International trade symbol

Timeline: 600-1450 C.E.

  • 250

    Yamato Period

    Yamato Period
    • time when Yamato clans were supreme
    • capital at Nara and then moved to Heian
    • buhddism has extreme influence
    • sinofication (alot of Chineese influence)
    • main religion was Shintoism
  • 500

    Foundation of the Byzantine Empire

    Foundation of the Byzantine Empire
    • establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church
    • Constantinople became its capital and it was a major trade hub
    • spread the empire into Russia
    • hellenism significantly influenced the empire.
    • centralized control over politics, society, and economics.
    • emperor was the political and religious head
    • priest could marry and at times there were no icons
  • 537

    Reign of Emperor Justinian

    Reign of Emperor Justinian
    • Justinian was a Byzantine emperor who reconquered much of the territory previously ruled by Rome
    • He was an ambitious person; and wanted to recapture "Old Rome."
    • He never achieved his goal, but he initiated an ambitious building program; established the Hagia Sophia; and created a new legal code.
  • 550

    Fall of the Gupta Dynasty

    Fall of the Gupta Dynasty
    • India fell into regional kindoms once again from 550-1279
  • Jan 1, 600

    Early Middle Ages

    Early Middle Ages
    • tribal states (no centralized government)
    • regional germanic tribes ruled regional kingdoms
    • decline in education and literacy
    • beginnings of manoralism (farmers fled to large landowners who provided protection)
  • Period: Jan 1, 600 to Dec 31, 1450

    Timeline: 600-1450 C.E.

  • Jan 1, 622

    Founding of Islam and The Hijra

    Founding of Islam and The Hijra
    • Islam is a major world religion based on the teachings of Muhammad. It originated in the Arabian Peninsula and it literally means "submission."
    • The Hijra was Muhammads emigration from Mecca to Medina in order to escape persecution from the Ummayad's. It also marked the beggining of Islam.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Rise of Islamic Caliphate

    Rise of Islamic Caliphate
    • The Islamic Caliphate is an Islamic state ruled by a supreme religious and political leader known as a Caliph.
    • The Islamic Caliphate dominated politically, culturally, economically, and technologically into the 13th century.
  • Jan 1, 645

    Fujiwara Clan Rose to Power

    Fujiwara Clan Rose to Power
    • they protected landlords from tax collectors
  • Feb 3, 645

    Taika Reforms

    Taika Reforms
    • mirrored Tang with self-sinofication (contagious diffusion)
  • Jan 1, 661

    Beggining of the Umayyad Caliphate

    Beggining of the Umayyad Caliphate
    • The Umayyad Caliphate emphasized Arabic ethnicity, and they allowed people of the book to have freedom of worship.
    • Its capital was in Damascus, Syria.
  • Jan 1, 700

    The Rise of Ghana

    The Rise of Ghana
    • bueracracy with king
    • gold was maine source of revenue
    • king had absolute power
  • Jan 1, 700

    Rise of the Toltec

    Rise of the Toltec
    • nomadic peoples who came into central Mexico in the 8th century
    • warlike, nomadic, and had human sacrifice
    • Tula was their capital
  • Jan 1, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    • This battle ended the Muslim attack on Western Europe.
    • This facilitated the growth of Christianity and stopped the spread of Islam.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Beggining of Abbasid Caliphate

    Beggining of Abbasid Caliphate
    • rose to power after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
    • begans Islam's golden age.
    • trade increased, innovation increased, and territory increased
    • capital in Baghdad
    • Persian influence rampid
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Almohadis

    Almohadis
    • a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of Northern Africa; later the almoravids; penetrated Islam into sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Theology of Western Europe: Assimilating Faith and Reason

    Theology of Western Europe: Assimilating Faith and Reason
    • from 1,000 forward Western Europeans attempted to prove God's existence through the logical exposition of philosophy and theology.
  • Feb 3, 1021

    The Tale of Genji

    The Tale of Genji
    • the first novel of the world (from Japan)
  • Jan 1, 1054

    East-West Schism of Christian Church

    East-West Schism of Christian Church
    • In 1054 a medieval divsion within Christianity into Eastern and Western branches.
    • The West represented the Roman Catholic Church and the East represented the Eastern Orthodox Church.
    • It occured because of ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes
  • Jan 1, 1066

    Norman Conquest of England and the Rise of Feudalism

    Norman Conquest of England and the Rise of Feudalism
    • in 1066 William the Conqueror ivaded England from Normandy in 1066
    • after that he exteded a tight fuedal system to England and he established an administrative system based on sheriffs
    • he also established a centralized fuedal monarchy.
  • Jan 1, 1071

    Battle of Manzikert

    Battle of Manzikert
    -In this battle the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine Empire and captured their emperor (Romanos IV Diogenes).
    - The battle ended Byzantine superiority and ushered turkification of the region.
  • Jan 1, 1095

    First Crusade

    First Crusade
    • Pope Urban II called upon his people to engage in the first crusade to take back the holy land (Jerusalem) from the Islamic Caliphate.
    • The Crusades were a failure as Western Europe wasn't as sophisticated as the Middle East at this time.
    • However, the crusades increased contact between Western Europe and the Middle East; and Western Europe benefitted.
    • Western Europe was exposed to new ideas (Eastern Medicine) and became obsessed with some of the luxury items of the Middle Eastern culture.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Beggining of the Kingdom of Mali

    Beggining of the Kingdom of Mali
    • economy based on trade (gold)
    • merchants known as juula
    • auotacracy with a king in place for their type of government
  • Jan 1, 1180

    Genpei War and Kamakura Shogunate (bakufu)

    Genpei War and Kamakura Shogunate (bakufu)
    • war faught between the Minamoto family and the Taira family
    • Minamoto was victorious
    • established bakufu (military government)
    • marked a shift in power from the emperor to the rise in power of the samurai
    • fuedalism at its height in Japan
  • Feb 3, 1200

    Creation of the Swahili City States

    Creation of the Swahili City States
    • A string of islamicized African ports tied to the trade across the Indian ocean dotted the East African coast
    • Although these cities were Islamicized, African customs and the Bantu Swahili language remained so strong that they represented a cultural fusion, mosly limited to the coast.
  • Feb 3, 1204

    4th Crusade (sacked Constantinople)

    4th Crusade (sacked Constantinople)
    • motivated by Venice merchants in Italy
    • weakened Byzantine empire
  • Feb 3, 1206

    Delhi Sultanate

    Delhi Sultanate
    • established bureaucracy headed by the sultan who was aided by the prime minister and prvincial governors
    • held off the Mongols until Timur or Tamerlane in 1398 and took Delhi
  • Feb 3, 1206

    Chinggis Khan elected as Grand Khan

    Chinggis Khan elected as Grand Khan
    • united Mongolian empire for 1st time in its history
    • created one of the most feared empires in world history
    • started military expansion with cavalry units divided into units called tumens
    • tolerated many beliefs and promoted a legal code to end infighting among clans and brought piece to much of Asia
    • linked the major empires together and facilitated trade
  • Jan 1, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    • Great charter issued by King John of England; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations betweeen rulers and feudal aristocracy.
  • Jan 1, 1236

    Mongol Rule in Russia

    Mongol Rule in Russia
    • the Russian aristocracy could not fight off the Mongols (known as the tatars) and the mongols took over Russia. In Russia the Mongols established the Golden Horde Khanate under Batu Khan
    • this isolated Russia from the changes in Europe
  • Feb 3, 1240

    Sundiata the Lion Prince

    Sundiata the Lion Prince
    • created social organization for Mali (clans)
    • was Mali's most notable ruler
    • fomalized govenment and created a permanent army
  • Jan 1, 1250

    Mamluks takeover in Egypt

    Mamluks takeover in Egypt
    • established empire in Egypt and Syria
  • Jan 1, 1258

    The Fall of Baghdad

    The Fall of Baghdad
    • The siege of Baghdad entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad (the capital of the Abassid Calaphate) by Ilkhanate Mongol forces under the leader Hulagu Khan.
    • It marked the end of the great Islamic Empire that was dominant a dominant force in Europe since its origin.
  • Jan 1, 1260

    Battle of AIn Jalut

    Battle of AIn Jalut
    -defeated the Mongols in 1260.
    - marks the fall of the Mongols.
  • Jan 1, 1271

    Marco Polo's Travels

    Marco Polo's Travels
    • Marco Polo's journey from Europe to Asia is important because it opended up Western Europe to a whole new world.
    • For Instance, his journey gave Europe proved vital to European understanding of geographics and aided maps used by explorers of the future (Christopher Columbus)
  • Jan 1, 1271

    The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian Formation)

    The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian Formation)
    • created by Kublai Khan
    • new capital built at Tatu
    • made sure that the Chineese were seperated from the Mongolian population
    • Changed the social structure (elevated the status of merchants and made ethnic Chineese the bottom social class)
  • Jan 1, 1294

    The Death of Kublai Khan

    The Death of Kublai Khan
    • saved Europe from the Mongolian onslaught
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Songhai Empire (Africa)

    Songhai Empire (Africa)
    • Sunni Ali founded the Songhai Empire and he was their most notable leader.
    • villiage and clans were the primary means of organization
    • Islam proved to be the universal faith
    • capital at Gao on the Niger River
  • Jan 1, 1324

    Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage

    Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage
    • Mansa Musa was an extremely wealthy and influentual ruler of Mali, one of the sudanic states of the Saharra Grasslands in Africa.
    • His widely lavish and expensive pilgrimage brought Africa into greater contact with some of the worlds super powers (Islamic Caliphate and China), and showed off the exponential amount of wealth and potential of Africa.
  • Jan 1, 1325

    Travels of Ibn Battuta

    Travels of Ibn Battuta
    • Ibn Battuta traveled to most of the Islamic World, Northern Africa, and Eastern and Western Europe.
    • He is significant because he documented and recorded alll of his travels providing hisorians with information on civilizations that would never have been introduced or discovered without his documents.
  • Jan 1, 1333

    Start of the Ahikaga Shogunate

    Start of the Ahikaga Shogunate
    • all power in hands of the military
    • destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
  • Jan 1, 1336

    Rise of Timur

    Rise of Timur
    • engaged in intense expansionalism and was one of the most brutal leaders of all time
    • he nearly conquered as much territory as the Mongolian empire
  • Jan 1, 1337

    Hundred Years War

    Hundred Years War
    • Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453
    • fought over lands England pssessed in France and feudal rights verses the emerging claims of national states.
  • Jan 1, 1345

    Rise of the Aztecs or Mexicas

    Rise of the Aztecs or Mexicas
    • migrated to Lake Texcoco -warlike and savage (human sacrifice)
    • engaged in trade
    • highly valued merchant class
    • highly stratified society
    • tributary system
    • engaged in expansionalism
  • Feb 2, 1347

    Bubonic Plague in Europe

    Bubonic Plague in Europe
    • The bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, commonly spread from disease, that rapidly spread through Europe and eliminated nearly 1/3 of their population.
    • The massive epidemic hindered Europe's development as alot of the workers supplementing the economy died off.
  • Feb 3, 1368

    The Birth of the Ming Dynasty

    The Birth of the Ming Dynasty
    • started by a peasant by the name of Zhu Yuanzhang
    • at first engaged in economic expansionalism engaging in trade-sponsored expiditions
    • eventually withdrew and decided to stick to internal affairs
  • Jan 1, 1380

    Battle of Kulikova

    Battle of Kulikova
    • the Mongols invaded Russia isolating the country and lead to the rise of serfdom
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Great Zimbabwe Built

