Unit 2 600CE -1450CE Mueggenborg By rangely Period: 224 to Apr 8, 651 Sasanid Empire This was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire. The Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Arsacids and the defeat of the last Arsacid king. Period: 250 to Mar 2, 2022 Maya Civilization A mesoamerican civilization known for developing a written language and having very nice art architecture. a lot of the the Maya cities reached their peak of development during the Classical period. Period: 330 to Apr 11, 1453 Byzantine Empire This empire was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe. It was centered around the capital of Constantinople and was ruled by many emperors. Apr 11, 610 Foundation of Islam Islam was first founded when Muhammad's divine revelations were written in the Qu'ran. Apr 11, 632 Split between Sunni and Shi'ite The battle of Sifin occurred after Muhammad passed away, which caused many arguments between the Islamic community. This led to the split between the two. Period: Apr 8, 661 to Apr 8, 750 Umayyad Caliphate Was known as one of the largest empires the world had yet seen. It was the second of the four Arab caliphates created after the death of Muhammad. Period: Apr 11, 711 to Mar 2, 2022 Muslims conquer Spain An army consisting of mainly Northwest Africans led by Tariq ibn Ziyad. After a strong battle they fell and over the next decade Muslims occupied most of the Iberian Penninsula. Period: Apr 8, 750 to Apr 8, 1258 Abbasid Caliphate Ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs. This was the third of the Isalmic caliphates. It grew for two centuries, then declined when the Mamluks gained power. Period: Apr 11, 1037 to Apr 11, 1194 Seljuk Turks A Turkish tribe from Central Asia, They went into Persia and established their first powerful state, called the Empire of the Great Seljuks. Period: Apr 11, 1095 to Apr 11, 1291 Crusades Military expeditions taken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. Period: Apr 8, 1138 to Apr 8, 1193 Saladin The Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He led the Muslims against the Crusaders and help recaptured Palestine from the Crusaders. Period: Apr 11, 1162 to Apr 11, 1227 Genghis Khan Founder and emperor of the Mongol empire which became the largest and most powerful empire in history. He started part of the mongol invasions. Period: Apr 11, 1200 to Apr 11, 1573 Inca Civilization Founded by Pachacutec, known to be the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Later split up by a civil war. Period: Apr 10, 1206 to Apr 10, 1324 Mongol Invasions The speed and extent of territorial expansion helped them gain the Mongol Empire which covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe by the 1300's. Period: Apr 11, 1206 to Apr 11, 1527 Delhi Sultanate The various muslim dynasties in India. Founded after Muhammad of Ghor. Apr 11, 1215 Magna Carta The charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John at Runnymede on June 1215 guaranteering basic rights. Period: Apr 11, 1230 to Apr 11, 1600 Mali KIngdom This was founded by was founded by Sundiata Keita and was known to have very wealthy rulers. It spread language, customs, and culture along the niger river. Period: Apr 11, 1250 to Apr 11, 1517 Mamluks A soldier of slave origin, mamluks became powerful military castes in many Muslim societies. Known for beating back the Mongols and fighting the Crusaders. Period: Apr 11, 1300 to Apr 11, 1600 Renaissance A cultural movement that began in Florence, Tuscany. Known especially for its artistic developments. Period: Apr 11, 1325 to Apr 11, 1521 Aztec Civilization Located in large parts of Mesoamerica. The Aztec people were ethnic groups in central Mexico who spoke the Nahuatl language. Period: Apr 10, 1336 to Apr 10, 1405 Timur Founder of the Timurid Empire and Dynasty. He was a fourteenth-century conqueror of Western, South and Central Asia. Also seen as a controversial figure throughout his lifetime. Period: Apr 11, 1337 to Apr 11, 1453 Hundred Years War A conflict between England and France over territorial rights and Edward III trying to gain his claim over the french crown. Period: Apr 11, 1340 to Apr 11, 1591 Songhai Kingdom A state located in western Africa. This was known to be one of the largest Islamic empires. And its base of power was located on the bend of the NIger River. Period: Apr 8, 1368 to Apr 8, 1644 Ming Empire The last dynasty ever ruled by ethnic Hans. It was considered to be one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history. Period: Apr 8, 1371 to Apr 8, 1450 Zheng He A Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral who commanded multiple voyages. Period: Apr 8, 1371 to Apr 8, 1435 Mansa Musa The tenth emperor of the Malian Empire. He was considered one of the wealthiest emperors of his day. Apr 11, 1440 Gutenberg Press A machine that transfers lettering or by contact with many forms of inked surface onto paper fed into it in various ways. Period: Apr 11, 1462 to Apr 11, 1505 Ivan III The Grand Prince of Moscow. He was very determined to enlarge the territory gained from his father and was very successful in military take overs. Mar 2, 2022 Establishment of Holy Roman Empire A feudal monarchy created by the coronation of the frankish King Charlemagne. Restoring the western empire that had been leader-less. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Mar 2, 2022 Sui Empire An imperial Chinese Dynasty that helped unify China in the 6th century. It helped end four centuries of rivalry between regimes and was followed by the Tang Dynasty. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Mar 2, 2022 Tang Empire An emperial dynasty of China that was founded by the Li family who took over when the Sui Empire began to fall. Empire was seen as a large period of stability and progress. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Apr 8, 1279 Song Empire A dynasty in China that had the first government to actually print out paper money and also establish a navy. Used inventions such as the compass and gunpowder. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Apr 11, 1235 Ghana Kingdom Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali, the ghana empire was very rich in gold and salt which allowed for better trade and larger urban areas. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Apr 11, 1349 Kievan Russia Founded by East Slavic Tribes and Scandinavian warriors later it fell around the 1300's, some say because of Mongol invasion. Period: Mar 2, 2022 to Mar 2, 2022 Charlemagne King of the franks and an emperor of the romans. Co-ruled with his brother after taking his fathers place.