Latin America Independence

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  • HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO

    HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO
    François Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt in the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802. He faced the Spanish, the English and the French, until his capture, exile and death in France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, then, second independent country in America, in this case,
  • INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    The independence of Latin America was the historical process of the rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of independent nation states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign Together in 1809.
  • CAUSES OF INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    CAUSES OF INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    In the independence of Latin America, as in any complex process, many Causes can be distinguished, including: Economic. Bourbon reforms stifled the economy of the colonies.
  • CAUSES OF INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

     CAUSES OF INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    Social. There was resentment for the prerogatives of the Spanish. the
    disputes between Spaniards and Creoles for straight positions
    extended to all areas.
  • THE LACK OF KING, OCCASION OF THE AMERICAN BOARDS

    THE LACK OF KING, OCCASION OF THE AMERICAN BOARDS
    When proclaiming the Sovereign Juntas, the South American Creoles carried out three theses: The rejection of Napoleon's claims of America, the loyalty to Fernando VII and, most importantly, the illegitimacy of both Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial authorities appointed by the Spanish king, that he no longer had any power.
  • INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    Some of them - especially the first that of Quito - were
    repressed by fire and blood by the Spanish authorities. The process
    continued until it became a true continental war.
  • FROM THE TABLES TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE

    FROM THE TABLES TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE
    The Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a Sovereign Board. They tried to prevent contagion. The viceroys of Lima and Bogotá immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not allow "a grain of salt" to enter. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and Bogotá occupied the city
  • MEXICAN INDEPENDENCY

    MEXICAN INDEPENDENCY
    The priest Miguel Hidalgo was placed in front of the Indians and peasants and launched, as we saw, the "cry of independence" in the town of Dolores. Over three years, he achieved triumphs with his army and occupied several cities in Mexico, but was defeated in Guadalajara and executed by the royalist authorities in 1811.
  • ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY AND URUGUAY

    ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY AND URUGUAY
    The first Junta of Buenos Aires (05-251810) organized three military campaigns to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful. However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asunción (05-14-1811), and the resulting government remained independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay was created.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA

    INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA
    When Fernando VII returned to the throne in 1814, patriotic military campaigns subsisted in Venezuela and the Río de la Plata. In the first, Simón Bolívar -Member of the Caraqueña Panels of 1811- was appointed the new military leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida
  • BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE

    BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE
    When Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy, as well as those of Europe
  • BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE

    BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE
    In 1821, Juan VI returned to Portugal, leaving his son Pedro de Braganza as governor of Brazil, but the following year he proclaimed himself emperor of Brazil. In 1831 he abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Pedro II, who reigned until 1889 when the first republic was proclaimed.
  • NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA
    Morillo soon regained control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817, Bolívar, Piar, Páez and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo he counterattacked and defeated Bolívar in the Aragua valley.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE

    INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE
    San Martín was not discouraged and decided to continue with his plans, only now he had to liberate Chile first. That is why the Army of the Andes spent years making weapons, bullets and all kinds of equipment and organization. The crossing was epic, but, as planned, the six columns met less than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley.
  • NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA
    One more year of skirmishes and Morillo and Bolívar sign the War
    Regularization Treaty (11-27-1820), which ends the "War to the Death" period. A
    months later, the royalist army was defeated in the battle of Carabobo, the
    final victory of the independence of Venezuela (June 25, 1821).
  • PERU

    PERU
    Together with O'Higgins, and with 200,000 pesos that he obtained from Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to buy a naval squadron to attack the Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820) with a fleet of eight warships and 16 transport ships, and 4,500 men from the armies of the Andes and Chile. It disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards the mountain range
  • INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR BOLIVAR / SAN NARTIN

    INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR BOLIVAR / SAN NARTIN
    the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha (05-24-1822), which culminated in the independence of Gran Colombia, Bolívar also defeated the royalist meadows in the Battle of Bomboná, and entered triumphant in Quito (06-16-1822)
  • END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
    In 1823, Bolívar was authorized by the Congress of Gran Colombia to take command of an expedition to Peru. In September of that year he arrived in Lima and met with Sucre and the Peruvian leaders to plan the attack. Bolívar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army in the Battle of Junín (6-08-1824). Four months later, while Bolívar had gone to Lima to raise more money and receive a new contingent of troops, Sucre was forced to fight and destroyed the last stronghold of the Spanish army.
  • THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO

    THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO
    On September 23, 1868, Lares's cry for independence against Spain occurred. The rebellion is crushed in no time. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between the United States and Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico becomes administered by the United States and is currently a commonwealth of that country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA

    INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA
    José Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the old leaders of the revolution, unifies the different currents, builds a small army, and lands in Cuba. Martí dies in one of the combat actions (1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The United States does not want to lose the possibility of seizing the largest island in the Antilles and, in 1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, it declared war on Spain.