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Islamic Empires

  • Mar 11, 1258

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Osman I and His Dream

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Osman I and His Dream
    There wasn't a specific date of when he was born, but we do know that he was born in the year 1258. He would become the founder of the Ottoman Empire. He had a dream where it was interpreted that God had given him soverignty.
  • Jan 1, 1299

    Ottoman Empire: Rise of the Ottoman Empire Video

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5jE7y5vT5M&feature=related Very informative video about the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period: Jul 27, 1299 to

    The Ottoman Empire

  • Jan 1, 1326

    Ottoman First Great Success

    Their first great success came in 1326 with the capture of the Anatolian city of Bursa which became the capital of the Ottoman principality.
  • Jan 1, 1352

    Ottomans Establish Themselves in Europe

    Around 1352 the Ottomans established a foothold in Europe when they seized the fortress of Gallipoli while aiding a claimant to the Byzantine throne. Numerous ghazi soon flocked to join the Ottomans.
  • Mar 30, 1432

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Mehmed II or Mehmed the Conqueror

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Mehmed II or Mehmed the Conqueror
    Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople

    Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople
    The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II cemented the status of the Empire as the preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. It opened a new chapter in Ottoman expansion because of its superb location and illustrious heritage. Constantiople became the new Ottoman capital knwon as Istanbul and Mehmed worked energetically to stimulate its role as a commercial center.
  • Feb 14, 1483

    Birth of Mughal Emperor: Babur

    Birth of Mughal Emperor: Babur
    Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (Feb 14, 1483 – Dec 26, 1530) was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in South Asia and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Chinggis Khan through his mother. Babur was responsible for the fostering of this culture, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent.
  • Jul 14, 1487

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Ismail

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Ismail
    Ismail (born July 14 1487 - died May 23 1524) was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Ismail started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an Twelver Shia militant religious order and unified all of Iran by 1509. Born in Ardabil in Northwestern Iran, he reigned as Shah Ismail I of Iran from 1502 to 1524.
  • Nov 6, 1494

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Süleyman the Magnificent

    Birth of Ottoman Sultan: Süleyman the Magnificent
    Süleyman the Magnificent (born 1494 - died 1566) (reigned 1520-1566) brought Ottoman imperialism to its climax. He vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion both in southwest Asia and in Europe. Also brought the Ottoman forces into an age of major naval prowess.
  • Jan 1, 1501

    Safavid Empire Video

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RjxrvLs_iw I realize that this is an extremely boring video (just changing pictures) with many monotone voices, but it is a great source of information from highly respected people
  • Period: Mar 20, 1501 to

    The Safavid Empire

    The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736)
  • Jan 1, 1514

    Safavid and Ottoman Battle of Chaldiran

    Safavid and Ottoman Battle of Chaldiran
    At the critical battle on the plain of Chaldiran, the ottomans deployed heavy artillery and thousands of soldiers equipped with firearms behind a barrier of cats. Although the Safavids knew of these technologies they felt they were too unprodictable, so they charged with common weapons. Nonetheless, they suffered devastating casualties. The Ottomans badly damaged the Safavid state, and the two empires remained locked in intermittent conflict for two centuries.
  • Feb 22, 1514

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Tahmasb

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Tahmasb
    Tahmasp (February 22, 1514 – May 14, 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son of Shah Ismail. His reign was marked by foreign threats, primarily from the Ottomans and the Uzbeks. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Empire through the Peace of Amasya. This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda. His most lasting achievement was the Persian Rug industry
  • Jan 1, 1526

    The Mughal Empire Video

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_PnAIzR9JM Good video that tells of how the empire was founded.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Mughal Empire Captures Delhi

    With the aid of gunpowder weapons, including both artillery and firearms, Babur mounted invasions in 1523 and 1525, and he took Delhi in 1526. Babur ironically cared little for the land that he had conquered. He just wanted to utilize its riches.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    The Mughal Empire

    The Mughal empire ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century, after which it continued to exist as a considerably reduced and increasingly powerless entity until the mid-19th century. The Mughal empire was notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India, for the ability of its rulers, who maintained a record of unusual talent for a long time, and for its administrative organization. They tried to integrate Hindu and Muslim ideas.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Ottoman Conquests Under Süleyman The Magnificient

    Sultan Süleyman had many conquests during his tenure spanning from the years 1521-1534. In 1521 he captured Belgrade. In 1526 he defeated and killed the king of Hungary at the battle of Mohacs. In 1529 he subjected the Habsburgs; prized city of Vienna to a brief byt terrifying siege. In 1534 he conquered Baghdad and added the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to the Ottoman domain.
  • Oct 14, 1542

    Birth of Mughal Emperor: Akbar

    Birth of Mughal Emperor: Akbar
    Akbar (14 October 1542 – 27 October 1605) was the real architect of the Mughal Empire, he was also Babur's grandson. He was a brilliant and charismatic ruler. Akbar gathered the reins of power in his own hands in 1561 following an argument with Adham Khan, a powerful figure at the imperial court and commander of the Mughal army. Akbar killed him and took personal control of Mughal Government.
  • May 9, 1555

