Parcial 2

Timeline created by Jin Hong
In History
  • 1250

    Carta Magna

    Document signed in England that recognises the power of the Parliament and the rights of the individual.
  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    The Ottomans start to expand through the Balkans, theatening Austrian territories. Saracens and Berbers attacked ships & coast in the Mediterranean Sea
  • 1520

    Revolt in Castile (Carlos V)

    The bourgeoisie were unhappy with Carlos because he was foreigner, didin't know Spanish, appointed Flemish nobles for the important positions and used Castile's money to make sure he was chosen as Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1521

    Battle of Villalar

    The revolt was initially succesful, but Carlos changed his policy towards the appointments, and the sides changed. The comuneros (inhabitants of the cities & rebels) were defeated. Padilla, Bravo & Maldonado were executed.
  • 1525

    Battle of Pavia

    Francis I feraed to be surrounded by Carlos' territories, also France was traditionally hostile to Aragón (rivals for the control of Mediterranean and Italy), Burgundy and Austria. Francis tried to become Holy Roman Emperor to rival the power of Carlos. Francis was taken prisoner while fighting Carlos in this battle over the Duchy of Milan. This did not end french hostilities (Lower Navarra fall in their hands).
  • 1526

    The King of Bohemia and Hungary dies

    He died whilst fighting the Ottomans. His crown passed to Carlos
  • 1527

    Sack of Rome

    The pope Clement VII feared that Carlos would become the head of the Christendom, and his territories were surrounded by Carlos. Clement joined forces with France, but the imperial troops captured him in the Sack of Rome.
  • 1529

    The Ottomans are repelled from Vienna

    Carlos also recovered Tunis, but did not stop the Ottoman pirates
  • 1547

    Battle of Mühlberg

    The Lutheran Reformation started in the Holy Roman Empire and the protestant princes rebelled against Carlos.
  • 1555

    Peace of Ausburg

    Carlos won the Battle of Mühlberg, but the Protestant Reformation did not end, and he had to sign this treaty, stating that each state would follow the religion of their prince (cuius regio, euius religio)
  • 1557

    Battle of Saint Quintin

    France invaded the Spanish Naples, so Felipe sent imperial troops from the Netherlands to invade France. Felipe won the battle
  • 1561

    Madrid is now Spain's capital

    Felipe chose it because Castilla made the greatest financial contributions to the kingdom
  • 1566

    William of Orange starts a rebellion

    The arrival of the Calvinism and some economic problems caused a conflict in Flanders. Felipe sent tercios to supress them. This rebellion causes the starting of the Eighty Years' War.
  • 1568

    Rebellion of the moriscos

    Some of their customs were prohibited, they were suffering repression because they were suspected of conspiring with Ottoman pirates, so they revolted.
  • 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Becuase of the constant Ottoman threats in the Mediterranean, the Holy League (the pope, Spain, Venice and others) created a fleet to defeat them.
  • 1571

    War of Alpujarras

    The moriscos that rebelled in 1568 were defeated by the royal army and all the moriscos (non rebels too) were expelled from Granada.
  • 1578

    Sebastian of Portugal dies without an heir

    Felipe claimed the crown because he was a relative, he was supported by the merchants and the nobles.
    Antonio of Portugal also claimed the crown because he was the grandson of Manuel I, he was supported by the artisans and the working classes.
    Felipe invaded Portugal and defeated Antonio
  • 1580

    Felipe is crowned king of Portugal

    Recognised the portuguese courts in Tomar. All portuguese territories were incorporated into his kingdom, but their laws and institutions were kept.
  • 1581

    The Dutch Republic is formed

    After the Union of Utretch, a treaty signed between the Flemish rebels.
  • The Spanish Armada

    England was a protestant kingdom and began to compete for the control in the Atlantic Ocean. Elizabeth supported the pirates that attacked Spanish ships. Felipe tried to invade England with his "invincible" fleet. The battle ended in Spanish defeat (by the English ships and storms).
  • Glorious Revolution

    After Cromwell's death, James II tried to hold absolute power, which caused the Parliament to rebel again.
    James II was overthrown, and the Parliament chose William of Orange as new king.
  • Bill of Rights

    Document signed each time a new english monarch is selected (First signed by William III of Orange).
    This document limited the power of the monarch and recognised the rights od the individual. This started the establishment of the Constitutional or Parliamentary Monarchy.
  • Period:
    1516
    to
    1556

    Reign of Carlos I/V

    It started as a monarchy in 1516 in Spain. In 1520, he was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He abdicated in 1556, dividing his empire between his son Felipe and his brother Fernando.
  • Period:
    1521
    to
    1523

    Revolt of the Brotherhoods (Germanías)

    In Valencia and Mallorca, the nobles oppresed the lower classes. The lower classes rebelled against them. The nobles and Carlos collaborated to defeat the rebels.
  • Period:
    1556
    to

    Reign of Felipe II

    He inherited Spain and Burgundy while Fernando inherited the right to the imperial title and the Habsburg Empire. Felipe II was involved in constant international conflicts. He mantained his kingdom thanks to his powerful royal armies, but his funds were being exhausted, leading to economic problems. The Royal Treasury went in bankrupt several times
  • Period: to

    Revolt in Aragon

    The lower nobility, the artisans and the working classes rebelled against Felipe. Caused by long-standing social conflict (banditry, discontent with the king).
    The rebels were defeated by the royal army
  • Period: to

    Twelve Years Truce

    The watershed in the Eighty Years War. Signed by the Duke of Lerma to end the hostilities between Spain and the Dutch. The truce ended when Felipe IV became king of Spain
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    The King Charles I tried to impose absolutism. The Parliament rebelled against him.
    The parliamentary army was led by Oliver Cromwell. They won and executed Charles I. After that, a Commonwealth (republic) was declared.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIV

    Called the "Sun King". Louis tried to hold absolute power in France. After some years of resistance (La Fronde), he managed to impose absolutism. This will allow France to become the main european power by the end of 17th century