World history wall maps imperialism in modern world

Miles Erickson - AP World Final Exam Timeline 2020

  • Period: 618 to 1279

    Tang & Song Dynasties (618 - 1279)

    The Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) and Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) were two of China's most prosperous times, as they were considered the "Golden Ages" of China. The reason that these dynasties were important was because of the historical inventions (gunpower, the printing press, and the compass). They also had a part of the Silk Road and were big on trading with other countries. The ideas of Confucianism & Buddhism were also spread during this time in China. The main agricultural crop was Champa rice.
  • Period: 750 to 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate (750 - 1258)

    The Abbasid Caliphate was an empire that overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate, and was considered the "Golden Age of Islam" due to the scientific discoveries and the translation of Greek texts into Arabic. The Abbasids moved the capital of their empire of Baghdad, which was known as the heart of scholarly studies took place. Advancements in medical studies, translation of Greek texts, and the invention of Algebra were some of the highlights. These findings would be later shared to the Europeans.
  • Period: 1200 to 1533

    Mesoamerican Empires / Aztec & Inca Empires (1200 - 1533)

    The Mesoamerican Empires (Aztec & Incas) were two empires that ruled in South America & Mexico. The Aztecs were based in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, while the Incas resided in Cusco. These civilizations were very advanced, considered that both had their own writings and specific architectural buildings. They also were able to make farms and cities from the ground up, and had a system called Slash-and-Burn farming. The Aztec Calendar & Incan Quipu were great technological advancements.
  • Period: 1200 to 1500

    Feudalism in Europe (1200 - 1500)

    Feudalism was a mix of economic, cultural, and militarial customs that prospered during the 13th through 16th century. There was very minimal to no educational opportunities, as people followed a strict hierarchical system. The main religion during this time period was Catholicism, as the Pope had all of the power over the religion of Europe. The whole point of Feudalism was giving services to the government in exchange for protection.
  • Period: 1206 to 1350

    The Mongol Empire (1206 - 1350)

    The Mongol Empire was one of the largest empires to ever been created. The leader, Genghis Khan, formed the empire after forming alliances with or taking over other Mongol tribes. His main goal was to invade China and take all of their valuables & land for the Mongols. An advancement that they made was taking over the Silk Road, and making it stable. Once Genghis died, the empire divided into four "Khantes".
  • Period: 1210 to 1526

    Delhi Sultanate (1210 - 1526)

    The Delhi Sultanate was an empire that took over Northern India (Pakistan). There was a blend of Islam and Hinduism during this time period, which lead to cultural blending of both religions. The sultanate tried to convert people to Islam, but failed, so they made anyone who did not practice pay Jizya (a tax). The main accomplishments were the new fusions of Muslim & Hindu architecture, music, poetry, etc.
  • Period: 1235 to

    Mali Empire (1235 - 1600)

    The Mali Empire was one of the richest empires of the 14th century. It thrived off of trade. They were able to tax merchants along the Trans-Saharan trade routes. This empire was located off the Niger River in West Africa, and was one of the richest empires in world history.
  • Period: 1260 to 1294

    Yuan Dynasty (1260 - 1294)

    The Yuan Dynasty (also called the "Great Khan") was the Chinese empire that came after the Mongol rule, as it was formed by Kublai Khan. He tried to gain the trust of the Chinese people by adapting Chinese customs, as well as adopting Buddhism. Even though he had done that, he taxed the Chinese heavily to expand roads & to repair the Grand Canal. The Dynasty would fall apart as the Ming Dynasty takes China from the Mongols.
  • Period: 1301 to

    Ottoman Empire (1301 - 1911)

    The Ottoman Empire was, at one point, one of the largest empires in the world, as it took over present-day North Africa, Turkey, and most of the Middle East. In 1453, the empire had conquered Constantinople from the Roman Empire, which helped push for the fall of the once great empire. Some of the achievements (other than the conquering of Constantinople) was the first use of gunpowder-based artillery such as muskets & guns. They were a big trading partner for Europe, but also a huge threat.
  • Period: 1348 to 1349

    The Bubonic Plague/The Black Death (1348 - 1349)

    The Bubonic Plague/The Black Death was an event that influenced the way Europeans saw the Catholic Church in the 14th century. The sickness killed over one-third of the population in Europe, as people didn't have effective treatments for the disease. Many people lost their faith in the Catholic Church at this time, as the priests and bishops kept charging people for services the church would normally offer for free. The plague drastically affected the economy as well.
  • Period: 1368 to

    Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1636)

