Chronology of the independence process of Latin America

Timeline created by David Subia 9J
In History
  • HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO

    HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO
    François Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
    the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
    He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
    France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
    troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti.
  • Period: to

    BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE

    When Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
    later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
    of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve".
  • CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE

    CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE
    Economic. The Bourbon reforms drowned the economy of the
    colonies by preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive
    taxation.
     Social. was resentment over the prerogatives of the Spaniards. The
    disputes between Spaniards
     Ideological. The forerunners of independence became aware of the
    differences between the colonies and the metropolis, highlighted the
    value of their own and raised the alternative of the fatherland as a
    separate entity from Spain.
  • THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
    The independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
    rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
    independent national states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign
    Boards in 1809. Some of them - especially the first that of Quito - were
    repressed by fire and blood by the Spanish authorities. The process
    continued until it became a true continental war.
  • THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS

    THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS
    When proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
    South American Creoles held three theses:
    The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
    America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
    most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
    Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
    authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
    who no longer had any power.
  • MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE

    MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE
    The priest Miguel
    Hidalgo was placed in
    front of the Indians and
    peasants and launched,
    as we saw, the "cry of
    independence" in the
    town of Dolores.
    Throughout three years,
    it obtained triumphs with
    its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
    Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811.
  • ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY

    ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY
    The first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
    to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
    However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
    the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
    was created.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA

    INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA
    When Fernando VII returned
    to the throne in 1814,
    patriotic military campaigns
    subsisted in Venezuela and
    the Río de la Plata. In the
    first, Simón Bolívar -Member
    of the Caraqueña boards of
    1811- was named new military
    leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
    Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united
    forever to his first name.
  • Period: to

    NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    Morillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
    Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
    faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE

    INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE
    San Martin was not discouraged and
    decided to continue with his plans,
    only now he first had to liberate
    Chile. For that he spent years
    making weapons, bullets and all
    kinds of equipment, and organizing
    the Army of the Andes. The
    crossing was epic, but, as they had
    planned, the six columns met less
    than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
    defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle
    of Maipú (5-04-1818)
  • PERU

    PERU
    Together with O'Higgins, and with
    200,000 pesos that he obtained from
    Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
    buy a naval squadron to attack the
    Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
    sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
    with a fleet of eight warships and 16
    transport ships, and 4,500 men from
    the armies of the Andes and Chile. It
    disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards
    the mountain range.
  • Period: to

    INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR

    Let us remember how the independence of
    Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
    arrival of the patriot army commanded by
    Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
    Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
    the independence of the Great Colombia.
    Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
    the royalist pastures in the battle of
    Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for
    the president of Peru, General José de San Martín
  • CENTRAL AMERICA

    CENTRAL AMERICA
    Guatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
    Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
    from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
    defend itself better from Spain.
  • Period: to

    SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVAR

    In their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
    president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
    was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
    bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
    completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government of Peru (20-
    091822), and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823)
  • Period: to

    END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    In 1823, Bolívar was authorized
    by the Congress of the Gran
    Colombia to take command of
    an expedition to Peru. In
    September of that year, he
    arrived in Lima and met with
    Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
    to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
    of Junín (6-08-1824).
  • THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO

    THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO
    On September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
    Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
    continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
    Spain.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA

    INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA
    José Martí organizes the
    Cuban Revolutionary
    Party and looks for the old
    leaders of the revolution,
    unifies the different
    currents, builds a small
    army, and disembarks in
    Cuba. Martí dies in one of
    the combat actions
    (1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight.