic in 1833 Spain only recognized Mexican
independence in 1839.
Republic of UruguayThe Oriental Republic of Uruguay, fed up with its disappointments with the centralism of Buenos Aires, and after the War with Brazil (1825-1828), it would be established as an independent entity in 1828. In this action, Artigas no longer participated, since he was exiled in Paraguay.
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized in the Congress of Gran Colombia to command the expedition to Peru. In September he arrived in Lima and met with Sucre and the Peruvian leaders to plan the attack. Bolívar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army in the battle of Junín (6-08-1824).
BolivarIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized in the Congress of Gran Colombia to command the expedition to Peru. In September he arrived in Lima and met with Sucre and the Peruvian leaders to plan the attack. Bolívar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army in the battle of Junín (6-08-1824).
Sucre went to Alto Peru in 1825, where there was no resistance, and made it independent as a sovereign state that adopted the name of Bolivia in honor of Simón Bolívar.
San Martin and BolivarIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government, and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823).
José de San MartínLet us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated the royalist pastures in the battle of Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for the president of Peru, General José de San Martín, to discuss the strategy to 1end the war against the royalists.
Central AmericaGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
defend itself better from Spain. One year later, Guatemala and its provinces
formed an independent state, of federal character, with the name of United.
Indepence of EcuadorLet us remember how the independence of Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated the independence of the Great Colombia.
PerúTogether with O'Higgins, and with 200,000 pesos that he obtained from Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to buy a naval squadron to attack the Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820) with a fleet of eight warships and 16 transport ships, and 4,500 men from the armies of the Andes and Chile. It disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards the mountain range.
The revolution (1811-1815)The command was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage of the revolution (1811-1815). He introduced a liberal state and agrarian reform.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned to the throne in 1814, patriotic military campaigns subsisted in Venezuela and the Río de la Plata. In the
first, Simón Bolívar -Member of the Caraqueña boards of 1811- was named new military leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator"
GuadalajaraIt obtained triumphs with
its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811.
MontevideoIn the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose against the Spanish authorities inMontevideo. Colonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops who defeated the royalists at the Battle of Las Piedras (18-05-1811) and besieged the walled Montevideo, where the viceregal government had moved.
Revolutions from Mexico to Chile.It is about the independence of two countries: Chile and Mexico, Mexico and Chile. Official history says that on September 16, 1810, priest Miguel Hidalgo gave the so-called “Grito de Dolores”, haranguing the people to take up arms against the bad government.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first meeting in Buenos Aires (05-251810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces, they were unsuccessful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asunción (05-14-1811), the government remained independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
Colonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops, defeated the royalists in the Battle of Las Piedras (05-18-1811) and placed the
Walled Montevideo, where the viceregal government had moved.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro
becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy as well as those of Europe,