A brief history of Italy
Period: 3000 BCE to 1100 BCE
PREHISTORYIn Italy there are:
- Same evidences of PALEOLITHIC and NEOLITHIC settlements
- Many ROCK DRAWINGS ( showing scenes of hunting and social life ) in the Alpine areas.
BRONZE AGEMany civilisations developed in Bronze Age:
- The TERRAMARICOLI
- The LIGURIAN
- The SARDS
GREEKS AND ETRUSCANGreeks estabilished colonies:
- in the Bay of Naples;
- parts of southern coast;
- Syracuse in Sicily.
This area was known as MAGNA GRECIA.
At the same time, the Etruscans created settlements:
- north of the Tibet;
- around the Arno.
They were technically advanced but also great artists, particularly with terracotta.
The Etruscans, by the 6th century BC, became the most powerful population.
BIRTH OF ROMEThe myth: "Rome was founded by Romulus in this year, where he killed his brother Remus."
In reality -----> Latin communities settled on the Palatine Hill and formed the first nucleus of Rome, witch gradually expanded.
Period: 753 BCE to 476
THE ROMANS ESTABLISHED A REPUBLICThe city grew and the last Etruscan king were overthrown.
THE ROMAN EMPIREWas born under the Emperor Augustus.
Romans quickly became a dominant power, taking control of:
- North Africa
- Asia minor
In addition they made great innovations in engineering and architecture
THE EMPEROR DIOCLETIANInvasions and civil wars began to disrupt the Empire.
The Emperor DIOCLETIAN, trying to restore order and stability, divided the empire into east and west, but he also began a persecution of Christians.
THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINESuccessor of Diocletian, united the two empires and also, declared Christianity the state religion.
SACK OF ROMEThis sack of Rome signaled a major turning point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Carried out by the VANDALS because, the Roman emperor of that time, Petronius Maximus, provokes their king.
FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIREThe Western Roman Empire fell and the Germanic troops deposed Flavius as the first king of Italy.
The Eastern one, later called the Byzantine Empire, survived until 1453, the date of the fall of Constantinople
Period: 476 to 1401
THE MIDDLE AGESWas a period of repeated invasions and the struggle for domination.
DEVELOP OF TRADE and COMUNIThanks to this develop, Genova, Pisa, Amalfi and Venice —> became important political and commercial powers. In addition many central and northern Italian cities set up local governments called “ comuni “ .
These had a degree of autonomy and became a series of city states with their own interests.
Period: 1401 to 1500
THE RENAISSANCEIn this period:
1. Saw a INCREASE of: intellectual and artistic ideas.
2. The popes in Rome and wealthy families :
- PATRONS of ART
- FINANCED architectural projects, paintings and sculpture
3. PROGRESS in the FIELDS of: science, philosophy and literature.
4. The TUSCAN DIALECT became Italy's literary language.
Period: 1500 to
ECONOMIC DECLINEWhen the ATLANTIC and INDIAN OCEAN TRADE ROUTES OPENED UP, Italy lost much of its importance and the country went into economic decline.
NAPOLEONIC INVASIONNapoleon invaded Italy and forced the Austrians to leave.
( For a short period: the northern and central areas of the country were annexed to France. )
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNAAfter the defeat of Napoleonic Empire, there was this congress who:
- DIVIDED Italy into ten states
- RECREATED the previous divisions of the country, with most areas under foreign control.
SECRET SOCIETIESThe increasing discontent with the political and social situation led to the foundation of secret societies, " Carboneria "
UNIFICATIONGiuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, played a central role in the Risorgimento: the movement to reform and unite the country.
GIUSEPPE GARIBALDIGaribaldi and his troops TOOK POSSESSION of Sicily, after Naples and then the rest of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (the largest state before unification ).
THE KINGDOM OF ITALYwas officially proclaimed.