HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve".
CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCEEconomic. The Bourbon reforms drowned the economy of the
colonies by preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive
Social. was resentment over the prerogatives of the Spaniards. The
disputes between Spaniards
Ideological. The forerunners of independence became aware of the
differences between the colonies and the metropolis, highlighted the
value of their own and raised the alternative of the fatherland as a
separate entity from Spain.
THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
independent national states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign
Boards in 1809. Some of them - especially the first that of Quito - were
repressed by fire and blood by the Spanish authorities. The process
continued until it became a true continental war.
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSWhen proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
South American Creoles held three theses:
The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
who no longer had any power.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe priest Miguel
Hidalgo was placed in
front of the Indians and
peasants and launched,
as we saw, the "cry of
independence" in the
town of Dolores.
Throughout three years,
it obtained triumphs with
its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned
to the throne in 1814,
patriotic military campaigns
subsisted in Venezuela and
the Río de la Plata. In the
first, Simón Bolívar -Member
of the Caraqueña boards of
1811- was named new military
leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united
forever to his first name.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and
decided to continue with his plans,
only now he first had to liberate
Chile. For that he spent years
making weapons, bullets and all
kinds of equipment, and organizing
the Army of the Andes. The
crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle
of Maipú (5-04-1818)
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with
200,000 pesos that he obtained from
Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
buy a naval squadron to attack the
Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
with a fleet of eight warships and 16
transport ships, and 4,500 men from
the armies of the Andes and Chile. It
disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards
the mountain range.
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia.
Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for
the president of Peru, General José de San Martín
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
defend itself better from Spain.
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government of Peru (20-
091822), and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823)
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized
by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of
an expedition to Peru. In
September of that year, he
arrived in Lima and met with
Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
of Junín (6-08-1824).
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the
Party and looks for the old
leaders of the revolution,
unifies the different
currents, builds a small
army, and disembarks in
Cuba. Martí dies in one of
the combat actions
(1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight.