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  • Henry IV Becomes King

    Henry IV Becomes King
    Henry IV became king after Henry III's death. He had to abandon his faith in Calvinism, which ultimately sparked a war with the Catholic League for four years as they tried "to establish his legitimacy."
  • Edict of Nantes Created

    Edict of Nantes Created
    The Edict of Nantes was created by King Henry IV of France to establish rights to the Calvinist Protestants of France regardless of the fact that the nation was primarily Catholic. The point was to create "civil unity."
  • James I Becomes King

    James I Becomes King
    When Elizabeth I died in 1603 and left no heir to the throne, James VI of Scotland took over and became James I of England and Ireland. For 22 years he ruled the three countries until his death in 1625.
  • Defenestration of Prague

    Defenestration of Prague
    Four Catholic Lords regent were being accused of being the cause of the King wanting to put an end to churches being built on royal lands. Protestants had given them the chance to clear up whether or not it had been their fault. Ultimately, two of the four were let go and the other two were given the punishment of being pushed out a window from 70 feet.
  • 30 Years War Begins

    30 Years War Begins
    Each ruler of the Holy Roman Empire was given the choice between Lutherism and Catholicism. Being given the choice caused tension between the kingdoms as they were constantly competing with each other to the point of war.
  • Cardinal Richelieu Strengthens Monarchy

    Cardinal Richelieu Strengthens Monarchy
    Appointed as chief minister to 9 year old King Louis XIII, Richelieu took part in destroying the power of Catholic nobles and Huguenots. He ultimately defeated the armies of nobles along with destroying their castles and also destroying the cities of the Huguenots and their armies.
  • Charles I Becomes King

    Charles I Becomes King
    After James I's death, his son Charles I took the throne. He ruled as an absolute monarch, completely disregarding Parliment as his father had.
  • Charles I Signs Petition of Rights

    Charles I Signs Petition of Rights
    When he wanted to raise taxes, Charles I called on Parliment whom agreed to help him as long as he consulted with them first. Charles I agreed and signed the Petition of Rights, raising taxes and then ultimately resolving Parliment again and ignoring them for 11 years.
  • Creation of Versailles

    Creation of Versailles
    In 1632, Louis XIV turned a hunting lodge near Paris, France into the immense palace of Versailles. The palace was a great symbol of the power and wealth that Louis XIV possessed.
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    After ignoring Parliament for 11 years, Charles I summoned them once again for financial aid against a Scottish rebellion. This ultimately triggered back lashes from Parliament. They fought to abolish bishops and have it declared that Parliament could not be dissolved unless they consented to it. In 1642 when Charles I sent troops to detain leaders at the House of Commons, the fights turned into battles and developed into the English Civil War.
  • English Civil War Begins

    English Civil War Begins
    A fight between the Roundheads (Parliament) and Cavaliers (Royalists) that snowballed from Long Parliament. The war ultimately resulted in the execution of King Charles I along with the creation of the Commonwealth.
  • Oliver Cromwell Creates New Model Army

    Oliver Cromwell Creates New Model Army
    During the English Civil War, Cromwell organized the Parliamentarians into a "New Model Army" and defeated the Cavaliers in a series of battles.
  • 30 Years War Ends

    30 Years War Ends
    After the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, the Thirty Years War came to an end. However, some disputes went unsolved for years.
  • Treaty of Westphalia

    Treaty of Westphalia
    A peace treaty that ended The Thirty Years War and allowed self-determination within the nation.
  • Louis XIV Becomes King

    Louis XIV Becomes King
    A monarch king of France, Louis XIV believed in the divine right of kings. He reigned for 72 years.
  • English Civil War Ends

    English Civil War Ends
    After 9 years, the Thirty Years War ended with a victory for Parliament. The king was beheaded and the Commonwealth was created.
  • Charles I Executed

    Charles I Executed
    A result of the Thirty Years War, Parliament put Charles I on trial for being a murderer, tyrant, and traitor, among other things. He was found guilty and beheaded.
  • Creation of The Commonwealth

    Creation of The Commonwealth
    After the English Civil War ended, Cromwell created the Commonwealth of England to replace the monarchy. Cromwell created a set of laws to declare what were unacceptable acts to partake in, such as sports, partying, theater, etc. Not only were things changing politically, but also socially.
  • Restoration of The Stuarts

    Restoration of The Stuarts
    Charles II was welcomed back to England after Cromwell's death and the Puritains' loss of England. He reestablished the Church of England but he also made sure to tolerate other beliefs such as Protestants. He was a very popular ruler.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    English Parliamentarians overthrew King James II of England. After succeeding in bloodlessly overthrowing the king, William III took over with his wife Mary II. However, Parliament made the two accept several acts they had passed that became known as the English Bill of Rights, which included limitations on royal power.
  • Peter I Becomes Tsar

    Peter I Becomes Tsar
    Peter I became Tsar after his half brother Ivan passed away, leaving him as the successor. His half sister Sophia did not want him ruling along side Ivan so he had left Moscow for 6 years prior to becoming Tsar.
  • Peter the Great Travels to Europe

    Peter the Great Travels to Europe
    Peter the Great chose not to just stay in Moscow and instead toured Europe as a commoner. He accquired much knowledge about Western technology and culture, returning to Russia with many new ideas.
  • Revocation of Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685 when Louis XIV forced Protestants to move out of France, causing many Protestants around France to become increasingly bitter.
  • Signing of the English Bill of Rights

    Signing of the English Bill of Rights
    The English Bill of Rights was presented to William III and Mary II upon their acquisition of the throne. Parliament was virtually laying down limitations for the monarchy and the rights of Parliament.
  • Creation of St. Petersburg

    Creation of St. Petersburg
    Peter the Great wanted to create a capital for Russia which would be located on a port, ultimately serving as a "gateway to the west." On the banks of the Neva River, over 50,000 workers died while creating the city. St. Petersburg became the capital in 1712 and all nobility was forced to move west.
  • Death of Louis XIV

    Death of Louis XIV
    Louis XIV died of gangrene just days before his 77th birthday.
  • Peter the Great Dies

    Peter the Great Dies
    Peter the Great had been having trouble with his urinary tract and bladder. He believed to be cured in the summer of 1724 and according to one story, he had been along a Finnish Gulf in November and spotter some drowning soldiers and went to their rescue. Accordingly, the icy water had caused the downfall of his bladder and his death.