Islamic Empires

  • Period: Jan 1, 1265 to Jan 1, 1479

    Byzantine-Ottoman Wars

    The Byzantine-Ottoman Wars were a series of conflicts between the two empires. These wars ended with the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire
  • Period: Jan 1, 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman EmpireThe Ottoman Empire was created by Osman I and it's capital was in Constantinople. It lasted from 1299 to 1922, and at it's height covered parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1299 to Jan 1, 1326

    Osman I

    Osman I was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. He was succeeded by his son Orhan.
  • Jan 1, 1326

    Siege of Bursa

    Siege of Bursa
    Under the rule of Osman I, the Ottomans captured the Byzantine city of Bursa. This established Osman I and his empire as the major power in Asia Minor.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1389 to Jan 1, 1402

    Bayezid I

    Bayezid I was the succesor of Murad I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was captured by Timur on July 20, 1402 during the Battle of Ankara. His sons escaped from the battle, and created a civil war.
  • Period: Jul 20, 1402 to Jul 5, 1413

    Ottoman Civil War

    After the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I of the Ottoman Empire by the Central Asian warlord Timur, the Ottoman Civil War broke out. When Bayezid was captured, his sons escaped. Timur had named Bayezid's one son, Mehmed Celebi as sultan, but his brothers wouldn't recognize his authority. The civil war resulted. Mehmed Celebi won against his brothers, and made himself the sultan Mehmed I, and restored the empire
  • Period: Mar 30, 1432 to May 3, 1481

    Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror

    Mehmed II was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and conquered Constantinople and brought down the Byzantine Emperor.
  • May 29, 1453

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople

    Ottomans Conquer Constantinople
    Under the rule of Mehmed II, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and bring on the fall of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Savafid Empire

    The Savafid Empire was established by Ismail I in 1501, and ended in 1736. It is known becuase the official religion of the empire, was Shi'a Islam, which was the first of its kind. At its height, the empire controlled moder Iran, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, and most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to May 23, 1524

    Shah Ismail I

    Shah Ismail is the founder and first emperor of the Safavid Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1509

    Ismail I Conquers Iraq From the Ottomans

    Ismail I Conquers Iraq From the Ottomans
    Ismail I conquers Iraq from the Ottomans, causing a series of wars between the two empires.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Ismail I Battles the Uzbegs

    Ismail I Battles the Uzbegs
    Ismail I battles the Uzbeg tribe near the city of Merv. When the Uzbek ruler is caught and killed trying to escape the battle, Ismail has his skull turned into a bejeweled driking cup.
  • Jan 1, 1514

    Battle of Chaldiran

    Battle of Chaldiran
    Ismail I is defeated by Selim I, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Ismail I recovers his lost land relitively quickly, but loses his air of invincibility. From now on he falls into alcoholism and does not participate in the affairs of the state. He leaves his duties to his minister, Mirza Shah-Hussayn.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1516 to Jan 1, 1517

    Ottomans Conquer Egypt

    The Ottomans, under the rule of Selim II, conquered the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. This made them the dominant power in their region and also in the entire Islamic world.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1520 to Jan 1, 1566

    Suleiman the Magnificent

    Suleiman the Magnificent was the emperor of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566. He ruled over the Ottoman Empire during its "Golden Age" of artistic, literary, and architectural development. He enforced a legislative law know as the Kanuns which was used in the empire for centuries after his death.
  • Period: May 23, 1524 to May 14, 1576

    Shah Tahmasp I

    Shah Tahmasp I was the son of Ismail I and took the throne at the age of ten, after his fathers death. He came under the control of the Qizilbash until he reached adulthood, when he regained control of the empire. He had the longest rule of any Safavid Emperor.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal Empire began in the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled by Muslim descendents of Genghis Khan. The empire was created by Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1532 to Jan 1, 1555

    Ottoman-Safavid War

    This war was fought between Shah Tahmasp I of the Safavid Empire and Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire over territorial disputes.
  • May 29, 1555

