Constantinople became its capital and it was a major trade hub
spread the empire into Russia
hellenism significantly influenced the empire.
centralized control over politics, society, and economics.
emperor was the political and religious head
priest could marry and at times there were no icons
Reign of Emperor Justinian
Justinian was a Byzantine emperor who reconquered much of the territory previously ruled by Rome
He was an ambitious person; and wanted to recapture "Old Rome."
He never achieved his goal, but he initiated an ambitious building program; established the Hagia Sophia; and created a new legal code.
Fall of the Gupta Dynasty
India fell into regional kindoms once again from 550-1279
Jan 1, 600
Early Middle Ages
tribal states (no centralized government)
regional germanic tribes ruled regional kingdoms
decline in education and literacy
beginnings of manoralism (farmers fled to large landowners who provided protection)
Period: Jan 1, 600 to Dec 31, 1450
Timeline: 600-1450 C.E.
Jan 1, 622
Founding of Islam and The Hijra
Islam is a major world religion based on the teachings of Muhammad. It originated in the Arabian Peninsula and it literally means "submission."
The Hijra was Muhammads emigration from Mecca to Medina in order to escape persecution from the Ummayad's. It also marked the beggining of Islam.
Jan 1, 632
Rise of Islamic Caliphate
The Islamic Caliphate is an Islamic state ruled by a supreme religious and political leader known as a Caliph.
The Islamic Caliphate dominated politically, culturally, economically, and technologically into the 13th century.
Jan 1, 645
Fujiwara Clan Rose to Power
they protected landlords from tax collectors
Feb 3, 645
mirrored Tang with self-sinofication (contagious diffusion)
Jan 1, 661
Beggining of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate emphasized Arabic ethnicity, and they allowed people of the book to have freedom of worship.
Its capital was in Damascus, Syria.
Jan 1, 700
The Rise of Ghana
bueracracy with king
gold was maine source of revenue
king had absolute power
Jan 1, 700
Rise of the Toltec
nomadic peoples who came into central Mexico in the 8th century
warlike, nomadic, and had human sacrifice
Tula was their capital
Jan 1, 732
Battle of Tours
This battle ended the Muslim attack on Western Europe.
This facilitated the growth of Christianity and stopped the spread of Islam.
Jan 1, 750
Beggining of Abbasid Caliphate
rose to power after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
begans Islam's golden age.
trade increased, innovation increased, and territory increased
capital in Baghdad
Persian influence rampid
Jan 1, 1000
a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of Northern Africa; later the almoravids; penetrated Islam into sub-Saharan Africa.
Jan 1, 1000
Theology of Western Europe: Assimilating Faith and Reason
from 1,000 forward Western Europeans attempted to prove God's existence through the logical exposition of philosophy and theology.
Feb 3, 1021
The Tale of Genji
the first novel of the world (from Japan)
Jan 1, 1054
East-West Schism of Christian Church
In 1054 a medieval divsion within Christianity into Eastern and Western branches.
The West represented the Roman Catholic Church and the East represented the Eastern Orthodox Church.
It occured because of ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes
Jan 1, 1066
Norman Conquest of England and the Rise of Feudalism
in 1066 William the Conqueror ivaded England from Normandy in 1066
after that he exteded a tight fuedal system to England and he established an administrative system based on sheriffs
he also established a centralized fuedal monarchy.
Jan 1, 1071
Battle of Manzikert
-In this battle the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire and captured their emperor (Romanos IV Diogenes).
- The battle ended Byzantine superiority and ushered turkification of the region.
Jan 1, 1095
Pope Urban II called upon his people to engage in the first crusade to take back the holy land (Jerusalem) from the Islamic Caliphate.
The Crusades were a failure as Western Europe wasn't as sophisticated as the Middle East at this time.
However, the crusades increased contact between Western Europe and the Middle East; and Western Europe benefitted.
Western Europe was exposed to new ideas (Eastern Medicine) and became obsessed with some of the luxury items of the Middle Eastern culture.
Jan 1, 1100
Beggining of the Kingdom of Mali
economy based on trade (gold)
merchants known as juula
auotacracy with a king in place for their type of government
Jan 1, 1180
Genpei War and Kamakura Shogunate (bakufu)
war faught between the Minamoto family and the Taira family
Minamoto was victorious
established bakufu (military government)
marked a shift in power from the emperor to the rise in power of the samurai
fuedalism at its height in Japan
Feb 3, 1200
Creation of the Swahili City States
A string of islamicized African ports tied to the trade across the Indian ocean dotted the East African coast
Although these cities were Islamicized, African customs and the Bantu Swahili language remained so strong that they represented a cultural fusion, mosly limited to the coast.
Feb 3, 1204
4th Crusade (sacked Constantinople)
motivated by Venice merchants in Italy
weakened Byzantine empire
Feb 3, 1206
established bureaucracy headed by the sultan who was aided by the prime minister and prvincial governors
held off the Mongols until Timur or Tamerlane in 1398 and took Delhi
Feb 3, 1206
Chinggis Khan elected as Grand Khan
united Mongolian empire for 1st time in its history
created one of the most feared empires in world history
started military expansion with cavalry units divided into units called tumens
tolerated many beliefs and promoted a legal code to end infighting among clans and brought piece to much of Asia
linked the major empires together and facilitated trade
Jan 1, 1215
Great charter issued by King John of England; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations betweeen rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Jan 1, 1236
Mongol Rule in Russia
the Russian aristocracy could not fight off the Mongols (known as the tatars) and the mongols took over Russia. In Russia the Mongols established the Golden Horde Khanate under Batu Khan
this isolated Russia from the changes in Europe
Feb 3, 1240
Sundiata the Lion Prince
created social organization for Mali (clans)
was Mali's most notable ruler
fomalized govenment and created a permanent army
Jan 1, 1250
Mamluks takeover in Egypt
established empire in Egypt and Syria
Jan 1, 1258
The Fall of Baghdad
The siege of Baghdad entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad (the capital of the Abassid Calaphate) by Ilkhanate Mongol forces under the leader Hulagu Khan.
It marked the end of the great Islamic Empire that was dominant a dominant force in Europe since its origin.
Jan 1, 1260
Battle of AIn Jalut
-defeated the Mongols in 1260.
- marks the fall of the Mongols.
Jan 1, 1271
Marco Polo's Travels
Marco Polo's journey from Europe to Asia is important because it opended up Western Europe to a whole new world.
For Instance, his journey gave Europe proved vital to European understanding of geographics and aided maps used by explorers of the future (Christopher Columbus)
Jan 1, 1271
The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian Formation)
created by Kublai Khan
new capital built at Tatu
made sure that the Chineese were seperated from the Mongolian population
Changed the social structure (elevated the status of merchants and made ethnic Chineese the bottom social class)
Jan 1, 1294
The Death of Kublai Khan
saved Europe from the Mongolian onslaught
Jan 1, 1300
Songhai Empire (Africa)
Sunni Ali founded the Songhai Empire and he was their most notable leader.
villiage and clans were the primary means of organization
Islam proved to be the universal faith
capital at Gao on the Niger River
Jan 1, 1324
Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage
Mansa Musa was an extremely wealthy and influentual ruler of Mali, one of the sudanic states of the Saharra Grasslands in Africa.
His widely lavish and expensive pilgrimage brought Africa into greater contact with some of the worlds super powers (Islamic Caliphate and China), and showed off the exponential amount of wealth and potential of Africa.
Jan 1, 1325
Travels of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta traveled to most of the Islamic World, Northern Africa, and Eastern and Western Europe.
He is significant because he documented and recorded alll of his travels providing hisorians with information on civilizations that would never have been introduced or discovered without his documents.