    The Ming Dynasty was the Chinese dynasty that took over the Yuan Dynasty. This dynasty created the Forbidden City, which was a wall-off palace that only the Emperor and his servants were allowed to live in. They also started to practice Isolationism, as they prevented trade with foreign countries & expanded The Great Wall. There was a failed attempted of exploration by Zheng He, but funding issues arose as soon as the plan was started. The Ming was the dynasty that moved the capital to Beijing.
  • Period: 1400 to

    European Renaissance (1400 - 1600)

    The European Renaissance (1400 - 1600) was a period right after the Bubonic Plague that sparked a revolution for scholarly and artistic study in Europe. As Europeans lost faith in the Catholic Church, they started to look into more Humanistic ideals. Inventions such as the Printing Press, the idea of Astrology, and Shakespeare's tragedies were all things that came about during this time period. Roman and Greek writings were also brought back as key points of studying during this time as well.
  • Period: 1450 to

    Age of Exploration (1450 - 1600)

    The Age of Exploration was a period where European explorers were trying to find new ways to get to Asia, as they didn't want to cross of the Silk Road due to taxing. The movement to travel was started by Prince Henry the Navigator, as he pioneered the exploration of the Americas and Asia. The discovery of New World lead to many trade routes such as the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade, as well as the much valued element silver. Food items and cultural blending happened during this period as well.
  • Period: 1450 to

    Portuguese Trading Post Empire (1450 - 1750)

    The Portuguese Trading Empire came along after the developments of the Silk Road, as the Portuguese were trying to find ways to make profit without having to pay taxes. So, they started to claim major ports along African and Asian coastlines, as well as along the Indian Ocean. This would give the Portuguese more places along the coastlines to charge non-Portuguese merchants.
  • Period: 1492 to

    Spanish Colonial Empire (1492 - 1898)

    The Spanish Colonial Empire was an empire created in present-day South America. Colonists from many European countries were coming to the Americas after their discovery in the 15th & 16th centuries, as they were looking for ways to set up trade & profit off the land that they conquered from the native tribes. The Spanish made profit off the silver mines that they had eventually established, as silver became a very valuable trading item. There was a class system called the Castas System.
  • Period: 1517 to

    The Reformation (1517 - 1648)

    The Reformation was a time period in Europe, just after the Bubonic Plague and during the Renaissance, that challenged the Catholic Church and what they had been taught. Other than the Humanistic ideals that were going around, there were a few variations of Christianity that were created. The main three were Calvinism & Lutheranism (both are forms of Protestantism), as well as the Anglican Church (Church of England). The 30 Year War was what helped settle the religious tension in Europe.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Mughal Empire (1526 - 1876)

    The Mughal Empire was one of the "Gunpowder Empires", and it mainly took over what is now modern-day India. The first ruler was Babur, who was a descendant of Ghengis Khan & Timur, which is why the empire was called the "Mughal". This empire was the time of prosperity, as there were many artistic and cultural advancements. They were one of the many empires that were the first to use gunpowder weapons in warfare. The mixture of Hindu and Islamic culture was also important during this time too.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Atlantic Slave Trade (1526 - 1801)

    The Atlantic Slave Trade (also known as the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade) was a trade route that went from Europe, to Africa, and finally the Americas. The route was a segment of the Global Slave Trade, as anywhere from 10 to 12 Million slaves were traded on the route. During this time, a lot of cultural diffusion happened, as the Creole language was formed & different foods and cultural items were shared.
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    Tokugawa Shogunate (1603 - 1867)

    The Tokugawa Shogunate was a dynasty that came after the unification of Japan. The man behind the dynasty, Tokugawa Ieyasu, brought stability and peace to the land. He kept the daimyos (men who paid salaries to samurai) in line by keeping them in his palace, or someone that they cared about in his palace to keep them loyal. Crimes were punished harshly during this period as well. Agriculture was mainly rice. There were many artistic and scientific that they studied due to getting Dutch books.
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    Qing Dynasty (1643 - 1911)

    The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty to rule over China before they were switched over to a democratic country. The people that ruled were called the "Manchu people". An important figure of the dynasty was Quianlong Emperor, as he was the one that promoted the expansion of China, as well as more attention to artistic and literary projects. This dynasty brought back the civil service exam, as well as a lot of Confucian & Buddhist ideals. This was a peaceful and stable time for China.
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    The Enlightenment (1715 - 1789)

    The Enlightenment was a movement in Europe during the 16th century that involved the progression of social and political ideals. People such as John Locke, Voltaire, Adam Smith, & Mary Wollstonecraft influenced this movement. The Enlightenment helped with the revolutions that appeared during this movement, as they gave countries (new and old) new ways to craft fair and equal rights for their citizens. Of course, while some ended up flawed in later years, this was revolutionary for the time.
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    Industrial Revolution (1750 - 1900)

    The Industrial Revolution was fueled by the fact that more people were moving to urban areas, as well as a need for faster ways for trade. Agriculture started to become more modern as well due to mechanized farming & cash crops such as potatoes and corn. It started in Britain, but expanded to many places in Europe and the United States. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, Steam Engine, the Locomotive (trains), etc. were created out of the need for more technical advancement.
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    American Revolution (1775 - 1783)

    The American Revolution (Revolutionary War) was a movement started by the colonists of Britain, as they wanted freedom from the British monarchy. They were tired of the constant taxing of the people, as well as just wanting to have their own independence over their land. They used the ideals from the Enlightenment to put together the Declaration of Independence. After many battles, the colonists were able to free themselves of the British, and established the United States of America.
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    French Revolution (1789 - 1799)

    The French Revolution was a movement started by the French citizens over their government, as it was an absolute monarchy ruled by Louis XVI. They wanted the poor to be better taken care of, as crops and resources were depleting, and they had no other way of making money. Through their efforts, they were able to establish the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, as well as overthrow the monarchy and Catholic Church in France. While it didn't completely succeed, there were positives.
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    Haitian Revolution (1791 - 1804)

    The Haitian Revolution was one of the largest and most successful slave rebellions in history, as it took place in the French colony. The revolt ended slavery in the Caribbean. It was sparked by the French Revolution, as the colony was affected by it. Haiti was once a rich and successful colony for France, as it provided them with sugar and cotton, two very valuable cash crops. The slaves, no matter if they were black or white, wanted independence. They were eventually granted freedom in 1804.
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    Tanzimat Reforms (1839 - 1876)

    The Tanzimat Reforms were attempts to revive the "Sick Man of Europe", which was the Ottoman Empire. The empire had lost a power due to western influence, so they started to try and accept the Westernization that was going on throughout the rest of Europe. They wanted the Ottoman society to keep afloat, as they lacked militiaral
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    Opium Wars (1839 - 1860)

    The Opium Wars were conflicts between the Chinese and Great Britain over the drug Opium. Opium had been used in Chinese medical practice for many years, but it was being abused by their people the more that Chinese citizens were getting ahold of it. This lead to the Qing emperor to close off ports to the British, which caused conflict between the Qing empire and the British government. This caused the British to go to war with China, and the British won with it's powerful navy.
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    Taiping Rebellion (1850 - 1871)

    The Taiping Rebellion was a movement to promote Christianity in China, as many Qing Dynasty officials were against the religion. They wanted to combine their religious beliefs with Chinese ideals, but due to officials being so heavily against it, a civil war broke out between the Taiping people and the Qing officials. In the end, the Qing Dynasty officials won due to having more power over the Taiping people. This would later bring more tension between the dynasty and the people of China.
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    Sepoy Mutiny (1857 - 1858)

    The Sepoy Mutiny was a extremely violent uprising against the British in India, as the natives were tired of being controlled. It was one of Britain's many colonies, and India was useful to them due to the valuable spices India had. The people felt as if their territory was being depleted by the Westernization that was going on, as well as their Hindu beliefs being challenged by the beliefs of the British. Eventually this lead to Britain getting full control over the colony.
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    Meiji Restoration (1868 - 1912)

    The Meiji Restoration was a political revolution that destroyed the Tokugawa Shogunate. The shogunate was destroyed due to the rise of the Industrial Revolution, which caused more people to be in favor of westernization in Japan. This conflicted with the conservative shogun supporters, so a civil war broke out. In 1869 though, the shogun were abolished & the emperor was established as the head of state once more, which promoted the movement of westernization in Japan. The time was the Meiji Era.
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    Scramble for Africa (1881 - 1914)

    The Scramble for Africa was a period that European countries wanted to dominate Africa, as the country had many valuable resources and cash crops. The African people had no way of fighting back due to the greater advantage of weapons the Europeans had, so they were forced to let them make colonies out of their land. Europe wanted the land not only for economic reasons, but for political as well, as countries such as Great Britain, France, and Germany were wanting to dominate over one another.
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    Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885)

    The Berlin Conference was a meeting between the great European powers about Africa, and how they were going to divide the colonies. This meeting was meant to try and settle the constant tension between European powers, as countries such as Germany were getting more colonies than Britain or France. This expanded the imperialism in Africa, as countries now had almost equal amounts of land. There weren't any African officials at the meeting, so the land wasn't distributed in their favor.