    Great Zimbabwe Built
    • center of the Gold trade
    • located between Mozambique and Zimbabwe
    • built by the Shona peoples
  • Feb 3, 1402

    The Sacking of Constantinople

    The Sacking of Constantinople
    • Constantinople was sacked during the fourth crusade and this date marks the rise of the Seljuks.
  • Jan 1, 1433

    End of Zheng He's Voyages and The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

    End of Zheng He's Voyages and The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
    • The end of Zheng He's Voyages are significant because they demonstrate China's withdraw from the world economy.
    • China had the oppetunity to be a world leader, but the country opted to focus on internal affairs; and missed out on its oppertunity to be the worlds leader.
  • Feb 3, 1476

    Rise of the Inca or Twantinsuyu

    Rise of the Inca or Twantinsuyu
    • divided into clans
    • capital at Cuzco
    • tributary system
    • very expansionistic
    • main god was Inti
  • Feb 3, 1573

    Daimyos

    Daimyos
    • warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
  • Rise of the Tang Dynasty

    Rise of the Tang Dynasty
    • Began China's golden age
    • expanded Chineese authority and established tributary states (korea and tibet)
    • revived the Confucian-Scholar gentry class which facilitated their bureacracy.
    • Confucianism became popular again
    • trade increased (Junks) and South became a part of the economy (grand canal) as a rice growing region supplying food to China.
  • Rise of the Song Dynasty

    Rise of the Song Dynasty
    • Smaller in extent than the Tang Dynasty and was forced to pay tribute to settled invaders in the North.
    • Promoted the scholar gentry facilitating a strong bueracracy.
    • Part of China's golden age of history.
    • In this time period, the compass; abacus; and movable type were invented.
  • Buyids in Iraq

    Buyids in Iraq
    • captured Baghdad in 945 C.E.
    • abbasid caliphs became figure heads with Buyids in control.
  • Highpoint of Byzantine Power

    Highpoint of Byzantine Power
    • Constantinople is the center of the empire (trade hub)
    • huge army and navy (military recruits were rewarded with land grants).
    • bueracracy with mainly aristocrats
  • Revival of Post Classical Western Europe

    Revival of Post Classical Western Europe
    • Post classical Western Europe was hard hit by the Roman collapse
    • However, after 900, agriculture and trade revived, while political devlopment advanced under the influence of feudalism and the Catholic Church.
  • Kievan Rus - Russian Empire

    Kievan Rus - Russian Empire
    -Rurik founded the tsardom in Kiev/Novgorod in 855
    - Early Slavs were Varangians (Swedish Viking traders)
  • Cyril and Methodius: Cyrillic Alphabet

    Cyril and Methodius: Cyrillic Alphabet
    • Cyril and Methdoius introduced Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet to Russia.
  • Vladimir I converts to Christianity

    Vladimir I converts to Christianity
    • significant becasue he forced a large amount of the population of Russia to become Christian and Christianity became the central religion of Russia
    • he embraced othodox christianity over Roman Catholicism
  • Invasion of Western Europe from the Vikings

    Invasion of Western Europe from the Vikings
    -used swift ships to invade
    - caused British kings to unite
  • Islam's sack of Rome

    Islam's sack of Rome
    -led to the "reconquista" of Spain from the Muslims
  • Heian Period

    Heian Period
    -capatol at Kyoto (Heian)
    - aristocratic families gain power
    - Fujiwara clan had real power
    - bushi (warriors) and samarai came about
    - Taira and Minamoto clans began to take power
  • Charlemagne's empire in France and Germany

    Charlemagne's empire in France and Germany
    • Charles the Great or Chalemagne built a substantial empire in France and germany around 800.
    • he restored some church-based education in Western Europe and the level of intelectual activity gradually resored
    • upon his death his empire split into regional monarachies.
    • this marked the beggining of the Holy Roman Emperors