Jan 1, 1333
Start of the Ahikaga Shogunate
all power in hands of the military
destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
Jan 1, 1336
Rise of Timur
engaged in intense expansionalism and was one of the most brutal leaders of all time
he nearly conquered as much territory as the Mongolian empire
Jan 1, 1337
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453
fought over lands England pssessed in France and feudal rights verses the emerging claims of national states.
Jan 1, 1345
Rise of the Aztecs or Mexicas
migrated to Lake Texcoco
-warlike and savage (human sacrifice)
engaged in trade
highly valued merchant class
highly stratified society
engaged in expansionalism
Feb 2, 1347
Bubonic Plague in Europe
The bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, commonly spread from disease, that rapidly spread through Europe and eliminated nearly 1/3 of their population.
The massive epidemic hindered Europe's development as alot of the workers supplementing the economy died off.
Feb 3, 1368
The Birth of the Ming Dynasty
started by a peasant by the name of Zhu Yuanzhang
at first engaged in economic expansionalism engaging in trade-sponsored expiditions
eventually withdrew and decided to stick to internal affairs
Jan 1, 1380
Battle of Kulikova
the Mongols invaded Russia isolating the country and lead to the rise of serfdom
Jan 1, 1400
Great Zimbabwe Built
center of the Gold trade
located between Mozambique and Zimbabwe
built by the Shona peoples
Feb 3, 1402
The Sacking of Constantinople
Constantinople was sacked during the fourth crusade and this date marks the rise of the Seljuks.
Jan 1, 1433
End of Zheng He's Voyages and The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
The end of Zheng He's Voyages are significant because they demonstrate China's withdraw from the world economy.
China had the oppetunity to be a world leader, but the country opted to focus on internal affairs; and missed out on its oppertunity to be the worlds leader.
Feb 3, 1476
Rise of the Inca or Twantinsuyu
divided into clans
capital at Cuzco
main god was Inti
Feb 3, 1573
warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
Rise of the Tang Dynasty
Began China's golden age
expanded Chineese authority and established tributary states (korea and tibet)
revived the Confucian-Scholar gentry class which facilitated their bureacracy.
Confucianism became popular again
trade increased (Junks) and South became a part of the economy (grand canal) as a rice growing region supplying food to China.
Highpoint of Byzantine Power
Constantinople is the center of the empire (trade hub)
huge army and navy (military recruits were rewarded with land grants).
bueracracy with mainly aristocrats
Rise of the Song Dynasty
Smaller in extent than the Tang Dynasty and was forced to pay tribute to settled invaders in the North.
Promoted the scholar gentry facilitating a strong bueracracy.
Part of China's golden age of history.
In this time period, the compass; abacus; and movable type were invented.
Buyids in Iraq
captured Baghdad in 945 C.E.
abbasid caliphs became figure heads with Buyids in control.
Revival of Post Classical Western Europe
Post classical Western Europe was hard hit by the Roman collapse
However, after 900, agriculture and trade revived, while political devlopment advanced under the influence of feudalism and the Catholic Church.
Kievan Rus - Russian Empire
-Rurik founded the tsardom in Kiev/Novgorod in 855
- Early Slavs were Varangians (Swedish Viking traders)
Cyril and Methodius: Cyrillic Alphabet
Cyril and Methdoius introduced Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet to Russia.
Vladimir I converts to Christianity
significant becasue he forced a large amount of the population of Russia to become Christian and Christianity became the central religion of Russia
he embraced othodox christianity over Roman Catholicism
Invasion of Western Europe from the Vikings
-used swift ships to invade
- caused British kings to unite
Islam's sack of Rome
-led to the "reconquista" of Spain from the Muslims
-capatol at Kyoto (Heian)
- aristocratic families gain power
- Fujiwara clan had real power
- bushi (warriors) and samarai came about
- Taira and Minamoto clans began to take power
Charlemagne's empire in France and Germany
Charles the Great or Chalemagne built a substantial empire in France and germany around 800.
he restored some church-based education in Western Europe and the level of intelectual activity gradually resored
upon his death his empire split into regional monarachies.
this marked the beggining of the Holy Roman Emperors