English History

  • James 1 takes throne

    James 1 king of Scotland and Queen Elizabeth of England's cousin was the heir to the throne after Elizabeth died leaving no heir. One of the issues wa how much power parliment would be allowed. James like Elizabeth believed to be absolute rulers. Elizabeth kissed up to parliment but James didn't like that method. James was a Calvinist and refused to make Puritan reforms. Parliment reluctantly agreed to pay for James's expenses, such as his wars.
  • Charles 1 signs the Petition of Right

    After James 1 died, his son Charles 1 took over. Charles always needed money because he was in war with France and Spain. Parliment refused to grant it until he signed a petition that stated he wouldn't levvy taxes without Parliment's consent and he wouldn't imprison subjects without cause. Also he wouldn't impose martial law in peacetime and house soliders in private homes. This petition set forth the idea that the law was higher than the king. Even though Charles ignored it.
  • Charles 1 faces rebellion in Scotland

    Charles offended the Puritans by upholding rituals and prayer. Charles tried to force Presbyterian scots to accept a version of the Angelican prayer book, because he wanted both his kingdoms to follow one religion. The scots rebelled and assembled a large army. Charles needed money but had dissolved Parliment and the only way to get money was to reform Parliment which would give parliment a chance to oppose him.
  • English Civil War occurs

    Charles 1 raises a army in Northern England to get back at Parliment and it's supporters. This then starts the war. Those who were loyal were called Royalists the others were called Roundheads. At first neither side could obtain a lasting advatage until Cromwell, who fought for the Puritans. In 1646 Cromwell defeated the Royalists and held the king prisoner.
  • Charles 1 tried for treason and hanged

    Parliment passed laws to limit royal power. Charles furious tried to arrest the leader of Parliment. Londenders raged outside the palace. Charles fled and raised a army in Northern England, where they were loyal. From 1642-1649 opposers and supporters fought the English Civil War. Charles side was defeated, and the Puritans held the king prisoner. They found him guilty and executed him. Usually kings were killed in secret or battle this was the first time a king was executed.
  • Oliver Cromwell invades Ireland

    Cromwell was first introduced as the military general that ended the English Civil War and helped overthrow the king. When in power Cromwell first did away with parliement and established a republican form of government. Soon after Cromwell quit that form and ruled as military dictator. An uprising in Ireland happens and Cromwell's army shut it down. They destroyed homes and lands. Because of this famine, and plague, and fighting killed an estimated 616,000 Irish.
  • Oliver Cromwell abolishes Parliment

    After Charles was executed Cromwell came to power, and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. He later sends the rest of Parliment home.
  • Charles 2 Restoration

    Oliver Cromwell died and with him his form of government. The English people were sick of military rule, and parliment asked the older son of Charles 1 to rule. Because Charles 2 restored the monarchy they called his period of rule Restoration. He restored theater, sporting events, and dancing. One of the important things that happened during this time was habeus corpus, which gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document odering that the prisoner be brought before a judge.
  • Habeus Corpus is passed

    Oliver Cromwell dies and Charles 1's son Charles 2 takes over. He restores alot of things the Puritans banned. During his reign Parliment passed a law that gave every prisoner the right to obtain a writ or document odering the prisoner be brought before a judge. The judge would decide to either set the prisoner free or have them tried. Because of this act a monarch couldn't just put someone is jail for opposing the ruler.
  • James 2 comes to throne

    Charles 2 died, and James 2 came to power. He was Catholic and in the end he doesn't even finish his reign and flees to France.
  • Glorious Revolution occurs

    Parliment didn't want a line of Catholic kings so they asked Mary, James 2's daugher and her husband William the Orange, prince of the Netherlands to overthrow James to establish Protestanism. When William's army marched to London, James fled to France.
  • English Bill of Rights

    When James 2 became king he offended his subjects by flaunting his Catholicism. He had a son, and Parliment didn't want a line of Catholic kings. So they asked Mary and William of Orange to overthrow James. When Mary and William were coronated they agreed to become a constitutional monarchy. So they had limited power. Parliment drafted a set of bills to make it clear that the rulers couldn't over power them or over throw them. Anything done had to be done through parliment.