    Ottoman and Safavid Peace

    The Peace of Amasya was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
    The treaty defined the border between Iran and the Ottoman empire and was followed by twenty years of peace.
  • Nov 5, 1556

    Mughal Empire Recaptures Delhi

    The Hindu king Hemu, however, commanding the Afghan forces, defeated the Mughal Army and captured Delhi on 6 October 1556. Urged by Bairam Khan, who remarshalled the Mughal army before Hemu could consolidate his position, Akbar marched on Delhi to reclaim it. Akbar's army, led by Bairam Khan, met the larger forces of Hemu on November 5, 1556 at the Second Battle of Panipat, 50 miles north of Delhi. Hemu was knoced out and the leaderless army was defeated. Delhi was brought under Mughal control.
  • Jan 1, 1561

    Mughal Empire's Conquest of Malwa

    Akbar went on to expand the Mughal empire by subjugating local chiefs and annexing neighbouring kingdoms. The first major conquest was of Malwa in 1561, an expedition that was led by Adham Khan and carried out with such savage cruelty that it resulted in a backlash from the kingdom enabling its ruler Baz Bahadur to recover the territory while Akbar was dealing with the rebellion of Bairam Khan. Subsequently, Akbar sent another detachment which captured Malwa in 1562.
  • Jan 27, 1571

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Abbas

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Abbas
    Shah Abbas (January 27, 1571 – January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad and inheirited a nation in trouble. In 1587, one of the Qizilbash leaders, Murshid Qoli Khan, overthrew Shah Mohammed in a coup and placed the 16-year-old Abbas on the throne. But Abbas was no puppet and soon seized power for himself. He reformed his armies to take back lost lands and drive out foreign influences.
  • Shah Abbas Wages War with the Ottomans

    In 1602, Abbas decided he would declare war with the Ottomans. Abbas first recaptured Nahavand and destroyed the fortress in the city, which the Ottomans had planned to use as an advance base for attacks on Iran. The next year, Abbas deceived the Ottoman spies in his court and set off to conquer Azerbaijan. He changed course for Qazvin where he assembled a large army and set off to retake Tabriz, which had been in Ottoman hands for decades.
  • Birth of Safavid Shah: Safi

    Birth of Safavid Shah: Safi
    After Shah Abbas I death in 1629, his grandson Shah Safi I ruled from 1629 to 1642,. He was known for his crueltyHe was the first of the Safavid shahs to be raised in the palace gardens. Shah Safi I (1611-1642) put to death potential rivals to the throne as well as some of his male and female relatives on his accession. He executed most of the generals, officers and councilors he had inherited from his father's reign. The government was still able to run smoothly even with his lack of interest
  • Birth of Mughal Emperor: Aurangzeb

    Birth of Mughal Emperor: Aurangzeb
    The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb (November 4, 1618 – March 3, 1707). During his long reign, Aurangzeb waged a relentless campaign to push Mughal authority deep into southern India. By the early eighteenth centruy, Mughals ruled the entire sub continent except for a small reagion at the southern tip.
  • True Peace Between the Safavids and the Ottomans

    On 17 may 1639, there was a peace treaty between the Ottomans and the Safavids, which established the Ottoman-Safavid frontier and put an end to more than a hundred years of sporadic conflict. The treaty forced Shah Safi I to accept the final loss of Baghdad in Mesopotamia, recaptured by the Ottomans in 1638, and instead gave Yerevan in the southern Caucasus to Iran.
  • Mughal Empire Conquest of Bijapur Fort

    Mughal Empire Conquest of Bijapur Fort
    In the year 1685 the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah the ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal. The Mughals led by Muhammad Azam Shah could not make any advancements upon Bijapur Fort mainly due to the superior usage of cannon batteries on both sides. Outraged by the stalemate Aurangzeb himself arrived on September 4, 1686 and commanded the Siege of Bijapur to capture the area.
  • The Collapse of the Safavid Empire

    Safavid Empire had declined in almost every way possible, leaving it more vulnerable to invasion, which came out of the east. In 1722 Afghan invaders under Mahmoud, a former Safavid vassal in Afghanistan, captured Esfahan and murdered Shah Sultan Hossein. The Afghan invasion was disastrous for Iran, which consequently in 1723 the Ottomans invaded from the west and the Russians from the east. They agreed to split the empire in 1724 between each other.
  • Fall of the Mughal Empire

    After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire fell into succession crisis. Barring Muhammad Shah, none of the Mughal emperors could hold on to power for a decade. In the 18th century, the Empire suffered the depredations of invaders like Nadir Shah of Persia and Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan, who repeatedly sacked Delhi, the Mughal capital. Most of the empire's territories in India passed to the Marathas, Nawabs, and Nizams by c. 1750. The Mughal Emperors lost their power to Britain.
  • The End of the Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire, under Mehmed V and the Young Turks, had sided with the Central Powers during World War I. Despite initial successes against British Commonwealth troops, the tide turned against the declining empire and its allies, Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Ottoman Empire lost much territory in both World War I and the preceding Balkan Wars, completing its steady decline, which had begun in 1699. The empire ended with the abolishment of the Istanbul government.