    Peace of Amasya

    Peace of Amasya
    Shah Tahmasp agrees to a treaty with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. This treaty defined the border between Iran and the Ottoman empire and resulted in 20 years of peace between the Ottomans and Safavids.
  • Period: Feb 1, 1556 to

    Akbar the Great

    Akbar was the third Mughal emperor, and ruled over the empire during it's "classic period". He expanded the empire to cover most of northern and central India, and is remembered for his open mindedness about all faiths and culture. During his reign, culture and the arts reached their highpoint.
  • Period: to

    Shah Abbas I

    Shah Abbas IAlso known as Abbas the Great, Abbas I the Safavid empire from 1588 to 1629. He strengthened the empire by expelling Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persian land and also created a standing army. During his rule, Persian artistic achievement reached a high point, mainly due to his support of commerce and the arts.
  • Period: to

    The Long War

    The Long War was caused by a dispute over a border between the Habsburg Monarch and the Ottoman Empire over Balkan territories.
  • Period: to

    Shah Jahan

    Shah Jahan's reign over the Mughal empire is considered the "Golden Age" of the empire. He was the grandson of Akbar the Great, and like him, wanted to expand his empire. During his reign, architecture was at it's high point. The Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built for his wife.
  • Taj Mahal

    Taj Mahal
    Guided Tour of the Taj MahalThe Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan of the Mughal Empire as a tomb for his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It is considered "the jewel" of Muslim art in India.
  • Period: to

    Aurangzeb

    Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal Emperor, and expanded Mughal lands to its greatest amount at more than 3.2 square kilometers. After his death, the Mughal dynasty came to an end, and the empire declined rapidly.
  • End of the Reign of Abbas II

    End of the Reign of Abbas II
    Shah Abbas II ruled over the Safavid Empire from May 15, 1642 to October 26, 1666. With the end of his rule came the downfall of the Safavid Empire. Later rulers lived lavish lifestyles, ignoring outside threats, eventually leading to the end of the empire.
  • Sultan Husayn Rules Safavid Dynasty

    Sultan Husayn Rules Safavid Dynasty
    The Safavid Dynasty begins to decline under the rule of Sultan Husayn.
  • Hotaki Invasion

    Hotaki Invasion
    The Safavid Dynasty is invaded by the Hotaki. They lose the battle, but regain control of their country later.
  • End of the Safavid Dynasty

    End of the Safavid Dynasty
    The Safavid Dynasty comes to an end after the Afghan Nadir Shah conquers the empire and crowns himself shah.
  • Battle of Karnal

    Battle of Karnal
    During the Battle of Karnal, Nader Shah, the emperor of Persia defeated Muhammad Shah, the emperor of the Mughal empire. This allowed the Persians to continue on and take the city of Delhi.
  • Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji

    Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji
    This was a treaty between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, marking the defeat of the Ottomans in their fighting against Russia. It stated that Russia would return Wallachia and Moldavia to the Ottoman Empire, but Russia would be able to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period: to

    Austro-Turkish War

    This was an inconclusive war betweent the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. It took place during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Selim III.
  • French Occupation of Algeria

    French Occupation of Algeria
    The French occupy the Ottoman province of Algeria, marking the beginning of the break up of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Treaty of Constantinople

    Treaty of Constantinople
    Greece gains it's independence from the Ottoman Empire. This marks the beginning of the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Fall of the Mughal Empire

    Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Fall of the Mughal Empire
    The Emperor Bahadur Shah II supported the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The British overthrew him, killed his sons, and absorbed the last remnant of the Mughal empire into the British Raj.
  • Young Turk Revolution

    Young Turk Revolution
    This gave power back to the Ottoman parliament, leaving the Sultan as mainly a figurehead, but the Ottoman Empire continued to dissolve.
  • Ottoman Sultanate Abolished

    Ottoman Sultanate Abolished
    After the loss during WWI because the Ottomans had sided with the Central Powers, they had lost most of their land. And on November 1, 1922 the Grand National Assembly abolished the Ottoman Sultanate and the Turkish nationalist governmnet in Ankara became the sole governing entity in the nation.